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been removed to Pater; and Milford has sunk into original cathedral, of whatever character it may have insignificance. Milford is on the north side of the been, was pulled down in the twelfth century, and the haven, about six miles from its mouth ; while Pater is present structure erected in its place. The cathedral on the south side, about two miles from its mouth. I is 290 feet long, 124 wide in the nave and aisles, 80 This is the establishment which is known as Pembroke feet wide at the choir ; with a transept, a Lady Chapel, Dockyard. It covers no less than eignty acres, and and a tower about 127 feet high. The Lady Chapel in it some of the largest ships of war have been built. is in ruins. The nave, which is finely roofed with rich There are twelve slips for ship-building, covered with oak, has a row of Norman arches to separate it from iron roofs; and many of the other buildings and works, the aisles. The cathedral takes rank only among the such as those described in PORTSMOUTII (vol. i., p. 214), smallest and least ornate of those which our island and Devonport (vol. iv., p. 128), necessary for building possesses; but it is gratifying to learn that, under the men-of-war, but on a somewhat smaller scale. Such auspices of the present accomplished bishop (Connop an establishment is sure to draw around it a population Thirlwall) judicious restoration of the ruins and dein which a good deal of public money becomes ex- faced portions are in progress. The bishop's palace is pended; and thus Pater is gradually rising into im- a venerable structure, too dilapidated to be inhabited, portance. Steam communication is kept up between but full of interest to a student of old buildings. Bristol and Pater.

There are other ecclesiastical ruins also near the town. Pembroke is an old-fashioned town, which has hardly The coast bends round from St. David's Head yet become accustomed to the bustle of commercial | towards the north-east, where, at a distance of about and naval affairs. It stands on a small ridge, which fifteen miles from St. David's, stands the sea-port town causes it to consist mainly of but one street. Its most of Fisguard. Those who remember the fierce railway attractive feature is the Castle (Cut, No. 8), which struggles of 1845-6 will not need to be reminded that occupies a rocky eminence at the head of one of the Fisguard was looked upon by the Great Western creeks of Milford Haven. This castle traces back its Company as a point whence such traffic might be history to the early Norman times, and was an object brought within their reach, in opposition to the Holyof more than one siege in the stormy feudal times. head route of the narrow gauge companies ; and the The rock on which the castle stands is nearly sur- South Wales Railway was planned and fostered with this rounded by water, and was formerly protected on the view. As we have already stated, the works of that land or town side by a ditch and barbican. The inner company have not yet proceeded westward of Swansea ; ward or court contained the state apartments and the and until such time (if ever it arrives) as the whole keep, the latter of which still stands, and affords some scheme is completed, Fixguard will remain, what it superb views from its summit. Although Pembroke has hitherto been, a place of no importance. The bears the name of the county, Haverfordwest, situated position of Pembrokeshire, which lies north-eastward about a dozen miles further north, is regarded as the of Fisguard, contains no place of any note except county-town, and has the usual corporate and county Newport, at the mouth of the little river Nevern. buildings connected with it.

It had once a castle, the This owes its prosperity in past times to the castle keep of which-like the keeps of so many of our cas- which stood there ; but at present the commercial tles-has been converted into a county-gaol.

dealings connected with the neighbouring slate quarries form the chief features in the town's prosperity.

Crossing the Teify into Cardiganshire, we find Sr. David's ; Cardigan ; LAMPETER; ABERYSTWITH. Cardigan, Newcastle Emlyn, 'and Lampeter on that

Directing our steps westward from the town last river ; Aberaëron at the mouth of the Aëron ; and named, we approach the sea at St. David's Head- Aberystwith at the mouth of the Ystwith. Cardigan that bold headland which forms the westernmost ex- --which is more expressively termed in the Welsh by tremity of Wales. And here, almost washed by the the name of Aberteify, on the same principle as Atlantic, and far away from the busy haunts of men, Aberaëron and Aberystwith-does not contain much we find the Cathedral of St. David's. Singular that to interest a stranger. It is the county-town, and the seat of a bishopric should be chosen on the verge contains the usual county buildings; but of the of the ocean, so far away from the heart of the dio- ancient castle and priory scarcely any vestiges now cese! However, the Cathedral exists, and it is pleasant remain. A walk of a mile or two out of the town to know that the old structure is maintained. The brings us to the ruins of St. Dogmael's priory ; and a town (or, we believe 'city ') of St. David's stands little farther on in the same direction we come to the near the southern shore of St. Bride's Bay, around æstuary of the Teify, whence many beautiful sea and which are many scenes of great beauty. St. David's coast views can be obtained. The Cardiganshire itself is an utterly unimportant place, which, but for coast contains many small ports which are rising into its cathedral, would be scarcely known at all beyond some commercial importance, although their names the immediate neighbourhood. St. David, the patron are hardly known in England. Aberforth, and New saint of Wales, established a monastery here in the Quay are two of these, where much mineral produce is fifth century; and the town became soon afterwards exported, and where fishing is rather extensively the chief episcopal place in the principality. The carried on.

