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mossy stone, nor feathery tree is wanting, and there is scenery characteristic of Welsh mountain streams as a sufficient volume of water to give a character to the Creswick ever painted. From the bridge, keep by the fall worthy of the accompaniments. The stranger will river (on the left of it) to Cwm Cynfael, and then look find himself often wandering involuntarily down to the ahead for another waterfall-not like Rhaiadr Cynfael, Rhaiadr Cynfael. In one part of the glen will be noticed for here the little stream comes right down the steep a great misshapen block of stone, standing high out of mountain-side for a considerable distance, leaping from the centre of the stream: it is Hugh Lloyd's Pulpit, rock to rock in a narrow dark cleft or gulley. It is a so called because when that famous Welsh worthy was bare wild spot, but, under favourable circumstances, about to summon a certain personage, who, though both striking and romantic: no one will regret having sufficiently ready to come when called, is rather a followed the guidance of Cynfael thus far. This fall dangerous one to have dealings with, he used first to bears the name of Rhaiadr Cwm. By the road it is ensconce himself safely on this seat, where, surrounded about three miles; by the way we have pointed out it by the stream, he was secure from the clutches of the may be a mile further from Ffestiniog ; but no one ancient, if he should happen to provoke him overmuch. who has the least feeling for river-scenery will hesitate From this seat Hugh would discourse to him for a a moment which route to choose, or be likely to whole summer's day at a time. There are other tra- measure the distance. Somewhat less than a mile to ditions connected with the stream, which the tourist the north of Rhaiadr Cwm is a lonely lake, called will be able to collect and piece-up for himself. We Llyn-y-Morwynion, the Lake of the Maidens, from the are tired of telling them.
maidens who attended that naughty dame, Blodewedd, From the mountains beyond Rhaiadr Cynfael there the treacherous wife of Llaw Gyffes, having been are very extensive and noble prospects. From Y-Foel drowned in it. Blodewedd herself escaped drowning, Fawr the mountain prospect is particularly fine. The being changed into an owl; whence that bird of ill wide-ranging rugged chain on the opposite side of omen has ever since borne her name. The curious Ffestiniog, of which the triple peak of Moelwyn is the wanderer may even now see standing down by Cynfael culminating point, is seen in all its grandeur, stretching side, the slate-rock through which Llaw Gyffes thrust away to the sea, while the giant Snowdon chain rises his lance in order to reach her paramour. And so there surge-like beyond and over it. More to the left, Car- is a fragment of another tradition about Cynfael, though digan Bay, with the low mountains bordering it, is a we have just declared we would repeat no more: howglorious object, as it lies glittering under the cloudless ever it is only a fragment: if the reader wish to read sky. On the other side is another mountain-tract which the whole story, he will find it told at length in the is crowned by the lofty Cader Idris. About these · Mabinogion,' that old Welsh story book, which Lady mountains are a good many small llyns. Just on the Guest has translated into such graceful English, and other side, towards the Dolgelley road, may be seen illustrated with so choice and rich a collection of several objects of archæological interest. There are notes. three or four barrows; the British fortress, Castell- We need not describe the road further : it is mounTomen-y-Mur, whose site is easily traceable; and the tainous all the way; and towards the latter part it runs station, Heririmus, a little to the south-west of it, between the mountains Arenig and Carnedd-y-Filiast; which is not quite so apparent. Moelwyn, the huge the former 2,809, and the latter 2,127 feet above the mountain-mass on the west of Ffestiniog, may be If the pedestrian choose to keep the right-hand ascended without much difficulty: the summit affords road when near the eighth milestone from Bala, and prospects better known and more celebrated than those then bear up the mountain side, he may visit Llynfrom the Foel Fawr chain, of which we have spoken. Arenig, a circular mountain set in a frame of rough North of Ffestiniog there are also bold and lofty moun- crags. He may also gain some wide views by the way. tains, and about them are a good many llyns. In The road leads into the town of Bala, which lies at the vicinity are extensive slate-quarries: a railway for the lower end of the lake. Bala is a good-sized and the conveyance of the slates to the ships, runs through populous Welsh town, but is not a place in itself the Vale of Ffestiniog.
