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the Mall, and that over all there is cockle-shells pow- ' with the attractions of the rare animals for the curious dered and spread to keep it fast; which, however, in and the Mall for the gamesters, rendered it immediately dry weather turns to dust and deads the ball."
the favourite haunt of the court. Charles, whose The game was, however, played somewhat differ- walking propensities seem to have rendered him a sort ently, even in the park. In a drawing, of the time of perpetual motion, spent much of his leisure--that of Charles II., engraved in Smith's 'Antiquities of is of his whole time--there. Cibber tells us, that "his Westminster,' we observe a high pole, with a hoop indolent amusement of playing with his dogs and suspended from an arm at its top, and through this feeding his ducks in St. James's Park (which I have the ball was driven. A similar representation occurs seen him do) made the common people adore him.” in a picture engraved in Carter's · Westminster.' (Cut, It deserves to be mentioned, that this taste for feeding No. 8.)
the ducks once stood ihe peculators of the Mews in Immediately to the south of the east end of the good stead. An inquiry having been instituted into Hall, and in front of the Horse Guards, was the Great the causes of the enormous waste of corn in the royal Parade. The rest of the park was an enclosure of stables, the whole pilfering was laid on the shoulders grass-plots, intersected by walks, planted, and having of the king--he took it for his water-fowl. He was a broad canal running from the parade to the end an early riser ; which was sorely complained of by his next Buckingham House. On the south of this canal, attendants, who did not sleep off their debauches so near its east end, was the Decoy,--a triangular nexus lightly. Burnet complained that the king walked so of smaller canals, where water-fowl were kept. The fast, it was a trouble to keep up with him. When ground contained within the channels of the Decoy was Prince George of Denmark complained on one occasion called Duck Island ; of which Sir John Flock and St. that he was growing fat, “Walk with me," said Evremond were in succession appointed governors Charles, “and hunt with my brother, and you
will (with a salary) by Charles II. Westward from the not long be distressed with growing fat.” Dr. King, decoy, on the same side of the canal and connected on the authority of Lord Cromarty, has enabled us to with it by a sluice, was Rosamond's Pond. What accompany the merry monarch in one of his walks. fancy first suggested this name it might be difficult to The king, accompanied by the Duke of Leeds and conjecture; but this serio-comic description, at the Lord Cromarty, had taken two or three turns in St. bottom of an engraving of it in Pennant's Collection, James's Park, and after proceeding up Constitutiontempts to the remark, that it was prophetic of the use hill, which was then quite in the country, he encounwhich was afterwards to be made of it :-“The south- tered the Duke of York returning from hunting as west corner of St. James's Park was enriched with he was about to cross into Hyde Park. The Duke this romantic scene. The irregularity of the trees, the alighted to pay his respects, and expressed his rise of the grourid, and the venerable Abbey, afforded uneasiness at seeing his brother with so small an great entertainment to the contemplative eye. This attendance : "No kind of danger, James," said Charles, spot was often the receptacle of many unhappy persons, “ for I am sure no man in England would kill me to who in the stillness of an evening plunged themselves make you king.” Another of the merry monarch's into eternity !”
strolls in the park is characteristic, and rendered more The Bird.cage Walk, leading along the south side of piquant by the decorous character of the narrator, the Decoy and Rosamond’s Pond, nearly in the same line Evelyn, in whose company he was at the time :as the road which still retains the name, was so named “ 1671. March 1. *** I thence walked with him from the cages of an aviary disposed among the trees (King Charles) through St. James's Park to the which bordered it.
garden, where I both saw and heard a very familiar A road entered the park at the west end, near where discourse between Mrs. Nellie, as they called an imBuckingham Gate now stands, crossing it between the pudent comedian, she looking out of her garden on a Mulberry Garden and the termination of Bird-cage terrace at the top of the wall, and *** *** (sic in Walk, the Canal, and the Mall. On reaching the orig.) standing on the green walk under it. I was Mall it turned off to the west, and wound up heartily sorry at this scene. Thence the king walked Constitution-hill towards Hyde Park-corner. Out of to the Duchess of Cleveland, another lady of pleasure some fields which Charles is said to have added to the and curse of our nation.” During this interview with park arose in all probability the Green Park, enclosed "Mrs. Nellie” the king was standing in the royal between this road, the Mall, the houses west of St. garden which constituted the northern boundary of James's-street, and Piccadilly, or, as it was then called the park--the same garden in which we find Master to the west of Devonshire House, Portugal-street. Pepys in his · Diary' stealing apples like a schoolThe Green Park consisted, and consists, of the declivity boy. “Mrs. Nellie" looked down upon him from of two eminences between which the Tyburn once the wall of a small garden behind her house (near 79, flowed into the Mulberry Gardens, and thence to Pall-mall): the scene presents a curious pendant to Tothill-fields and the Thames. The Ranger's House the garden-scene in Romeo and Juliet. Nearly on the was erected on the slope of the western eminence,
same spot was subsequently erected the stately manimmediately south of Piccadilly.