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bran until the tin presents a bright polish; and finally abbey once existed at this spot; it was built in the they are packed in boxes, each box containing from early part of the twelfth century for a Cistercian 100 to 225 plates, and the plates measuring 13 inches brotherhood, and bore a high name among the abbatial by 10 up to 17 by 13. These processes seem strangely establishments of its time. After the dissolution of numerous ; but most of them are rendered necessary the monasteries, part of the abbey was occupied as a in order to render the surface of the iron scrupulously dwelling-house until 1782. Nothing now remains free from oxide and all other impurities.

except a few fragments of the chapter-house, and the west front of the abbey church, which forms part of the

modern church, Margam House is a modern structure SWANSEA ; ITS BAY, AND ITS ENVIRONS.

of large size, in the Tudor style ; and around it are Such are some of the industrial pursuits which give plantations which are said to be enriched by the such a busy aspect to Swansea and its neighbourhood. largest orangery in the world ; rich, not only in oranges,

now leave the work-people, and view this but in lemons, citrons, shaddocks, and pomegranates. interesting district under another aspect. (Cut, No. 4.) How long this beautiful spot will continue undefiled

Swansea Bay is one of the most beautiful in South by smoke remains to be seen ; already the Tai-bach Wales. Its amphitheatric character is very striking, copper-works, at no great distance, are sending forth especially when viewed from the Mumbles Head at its their clouds of white vapour. south-west extremity. We may consider the eastern The valleys to which Porthcawl and Port Talbot extremity of the bay to be formed by the headland serve as outlets are growing rapidly in commercial near which Porthcawl is situated; but it is more usual importance. About twenty years ago a tramway was to name Aberavon or Port Talbot as the eastern limit, formed from Duffryn to Porthcawl, and a small from which spot to the Mumbles, or the western limit, harbour formed to accommodate the vessels which is about ten miles, which may be deemed the width shipped the coal brought down by the tramway; but of the bay at its opening. The depth of the bay is it is only very recently that iron has been added to about four miles, with an additional small but deep the exports. There are now many large establishcreek close to Swansea town. Into this' bay, in the ments in the Llynvi valley--the Maestog Company, north-east corner, enters the somewhat wide mouth of the Llynvi Company, the Tondu Company, the Cefyn the river Neath; and at the lowest point, where this Company-which send down enormous quantities of river is narrow enough to be crossed by a bridge, iron and coal to Porthcawl. The Avon valley has stands the town of Neath. In the north-west part a still more remarkable establishment, the Cwm Avon of the bay enters the Tawy, which has flowed from works, perhaps the largest in Wales except the the mountains through the beautiful Swansea valley. Dowlais. They belong to the “Governor and Com

The whole of the towns surrounding Swansea Bay pany of the Copper Miners of England;" or, more are gradually becoming absorbed in the vortex of strictly, we believe that they actually belong at the manufactures. Porthcawl was a place scarcely known present time to the Bank of England, owing to a few years ago ; but a railway has been formed, which certain financial arrangements between the two comsprings from the iron and coal works at Duffryn, and panies. They comprise five establishments in one ; winds through the Llynvi valley to Porthcawl, which for there are collieries, iron-works, copper smeltingis becoming a place of shipment.

works, tin-plate works, and chemical works; they The same may be said of Aberavon or Port Talbot, cover an immense area of ground, and give employa little farther up the bay towards Swansea. Aberavon ment to some thousands of persons.