to interest the visitor. Bala Lake-in Welsh, Llyn Bala Lake will of course be visited : and as we did
lid Tegid—is the largest in Wales. As its dimensions are not turn aside to it when at Corwen, perhaps Ffestiniog sometimes over-stated, it may be as well to give them is the best place to visit it from. It is a capital walk accurately. The lake is nearly straight: a line through of about sixteen miles by a good mountain road; but the centre measures rather more than three miles and the tourist may very well lengthen it a few miles by a half: the broadest part is nearly five-eighths of a turning occasionally to the mountain side. The best mile across. In size, therefore, it will not take rank way is to go down to Rhaiadr-Cynfael, and then pro- alongside of the larger of the lakes of Cumberland and ceed beside the stream to Pont Newydd (New Bridge). Westmorland—to say nothing of Scotland. And it We need not repeat what we have just said of the will hardly bear to be compared with them for granbeauty of this part of the Cynfael ; but we may recom- deur. Yet it will certainly remind the traveller of the mend the tourist not to miss that portion of it which is secondary lakes of Cumberland, and not unpleasantly. near Pont Newydd ; for though it is not often visited, Bala, especially from the lower end, is assuredly very there are along here some as choice passages of the beautiful. The broad dark lake, and the soft graceful
frame of mountains, with the verdant slopes, the woods, Camden among others) affirmed, the waters of the Dee
author of the 'Triads,'translated by Mr. William Owen Several streamlets flow down from the mountains, -spent the last years of his life here, seeking to solace and enter the head of Bala Lake: the largest of them himself under his misfortunes ; and perhaps finding is known as Dwfrdwy, and is generally considered to comfort in repeating them. Llywarch had been a be the head stream of the Dee; but it is difficult to soldier before he became a bard: he took up his pen imagine how that can be, unless, as old writers (and only when he laid aside his lance. When he wrote,
"old and he was alone.” There is something women and the beauty of the country; and what was majestic in his statement of his grief :
indisputably true in the days of Elizabeth is no less “Four-and-twenty sons, the offspring of my body;
certainly true in those of Victoria. So every native By the means of my tongue they were slain :
asserts ; and the stranger, though his means of judging Justly come is my budget of misfortunes.
are unhappily but limited, seldom hesitates to admit
and corroborate the assertion. Great is the pity, thereWretched is the fate that was fated
fore, that we can make but brief tarriance in this land For Llywarch on the night he was born,
of loveliness ; but as we have indicated what is to be Long pains, without being delivered of his trouble.”
looked for, the visitor will not complain. We lingered His sorrows did not abbreviate his days much, if the too long at Ffestiniog and Bala to stay long here. tradition may be credited which makes him to have In whatever direction the stranger turns, he will find lived to the age of a hundred and fifty years. It is beauty on every hand : and the little town itself, though said that a spot in this neighbourhood is still shown anything but beautiful when in it, is really a beautiful as the place where he died, and that it bears his name. object when seen from a distance. More than in most If the reader have not formed an acquaintance with parts of the mountainous districts, the ancient woods the ancient Welsh triads, this translation of Llywarch seem to have been preserved around Dolgelley : hence Hen is the best he can turn to : it is full of real there is what is always so beautiful and cheerful,- a poetry.
succession of rich prospects, formed by the combination Which is the best place to visit the famous cataract of grand old trees with mountains and running streams. Pistyll Rhaiadr from is not easy to say: from no place This may be witnessed to perfection by turning towards is it very accessible. From Bala there is a way to it Nannau, the seat of Sir R. W. Vaughan : a spot famous over the Bearwyn mountains ; but the distance is above for its almost matchless scenery, ancient hospitality, fourteen miles of a rough mountain road. If the Vale old traditions, and almost equally for its modern splenof Edeirnion be descended, the road from Llandrillo, dour. The park is extensive, broken into hill and over the mountains, may be taken : the distance is dingle, well stored with venison, lively streams run some nine miles. The nearest village on the Denbigh-through it, and it abounds in those shire side is Llanrhaiadr, which is only about four miles from the fall. Pistyll Rhaiadr, the Spout of the
“Old patrician trees Cataract, is formed by the little river Rhaiadr, which
And plebeian underwood" falls over a mountain side at the end of a close valley. that so distinguish English parks ; what kind of scenery It is a wild and lonely spot, and the waterfall has a it may exhibit, therefore, when the distant and finelymost remarkable appearance. The water is said to fall formed mountain summits-and old Cader is among the height of 240 feet. The rocky scarp down which the number -- are added, will readily be conceived. it tumbles is bare, black, and precipitous, and contrasts Passing through Nannau, or taking the road, the next well with the woody hollow; but there is a want of visit will be made to the waterfalls. The first of them, water, unless after stormy weather; and altogether it Rhaiadr Ddu, the Black Cataract, is about four miles is hardly so fine an object as, from its height, would from Dolgelley, on the road to Maentwrog: it stands be expected. There is a little inn close by; and the within private grounds, but access is granted to it; a neighbourhood, we imagine, would be worth devoting path has been formed to the bottom, whence it can be a day or so to.
