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. Jos. 19. 32--28

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Jos. 19. 42.

. Nim. 31. 4; Jor.

15. 3.
I or, Maaleh.

akrabbim.
sre refs. Ge, 16. 7-

10, 13.
ver. 5
Ex. 20. 2.

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! Ge. 17. 7, 8.

sre refs. Ex. 23. 32,

32 Deu. 12. 3. e ver. 20; Ps. 106. 34

-40. e Num. 33. 55; Jos.

23. 13. • ch. 3. 6. / F. 23. 13: 34. 12:

Deu. 7. 16; Ps. 100

6 Jos. 22. 6; 24. 28-31.

Zidon, nor of Ahlab, nor of Achzib, nor of Helbah, nor of Aphik, nor of Rehob: 32 but the Asherites " dwelt among the Canaanites, the inhabitants of the land : for * Po. 106. 31, 36.

they did not drive them out. 33 Neither did •Naphtali drive out the inhabitants of Beth-shemesh, nor the

inhabitants of Beth-anath; but he P dwelt among the Canaanites, the inhabitants P ver. 34 of the land : nevertheless the inhabitants of Beth-shemesh and of Beth-anath

I became tributaries unto them. 34 And the Amorites forced the children of Dan into the mountain:' for they would 35 not suffer them to come down to the valley: but the Amorites would dwell in

mount Heres'in Aijalon, and in Shaalbim : yet the hand of the house of Joseph 2 36 prevailed, so that they became tributaries. And the coast of the Amorites was * from the going up to Akrabbim, from the rock, and upward. 3

The angel of the Lord rebukes the people. 2 AND "an angel* [or, messenger) of the LORD came up from Gilgal v to Bochim,

and said, "I made you to go up out of Egypt, and have brought you unto the

land v which I sware unto your fathers; and · I said, I will never break my resp. 12.7. 2 covenant with you. And ye shall make no league with the inhabitants of this

land; •ye shall throw down their altars. “But ye have not obeyed my voice : 3 why have ye done this? Wherefore I also said, I will not drive them out from

before you; but they shall be d as thorns in your sides, and their gods shall be

a snare unto you. 4 And it came to pass, when the angel of the LORD spake these words unto all 5 the children of Israel, that the people lifted up their voice, and wept. And they

called the name of that place Bochim [i. e. weepers] : and they sacrificed there unto the LORD.

A general sketch of the history of Israel during the times of the Judges. 6 AND when 8 Joshuas had let the people go, the children of Israel went every

man unto his inheritance to possess the land. 7 A And the people served the Lord all the days of Joshua, and all the days of Jos. 21. 31.

the elders that outlived Joshua, who had seen all the great works of the LORD,

that he did for Israel, 8 And 'Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of the LORD, died, being an hundred 9 and ten years old. And they buried him in the border of his inheritance in

? Timnath-heres, in the mount of Ephraim, on the north side of the hill Gaash. 10 And also all that generation were gathered unto their fathers.

And there arose another generation after them, which mknew not the LORD, 11 nor yet the works which he had done for Israel. And the children of Israel " did 12 evil in the sight of the LORD, and served Baalim :6 and they p forsook the LORD

God of their fathers, which brought them out of the land of Egypt, and followed

other gods, of the gods of the people that were round about them, and " bowed 13 themselves unto them, and provoked the LORD to anger. And they forsook the

LORD, and served Baal and Ashtaroth.7 14 And the anger of the LORD was hot against Israel, and he » delivered them Ch. 3 8 2.2; Deo:

into the hands of spoilers 8 that spoiled them, and he sold them into the hands of

their enemies round about, so that they could not any longer stand before their 1 That is, into the mountainous parts, which were the coming up thence to the place which by anticipation (see smallest portion of their lot.

ver. 5) is here called Bochim. 2 Ephraim's portion lying close to Dan, the Ephraimites 5 This passage, to ch. iii. 4 (partly repeated from Josh. aided the Danites.