A losty hill at is its old fashioned Welsh name ; Port Talbot is its Cwm Avon may be seen from a great distance vomiting new-fashioned commercial name. It is a very old and forth clouds of smoke and vapour into the air ; this humble village, with a marshy shore in front, and a is the upper extremity of a system of flues formed up range of hills behind it; but it stands at the mouth of the slope of the hill from the works beneath, conthe little river Avon, and this river flows through the stituting, perhaps, the loftiest chimney in the world. small valley where the gigantic Cwm Avon works are Having had occasion to speak of the somewhat situated. Hence Aberavon became the port of ship- neglected state of the dwellings occupied by the ment for copper, iron, and tin-plate; and hence the miners and workmen in other districts, it is pleasant chief proprietor, Mr. Talbot, has done his best to make to read what a competent authority has to say conit a convenient port. A straight trench has been cut cerning Cwm Avon. Mr. Seymour Tremenheere, the through the marshy land from the river to the sea; Mining Commissioner, in his last Report to the Goand this has been so cleverly done that a fine port vernment (1850), says, " The Cwm Avon Works are has been made, capable of admitting ships of large now carried on on behalf of the Bank of England, burden.

under the management of Mr. J. Biddulph. Im. Between Porthcawl and Port Talbot is Margam portant additions have been made to their schools. Park, the residence of Mr. Talbot, and one of the Two clergymen have been appointed; one to take finest estates in South Wales. It was

once called the place of the incumbent. Reading-rooms have Pen-dar, or the oak summit, and consists of a beautiful been formed, accessible to all the workmen. The alternation of wooded heights, and shady hollows. An principal one, near the offices, containing an abundance

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of well-selected books, papers, and reviews, supplies the mail-coach road from Merthyr to Neath and Swan-
books, &c., to the others, held in the school-rooms at sea. A railway, called the Vale of Neath Railway, was
the remoter parts of the valley. To this is also planned a few years ago ; but the South Wales Railway
attached a mechanics' institute ; and both are shortly is the only one which yet accomodates this town.
to be placed in a large building under the same roof. Neath is supposed to have been the Roman Nidum,
Useful and attractive lectures are given, and musical and a few Roman coins have been found there. An
performances- the latter chiefly by young men belong- abbey was built here in the time of Henry I. which
ing to the works. Evening schools have also been was one of the most beautiful in South Wales. A
opened for young men and young women ; the latter castle had been built earlier than this, but of this castle
zealously superintended by the ladies of the chief scarcely anything remains, while the ruins of Neath
persons in the valley. A more systematic attention Abbey are still majestic and interesting. Industry is
has been paid to sanitary measures as regards sewerage, encroaching on the precincts of this venerable pile with
taking off all refuse, &c. A penny in the pound is stern determination, There are iron-works, copper-
stopped from all wages for this purpose. The Com- works, tin-works, and collieries, in its immediate
pany's shop (on the truck system) has been given up; vicinity. The Neath iron-works form an extensive
advances in cash are made weekly to every work- establishment not only for the smelting and making of
man, and the balance paid every month. Several iron, but for the manufacture of machinery; a very
good shops were immediately opened by persons from large portion of the smelting and mining machinery of
a distance. Excellent accommodation has also been South Wales and of Cornwall has been made here,
afforded for holding a market, at which there is a daily Near the abbey also are the copper-works of the
attendance of persons who bring their goods from Crown Company and the Mines Royal Company,
Aberavon, Neath, and Swansea, and a full market These, with the coal and the tin-plate works, are
every Saturday ; and the prices of everything were, gradually converting the Vale of Neath (one of the
I was informed, precisely the same as at Swansea. It most beautiful in South Wales) into a smoke-covered
needs no such example to disprove what is often inanufacturing district.
alleged as excuse for a company's shop (and A few short miles bring us from the Neath valley to
which was so formerly here), that it is necessary as a the Swansea valley, where, as we have already said,
check upon exorbitant prices. Where between 4,000 coal-smoke and cupreous vapour are also doing their
and 5,000 persons are collected, earning in good times work. Swansea is one of the best towns in the
about £10,000 per month, there can be no fear of a principality. It is the centre of commercial transactions
want of sufficient competition for the supply of such a of such magnitude, that many wealthy families have con-
demand.” Mr. Tremenheere states that the proprietors gregated in and near it, and these families bring with
of the Maestog and Llynvi works have lately entered them the amenities and usages of cultivated so .
upon a similar excellent mode of attending to the com- Swansea is the only town in Wales which can offer a
forts of the persons employed by them; and in relation fitting locality for the British Association for the Ad-
to the copper-works of Messrs. Vivian, he says, “Spa- vancement of Science; and the meeting of this society at
cious and handsome school-buildings have been erected Swansea showed how well the inhabitants were prepared
close to the works, at a cost of £2,000 or £3,000. They to welcome their scientific visitors. The town stands
are placed under trained masters and mistresses, and chiefly on the west bank of the Tawy, near the mouth,
amply supplied with every requisite for good schools. but it also stretches across to the east side. The best
The cottages for their work-people are of the best and streets run nearly north and south through the town.
most convenient kind in all their arrangements, with They extend beyond the limits of the river itself, and
gardens both in front and behind, and small paved follow the curvature of part of the beautiful bay. In
back-yards. The occupants have the opportunity the western part of the town is a fine new market-place,
of hiring a piece of land in adjoining fields for their and new streets and handsome buildings are springing
potatoes. Foot-pavements are laid down between the up rapidly. The remains of the castle are now so
rows, and the roadways properly made. Water, surrounded with buildings in the very heart of the
generally scarce about large works, is to be brought town, that they can scarcely be seen ; the chief portion
in, either from the town or from a reservoir to be is a circular tower, from the summit of which a fine
formed in the hills. The number of public-houses is view can be obtained over the bay.
also kept down in their immediate neighbourhood. Few commercial towns have so admirable a sea-side
The cottages already built are only the commencement walk available to the inhabitants, as that which extends
of an extensive design, which includes the building of from Swansea to Oystermouth and the Mumbles, round
a church, and the leaving vacant a large space · near the western margin of the bay. The whole line of
the centre of the rows of the cottages, to be laid out coast is gently and gracefully curled, and a fine road
ornamentally for the purposes of recreation."