best seen. The fall is said to be sixty feet; there is a tolerable sheet of water; the rocks around and above
are crested with luxuriant wood; and the scene altoDOLGELLEY.
gether is striking and beautiful. Two or three miles The road from Bala to Dolgelley it would be tedious farther is another fall, Pistyll-y-Cain, the Spout of the to describe ; and, indeed, we believe the tourist would Cain. Here the water is precipitated from a height find it best to avail himself of the coach which runs of 150 feet; but the stream is comparatively small, during the summer months between these places. From the rocks are flat and regularly stratified; and though Ffestiniog there is a very interesting road by the coast. there is wood, it, too, seems to partake of the prevalent Dolgelley is, like most Welsh towns, nought in itself. formality. However, it might not always appear so, The houses are mean, irregular, and hardly picturesque; and Pistyll-y-Cain is at any rate sufficiently remarkable the streets are narrow and dirty : it has a considerable to deserve a visit. Not far from it is another but less population, and some trade. The manufacture of important fall, the Rhaiadr-y-Mawddach, so called flannel, once carried on to some extent, has declined ; | from the river by which it is formed. The neighbourhood but of late the weaving of finer woollen cloths has been is very picturesque. tried with success.
This road to Maentwrog is not, as will be seen, lacking The interest of the place to tourists, however, consists in interest: yet the road by the sea is the preferable altogether in its admirable situation as a centre from one, as Barmouth and Harlech may be thus visited. We which to examine the beauties of this part of Merionethmust run rapidly over the ground to Harlech. The road shire. Old Camden was moved to declare that Meri- lies along the north bank of the Maw river, or Afon oneth was matchless alike for the loveliness of its Mawddoch. A mile below Dolgelley a boat may be had, and the passage to Barmouth be made by water. I topic of conversation. What more can the watering. It is a pleasant sail at full tide, but the scenery from place lounger desire ? the bank of the river is so fine that the tourist should Very dull is the road between Barmouth and Harlech : go one way on foot. At Llanelltyd, two miles from every body says so, and every body is doubtless right. Dolgelley, a little to the right of the long bridge, are Yet there is the sea on one hand, and on the other is the ruins of Kymmer Abbey : they are very slight, many an opening in the too monotonous mountainlittle more than a battered gable ; but with the sur- slopes, which might well tempt aside a leisurely wanrounding scenery, especially if made to form a fore- derer: and there are
moreover many villages, Llan ground object to Cader Idris, abundantly picturesque somethings or other (there are at least half a dozen of
-at least a clever painter would see how to make a these Llans between Barmouth and Harlech), with their good picture of them.