sion in which old Sarah of Marlborough indulged her The elegance of the park transformed into a garden, spleen. All the associations which gather round this
simple adventure are most grotesquely contrasted. days, the parish and manor of Mary-le-bone, or Perhaps, however, a little incident related by Coke is St. Mary-on-the Bourne, took their original name. The
more characteristic of Charles, from its con- ancient Manor-house of Marybone stood opposite the trasting his loitering gossiping habits with public and old church, where Beaumont-street now stands. (Cut, private suffering. Coke was one day in attendance on No. 9.) In the time of Queen Elizabeth it was in the the king, who, having finished feeding his favourites, possession of the crown ; and mention is made of a stag was proceeding towards St. James's, and was overtaken having on one occasion been hunted within the pale of at the further end of the Mall by Prince Rupert. the park attached to it, for the amusement of the Russian “The king told the prince how he had shot a duck, ambassadors. A part of the manor has ever since re. and such a dog fetched it; and so they walked on till mained in the crown. Out of this, and some neighbouring the king came to St. James's House : and there the fields purchased for the purpose, was constructed the king said to the prince, 'Let's go and see Cambridge park, which, by its name, reminds us of its having and Kendal,'—the Duke of York's two sons, who then been projected and laid out during the Regency. lay adying. But
his return to Whitehall he The south side of the Regent's Park is about half found all in an uproar, the Countess Castlemaine, as a mile in length, and parallel to the New-road, which it was said, bewailing above all others that she should | is to the south of it. The east side, nearly at right be the first torn in pieces." The news of the arrival angles to the south side, extends northward to of the Dutch fleet in the river had just been received. Gloucester-gate, a distance of almost three-quarters of Pepys gives in his 'Diary' a fine picture of a court a mile. The west side, forming an oblique angle with the cavalcade in the park, all flaunting with feathers, in south side, extends in a direction west of north to which the same Castlemaine takes a prominent part, Hanover-gate, a distance of half a mile. The while the king appears between her and his lawful northern terminations of the east and west sides are wife and Mrs. Stuart (with reverence be it spoken) connected by an irregular curve nearly coinciding with not unlike Macheath 6 with his doxies around.” the sweep of the Regent's Canal, which passes along Pepys often encounters, also, Charles's brother, the and within the northern boundary of the park. A Duke of York, in the park, but always actively sheet of water extends from Hanover-gate in a southengaged :—“ 1661. April 2. To St. James's Park, east direction, parallel to the west side of the park, where I saw the Duke of York playing at pall- and, curving round at a south-west angle, continues in
the first time that I ever saw the sport." a direction parallel to the south side to about the middle And—" 1662. Dec. 15. To the duke, and fol- of it. Opposite the middle of the west side, an arm of lowed him into the park, where, though the ice was
this sheet of water extends at right angles to the very broken, he would go slide upon his skaits, which I centre of the park. The bottom of the valley, did not like, but he slides very well." Skating was through which Tyburn rivulet flowed in days of old, then a novelty among us. It is probable that some of stretches from its termination up to Primrose-hill, the exiled cavaliers had acquired the art while seeking which is nearly due north of it. Nearly two-thirds of to while away the tedium of a Dutch winter, and that the park, forming an oblong parallelogram, slope down but for the temporary overthrow of the monarchy we on the eastern side of the valley to the former channel never should have had skaiting in England.
of the stream, and the north-east and south arms of the After the death of Charles II. St James's Park artificial lake which is formed by its collected waters, ceased to be the favourite haunt of the sovereign. and which resemble, to use a simile more accurate than The burning of Whitehall, by occasioning the removal dignified, the arrangement of the three legs on an Isleof the court, may in part account for this--in part, the of-Man halfpenny. Within the houses of the crescent less gossiping turn of succeeding sovereigns. But the formed by its north-east and south arms is the Ring, love of their subjects for this pleasing lounge has the interior of which is occupied by the Garden of the been more lasting.