having been formed throughout the whole distance,
A cluster of hills separates the Avon valley from the every part of the route is made easily available. For
Neath valley, and when we have passed this cluster, we those who do not or cannot walk, frequent and very
find ourselves at the town of Neath. The river Neath cheap conveyances follow this line of route. Leaving
flows from the Brecknockshire hills, and by its side is Swansea at its south-west margin, and passing through

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Newcastle Emlyn is a picturesque town, so divided confluence of two gladsome streams, with a green sea by the Teify that one part of it is in Cardiganshire tumbling on a fine beach, a store of pebbles which and the other part in Pembrokeshire. Here, as almost afforded constant amusement, cheap living, and a everywhere else, the ruins of a castle remain to attest pleasant neighbourhood backed by breezy mountains. the feudal importance which once belonged to the The place was then perfectly primitive, the harbour town. Higher up the river is Lampeter, which appeals almost sanded up, and the appearance of a ship or to our notice on other grounds, in respect to the college even a distant sail was an event. Visitors soon gave which it contains. St. David's College was founded a good name to Aberystwith ; a coach from Shrewsbury at Lampeter in 1822 by the late Bishop Burgess for was started in 1805 ; and the town has gone on students in divinity. It is intended especially for prospering until it has become the real capital of the those who, while desirous of studying for the Church, county-an abode of health and good spirits sought are unable to bear the costliness of a university educa- by numbers every summer--a fashionable wateringtion ; there are several scholarships, but no degrees place. If the town were more easily accessible, its are conferred. The college buildings, erected from the merits would be better known than they are ; there designs of Mr. Cockerell, are of quadrangular form, are neither railroads nor steamboats, and coachand are adapted for the reception of about 70 students. travelling seems tedious to many in these days of

Aberaëron, which we have described as standing at rapid locomotion." Aberystwith occupies a gentle the mouth of the Aëron, and which fact is indeed eminence, bounded on two sides by the Ystwith and indicated by its name, is a rising little port. It has a the Rheidol. The streets are good, the modern pleasant situation, an extensive fishery, a fair amount buildings are many of them handsome, and the of exports, and a summer-visiting season for bathers. harbour has been so improved as to accommodate

But Aberyswith is the most important place in a large import and export trade. On a rocky elevation, the county. It occupies a sort of marginal position washed by the sea, stands the castle, or all of it which between North and South Wales, and has the ma- now remains ; this all is very scanty, and the injestic Plinlimmon almost within view. “When the habitants are anxiously endeavouring to preserve the rage for bathing-places began to spring up towards fragmentary walls from further decay. The beach the close of the last century," says Mr. Cliffe, one of at Aberystwith is celebrated for its pebbles, which the most pleasant of tourist-companions, "persons of often include cornelians, jaspers, crystals, agates, taste directed their eyes to the western coast of Wales, pudding-stones, &c., the searching for which amuses where they found a town previously known but to a the loungers, and the shaping and polishing of which few, seated on the margin of a magnificent bay at the employ the local lapidaries.