humble churches and churchyards, with the curiously We have noticed in the book of a lady-tourist the inscribed grave-stones, calling you aside to rest or to remark, that in the journey between Barmouth and moralize. There is, in truth, a good deal of quiet rustic Dolgelley “it is difficult to decide as to which bank is character about some of these villages, and we cannot to be preferred, both offering so much to be admired.” help thinking that he must be a somewhat fastidious In a coach it may be difficult (though, by the way, person who finds this road quite intolerable. A little there is no coach-road on the south bank, and any road way past Lord Mostyn's house there are a couple of on that side to or from Barmouth will be found rather cromlechs at a short distance from the road. roundabout), but on foot the difficulty would quickly Harlech Castle was built by Edward I.,-as native vanish. The scenery along the south bank cannot but historians assert, on the site of an old British fortress. be pleasing, but it cannot be more-along the north The situation is a strong one-and, what is more imit is of almost indescribable beauty, and of the richest portant at present, a picturesque one. The Castle variety. After awhile (we are supposing that the tourist stands on a lofty cliff, whose base was at one time has chosen the time of full tide, else there is a muddy washed by the sea, though now a marshy tract interswamp) the stream expands rapidly into a broad and venes. The building is nearly a square, of two hundred noble river; the banks are richly wooded ; and looking feet each way, with round towers at the angles, and on across the river, southwards, you have the glorious each side of the chief entrance. On some of the towers range of mountains, of which Cader Idris is the chief, slight fragments of the light turrets which rose from and which is of course invisible from the opposite bank; them yet remain. The castle is quite ruinous. Seen whence you see a comparatively tame tract. About from the marsh below, its appearance, raised aloft on Glyn-dwr, eight miles from Dolgelley, the river makes the edge of the steep rock, is very striking. But it a bold bend, and appears like an inland lake, of above appears even finer from the summit of the rocks just a mile and a quarter broad, and several miles long. outside the road wall, a hundred yards or two before From the heights just by, you have a well-wooded you reach the castle : there the building and the cliff foreground, then this fine sheet of water, and beyond, on which it stands are both seen to perfection, while towering high above the lesser mountains, the magni- beyond is the broad Traeth Mawr, backed by a low ficent form of Cader Idris. There are several other dark range of mountains, above which are the cloudviews hardly inferior. The views, too, up the river are capt peaks of Snowdon. (Cut, No. 16.) very beautiful; while downwards, the estuary of the Harlech Castle must unquestionably have been a Mawddoch, with the sea beyond and the high banks on very formidable place to assault when first erected, and either hand, is extremely fine.
before villainous gunpowder was used in a siege. From Barmouth is a watering-place : whether as flourishing the sea, with such a rock to scale, it was almost imas it used to be we really do not know. It is a strange pregnable; wbile on the land-side there was a huge little town. The houses are oddly dotted about, here fosse cut out of the rock to get over.
The walls were and there, in all sorts of queer and awkward situations; stout; the round towers with their turrets so consome by the beach, some on the hill-side almost on the structed as to cover every approach. It was taken on top of each other, some in every out-of-the-way nook several occasions, but it stood out long enough to susand corner. And they are as cdd-looking as odd- tain the credit of the architect no less than the garrison. placed. The town stands at the confluence of the river; It was besieged and taken by Owen Glyndwr: and it in front stretches a long waste of shifting sand. The was maintained by him for four years. During the sand fills the roadway, fills the houses, promises to fill War of the Roses it was held by a sturdy Welsh captain, up the town. It is nevertheless a pleasant place, after Davydd ap Jefan ap Einion, for Henry VI., and was its kind. There are boarding-houses and a library ; only surrendered when the garrison were nearly starved baths and a good beach ; also a pier. There is a capital Queen Margaret for awhile found refuge here. In the hotel, wherein is a strenuous harper. There are young great civil war, Harlech Castle maintained its old loyal ladies and ladies of a certain age ; and there are gentle- reputation : it was the last castle in North Wales to men of the kind who commonly dawdle about at yield to the Parliament. It was dismantled not long watering-places: and all are ever laudably watching after. for some new arrival, some new scandal, or some new The ruins of Harlech Castle are worth going over, thing, that may afford them some new occupation or though not so interesting as those of some of the other