Botanical Society. On the eastern slope, at the north end of the park, is the Garden of the Zoological
Society. On the east side of the park, a little south The Regent's Park.
of Gloucester-gate, are the enclosed villa and grounds The Regent's Park lies at the south foot of the of the late Sir Herbert Taylor ; on the west side, a conical eminence called Primrose-hill, which is con- little north of Hanover-gate, those of the Marquis of nected by a ridge, somewhat lower than its summit, Hertford. Along the east, south, and west sides of the with the higher eminence of Hampstead to the north. park are continuous ranges of buildings, the archiOn the west side of Primrose hill, a small stream is tecture of which is in some cases sufficiently florid, in formed from the drainings of several springs which others more than sufficiently grotesque. The open originally flowed in a southern direction across what is north side allows the eye to range over the beautiful now the Regent's Park, to the Green Park, and the uplands, Primrose-hill, Hampstead, Highgate, and the Mulberry Garden, now the garden of Buckingham range extending westward in the direction of Harrow. Palace, and thence through Tothill-fields to the The history of the park, as a park, is a brief one. An Thames. This is the celebrated rivulet Ay-bourne, or anonymous writer speaks of it, in 1812, as "already Tybourne, from which, what has been called in later one of the greatest, if not absolutely one of the most
fashionable, Sunday promenades about town;" adding, according to Malcolm, " the company resorting to them however, that it "does not appear to be in a progress becoming more respectable, Mr. Gough, the keeper, likely to promise a speedy completion.” It is now determined to demand a shilling as entrance-money"perhaps as far advanced towards completion as human the only instance in which we have heard of a fine aid can bring it; time and the vegetative power of imposed upon people for becoming respectable. In nature alone can give those dimensions to its trees that 1777 the gardens were finally closed. Their memory will reveal, to its full extent, the taste with which the will be preserved by Peachum's regret that Captain grounds are laid out. Even in their immature state, Macheath should lose his money playing with Lords at however, the grounds have much of beauty in them, Marybone, and his wife's advice to Filch to resort and the view to the north is an advantage possessed by thither in order to acquire sufficient value to encounter none of the other parks.
the dangers of his profession with credit to himself and As a promenade, the Regent's Park seems quite as his patrons. much in vogue as either of the other two; as drive, Hyde Park retains its uncontested supremacy.
THE VICTORIA PARK. The Zoological Gardens are a source of interest not possessed by the other parks, and the Colosseum is a If the dingy, unwholesome character of the neighrare attraction to sight-seers.
bourhood through which lie the approaches to Victoria The ante-park period of the Regent's Park history Park, are very unsuggestive of the existence of such a cannot be passed over in utter silence. The ancient place, they at least suggest very forcibly its necessity. Manor-house, already alluded to more than once, had And as we do get near, one fancies one can already see a bowling-green, which at the beginning of Queen traces of its purifying influence. The houses begin to Anne's reign was frequented by persons of rank, but look a little neater and fresher, and new ones are startafterwards fell into disrepute. . The amusements of the ing up, which are at all events better than the old ones place are alluded to by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, that blacken the once fair face of Bethnal-green. The who in the line
chief entrance is at the corner of an open grassy space, “ Some dukes at Marybone bowl time away
known as Bonner's Field, and where till recently
stood an old house, which was once the residence of points at John Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, who the notorious heretic-burning bishop. Thank God! we was constant in his visits, and gave here the annual seast seek to purify men's spuls and bodies in other fashions to his pendables, at which his standing parting toast than Bishop Bonner's. Close by where the bishop was—" May as many of us as remain unhanged next doubtless laboured in thought how to devise constantly spring meet here again.” Previous to 1737 Mary- fresh schemes to harass and torture those who happened bone Gardens were open to the public ; after that year, to differ from him in opinion, we find the house of the