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We may proceed more rapidly to Woolwich by railway ham ;-past Blackheath and its signal of popular prothan by the pleasant Thames steamers. By the North gress, the 'Literary Institution. But now our thoughts Kent line we have carriages with broad windows, and are checked by the Tunnel. And hark! Woolwich a varied country to gaze upon. On we go. Past the Dockyard’ is the cry of the officers on the station at wooded and green slopes that extend beyond Lewis, which we are stopping; and there begivs our work.


There are certain noticeable periods in the history of volumes, which must explode since it cannot escape. this place which it is pleasant to look at for a moment He immediately warned the bystanders, and he did not in conjunction. The first carries us back to the time hesitate also to send a message, through Colonel Armof the Conqueror, when Haimo, the sheriff, was the strong, the Major-general of the Ordnance, to the one great man of the neighbourhood, when there were Duke of Richmond, then the head of the departinent. but three cultivators of the soil rich enough to pay a It was received with true official superciliousness; and yearly rent of forty-one pence each ; and when the disregarded. So the young German quietly withdrew whole value of the Manor was just three pounds. In with his friends. Before long all London was alarmed the second we behold Woolwich raised to the rank of by a terrible uproar; part of the roof of the Foundry a royal dockyard, and Henry VIII. is personally building was blown off, the galleries for the company inspecting, with great and evident satisfaction, the new were broken down, many of the latter were injured, ship that had been built in it, and named after him, and most of the workmen terribly burnt, while some Harry Grace à Dieu, the largest vessel ever built up were killed on the spot. The official mind was now to its time, 1515. This vessel had a peculiar and indeed impressed, and acted in a very prompt un-official unfortunate destiny: she was burnt at the mature age, mode ; it advertised for the young German, soon found for ships, of forty years, in the very dockyard where him, offered him the superintendence of a new foundry, she had been reared. In the third period, we perceive and set him to work to find a more suitable place for Woolwich, though possessing a royal dockyard, -and its erection than Moorfields. Before long, behold the which had become still more famous since Henry young German at Woolwich, examining with a critical VIII.'s time, for the excellence of its ship-architecture, eye the advantages of the spot, -neighbourhood to as was proved by the vessels of Drake and Hawkins, London, without being inconveniently near,-on the Cavendish and Frobisher,-remained in all other banks of the Thames, possessing, therefore, ample facilirespects but a comparatively unimportant fishing-vil. ties for shipping and unshipping the cannon, -unocculage. The three payers of rent of forty-one pence pied spaces for dangerous operations and tests,—and each, had been replaced by one hundred and twelve a delightful country around ; so that if in process of payers of rates. But this slow progress was soon to

time the first institution here should expand, and throw be greatly accelerated.

off other institutions, there would be room

ough for There was then in Moorfields, London, a Royal all to grow and flourish as they pleased. He said to Foundry, for the casting of brass cannon.

This was

himself, and to the Government "this is the place,”put into use for an interesting purpose in the year 1716, and so it became. when such of the cannon taken from the French by The last of the four periods we referred to is that Marlborough as had been injured, was to be re-cast. in which we live ; when in place of the half-desert A brilliant assemblage of officers, and other persons of of the Conqueror's days, or the insignificant fishingdistinction were present; and the process went on appa- village and not very busy dockyard of the last rently in a very proper manner ; but there was among century, we look upon a place whose name resounds the spectators a young German, just out of his throughout the world, and with a terrible significance apprenticeship, who, according to the custom of the attached to it, as that from whence issue so many German artisans, was travelling to improve himself in brazen and iron-throated ministers of war,-as being, his craft, as a journeyman, before he could be con- | in short, Britain's chief arsenal, and one of our chief sidered at liberty to commence a master. He dockyards; to say nothing of the various other cornoticed what had escaped the eyes, or thoughts, of the responding institutions which have grown up around artisans and others engaged, ---moisture in the moulds. these, and of which we shall presently speak. We “Fire in the ship ” is not a more alarming cry than must not forget to add, that the population has risen, this in the ears of those who understand the conse- through the causes indicated, to nearly 40,000, and the quences,--the instantaneous formation of steam in vast yearly rates paid to nearly £12,000. XL.-yol. IV.

2 A


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