castles we have visited. There is a magnificent view are three large blocks of stone (as one might in these from them on a fair day. Far above the intervening degenerate days term them), the largest being about mountains rises the Snowdon chain ; and sometimes, twenty feet long, nearly as wide, and a dozen feet high. when the valley is filled with a light vapour and the The lake is called Llyn Trigrainwyn-the Lake of the base is invisible, the black peaks stand out as though Three Pebbles. The stones were shaken by Idris out self-supported in front of the pale sky. But always, of one of his shoes: they had got into it one day as unless obscured by cloud or mist, that mountain view he was walking over this pebbly country, and he found is a noble one. The town of Harlech is a small poor them a little inconvenient. place; but the old-looking scrambling houses about Tal-y-Llyn is the name of a little village at the foot the outskirts, with an occasional glimpse of one of the of the lake, which is generally called Tal-y-Llyn, but castle - towers, might tempt an artist, like our old whose real name is Llyn Mwyngil. The village is, favourite Prout, to draw forth his sketch-book. There from its situation, singularly picturesque By the bridge is a good inn here for any one who may choose to make there is a small chapel : together they make a pretty this a halting-place; and there are some things worth little picture, as seen across a corner of the lake. Talstaying to see, if there be abundant leisure. There is y-Llyn Lake is barely a mile and a quarter in length, a narrow valley and pass, called Cwm Bychan, and and nowhere half a mile broad; yet is it, beyond disDrws Ardudwy, some four or five miles distant, which pute, one of the most beautiful in Wales. Looking are said to be remarkably fine. But we have not seen downwards, it is soft, placid, and exquisitely beautiful. them ; nor a waterfall there is somewhere within two From the foot it is no less grand. The banks are or three miles of Harlech, which we have heard highly gently winding and varied ; there is sufficient foliage spoken of. The antiquary will find a great many
about to relieve the barrenness of the craggy mountumuli, cromlechs, a stone circle, and other British or tains; and in the distance is the majestic form of Cader Celtic remains, within the compass of a few miles from Idris, here exhibiting most effectively his walls of bare Harlech. The road from Harlech to Maentwrog is cer- rock, black cwms, and lofty peaks. It is a splendid tainly much finer than from Barmouth to Harlech. On scene, equally delightful and impressive, whether beheld arriving at Traeth Bach, the estuary of the Dwyryd, it before the Snowdon district be visited, or after it has becomes really fine, and increases in beauty more or been thoroughly explored. The lake is greatly resorted less up to Maentwrog.
to by anglers, it being famous for yielding abundance of a very delicate trout; and Colonel Vaughan, the
proprietor of it, affording every facility to the gentle MALLWYD.
brethren. Cader Idris is a noble-looking mountain, Should the visitor determine to ascend Cader Idris, from whichever side he is beheld. The sketch from he may obtain a guide (and it is a kind of mountain which the wood-cut was engraved (Cut, No. 17) was that perhaps needs one as much as most) at Dolgelley, taken from Brafch Coch, an eminence at the end of the from which place the ascent will be best made. We valley through which the Machynlleth road is carried have not been on the summit, only over the shoulder, from the head of Tal-y-Llyn. of Cader, the weather having been perverse each time
The road from this spot to Machynlleth-a very we have been in the vicinity. The base of Cader Idris pleasant one-is carried alongside but generally at is less extended than most of the greater of the Welsh some height above the Afon Dulas, a stream that is in mountains, and the climb is therefore probably a rather parts an admirable example of a Welsh stream which laborious one; as indeed it is generally said to be. has fairly escaped from the mountains. We found But the view from it is generally praised; and it some delicious scenery along its bed. It falls into the doubt worth ascending. It is nonsense to say, as many Afon Dyfi just before Machynlleth is reached. Mado, that it is enough to ascend one mountain in a dis- chynlleth is a moderate-sized Welsh town, with some trict to understand the character of the scenery. It respectable shops, a couple of good-sized inns, and may be as much perhaps as it is convenient to do; for a considerable trade. But it lies too much on one side mountain-climbing takes up a great deal of time, and for the tourist of North Wales, and there is nothing in can only be done (by the stranger) to any good purpose it to make it worth his while to go out of the way to in fair weather. But nothing is more certain than visit it. His best plan will be to go to Mallwyd, if he that every great mountain has features all its own; that wish to look at this part of the principality. each is quite unlike every other ; and that the labour Mallwyd is a very quiet little village, not much will be abundantly recompensed to him who has time visited by tourists, but a favourite station for artists to make the ascent. The height above the sea is and anglers. It is indeed an excellent centre from 2,914 feet.
which to visit some delightful scenery, or to enjoy Cader Idris signifies the Seat of Idris : according to some good fishing; and the inn is quite the pleasant the tradition it was the favourite observatory (for he comfortable hostel which both sketchers and fishermen was an astronomer) of that very great personage. How know so well how to appreciate. The village is great a person he was, any one may see who passes seated on the Afon Dyfi, just in the loveliest part along the Machynlleth road which winds round the of its course; and, though in Merionethshire, just on base of Cader Idris. A lake will be noticed, by which the borders of Montgomeryshire. The river-scenery