perintendent of the park, a courteous and intelligent man, | the presence of 30,000 visitors in a single summer's. whose sole occupation, on the contrary, is to see how day. The division of classes and periods is curiously he can add to the comforts and enjoyments of all about marked. Sunday morning, up to about one o'clock, him by perpetually improving the grounds under his is the favourite time of the artisans, while Sunday care; and it is no very hazardous assertion to say, that afternoon is tacitly left in possession of the middle in doing so he troubles himself very little with the classes. Another interesting period is the children's opinions of those who benefit by his labours. His day, that is Wednesday afternoon, when they have house is attached to the entrance-gateway, and forms, their half-holiday from school. altogether, a pretty, picturesque, but not very solid The Park comprises above three hundred acres, looking structure, where Tudor and modern archi- and is therefore large enough. At present it exhibits tecture mix together in a manner pleasing enough, if a bare and in cold days a bleak aspect, from the not very artistical. Crowning the bridge over the canal, paucity of trees and foliage. The shrubs that have just within the gates, we see the pagoda, at present the been planted do not in some parts seem to be at all only other ornamental building of any size erected in settled in their new habitation, and the late winter the park. (Cut, No. 10.) This stands on an island in has made serious havoc upon them. The smoke of a piece of ornamental water, which is as yet unfinished, London threatens to be very injurious to the pine, and therefore scarcely anenable to criticism. A second many of which have been planted. However, all piece of ornamental water really deserves its name, sorts of ornamental trees are planted or to be planted, and will be very charming when the trees and shrubs and if some will not thrive others will, and so in time within and around it have grown up.
Here the arti- Victoria Park will become woody, and luxuriant, and sans of Spitalfields and adjoining parts take their beautiful. Beauty will not be thrown away here. morning bath. And how truly they enjoy it may be Perhaps there is nowhere a population more calculated judged from the numbers who come hither in a summer to enjoy plants and flowers than the weavers of Bethmorning, amounting to four thousand at a time. Ano nal-green. All sorts of gentle recreations find favour other pleasant reminiscence connected with this water
At dahlia and carnation shows they is the fact that it is supplied gratuitously and in a very are great; pigeon and canary fanciers congregate liberal manner by the East London Water Works thickly among them. Could not the worthy superinCompany. During bathing-hours there is a constant tendent give them a lecture now and then ? One who change of the water going on. Close by is the gym- has lived in the gardens at Chatsworth for many nasium, which is also largely frequented ; and where, years, and who has travelled over India collecting the superintendent, Mr. Gibson, informs us, the artisans new plants-one of the most interesting of occuacquit themselves in a really superior manner. Two | pations, and who now has the care of such a place extensive cricket-clubs are also in operation. Then as this park, and for such a population as that of there are archery games, foot-ball games, &c., &c. Is which we have spoken, must have much to say that it not a most cheering fact, and one that appears to be will be earnestly listened to, and to a great extent more than ordinarily belonging to our time, that the practically remembered. people do now respond cordially to all enlightened The entire cost of the Victoria Park has amounted efforts made for the amelioration of their condition ? to a little more than £50,000 ; the annual expense
is Here, at Victoria Park, behold that fact illustrated by about £2,000.
in their eyes.
PUBLIC GARDENS OF LONDON.
the British Museum is our national museum. Kew.
ensuing pages we shall therefore commence our notices Of all the places of metropolitan public resort, of the public gardens of London, with an account of one stands out in marked prominence. It cannot be Kew; but before we speak of it generally, let us add, looked upon as a place of enjoyment for its landscape in the spirit of our preliminary remarks, that the beauty, though it is very beautiful, for its higher claims people, and we refer especially to the poorer, and to shut out all such consideration of the lesser ones; it the middle classes, have here, and strictly as their own can never be very convenient to the people at large property, one of the most expensive of modern refinem to get at, for it is some six or seven miles from Cha- ments, and one of the most delightful—a winter garden. ring-cross; but it is not the less the most interesting It is not called so; it was not in any way formed with and most important of all our public gardens, and one such an object; but it is not the less true; and happens that we should take especial pleasure in making better thus :-An immense proportion of the collection of known—notwithstanding the fact, that some forty or plants requires to be either grown altogether or occafifty thousand persons visited it last year. ---We refer : sionally sheltered in glass-houses ; consequently, there to Kew, which is as peculiarly our national garden as are some twenty of these structures at Kew, most of