xxiv. 28—-31), is a succinct introduction to the rest of the 3 That is, these Amorites had been numerous and book, containing the explanation of God's dealings with powerful, possessing the territory extending from the the Israelites in the following narratives. southern límits of Canaan (Akrabbim, Josh. xv. 3), and 6 The word Baalim (lords ), being plural, intimates that even from beyond the city of the rock (Petra), north-west- the Israelites worshipped no one false god in particular, ward as far as to mount Heres. From this whole chapter | but the idols of the several tribes of Canaanites among it appears that the Israelites were very inattentive both them, who were regarded by their worshippers as tutelary to their duty and their interest. The same slothfulness, deities of particular districts, from which, or from some cowardice, and unbelief, which had kept their fathers other peculiarities, they derived their varied names—as forty years out of Canaan, now deprived them of its full Baal-zephon, Baal-peor, Baal-zebub, etc. possession.

7 Ashtaroth, like Baalim, is plural, and is used as a 4 As this Divine messenger is said to come from Gilgal, general name for the female deities of these nations. some suppose him to have been a prophet living there, The word in the singular, Ashtoreth (Astarte), is the and called by this name, as Haggai was (Hag. i. 13), and name of the notorious Syrian goddess, representing prothe priest (Mal. ii. 7). Others, however, consider the bably the moon and the productive powers of nature, who phrase as referring to the · Angel-Jehovah,' the angel of was worshipped with the most abominable rites. the covenant, who, having conducted the people through 8 Alluding to the predatory inroads of the Midianites their journey to Gilgal, was regarded as dwelling there, and others, like those of the Bedouin at the present day. during the conquest of the land, to protect the great cen- 9 God's protection being withheld from them, their tral camp; and who now, therefore, manifests himself as

enemies prevailed against them.

( Jos, 24. 29.
Jos. 21. 30.
I Jos. 19. 50; 21. 30,

Tinnata serah.
m Ex. 5. 2; 1 Sam. 2.

12; 1 Chr. 28. 9; Jer. 9. 3; 22. 16; Gal. 4.82 Thes. I.

8: Tit. I. 16. neh. 4. 1; 6.1; 13. I, och. 3. 7; 1 Ki. 18.18. P Deu. 31. 16. och. 58; Dell 6. 14,

15.

Ex. 20 3.
Iver. Il; eh, 3.7; 10.

6; I ki. II. 5, 33;

Ps. 106. 36
I eh. 3. $; 10. 7: Le

26 2: Deu, 32. 22:
Ps 106. 40-42.
2 Ki. 17. 20.

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32.30; Ps44. 19;

Is. 30. 1.
VI.r. 26. 37; Jos. 7.

12, 13.

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* Jer. 21. 10.
a le. 26. 15-20; Deu

9. 35 : 22. 40, 41. eh. 10. 9.

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6 14: I 12 :

Ac. 13. 20 dEx. 34. 15, 16; Le.

17.7. Ps. 100 m • Ex. 32.8; Deu. 9. 12

Den 32. ; Ps108

A EL 2 24

ich. 3. 11, 12; 4. 1;

& 33; Jos. 24. 31.

Ps 78. &
1
Ver. 14
Jos 72 16; 221
Jer. 3L 32.
Jos. 2 13

8.2. 16; 183; 2Chr. 32. 3L.

9 ch. 2. 21, 22

. 1584. H. 15 enemies. Whithersoever they went out, ’ the hand of the LORD was against them

for evil, as the Lond had said, and as the Lord had sworn unto them: and they

were greatly distressed. 16 Nevertheless the Lord raised up judges,? which delivered them out of the ch, 29, 10, 15; 45 17 hand of those that spoiled them. And yet they would not hearken unto their

judges, but they d went a whoring after other gods, and bowed themselves unto

them: they turned quickly out of the way which their fathers walked in, 18 obeying the commandments of the Lond; but they did not so. And when the

LORD raised them up judges, then the LORD was with the judge, and delivered s Jos. 1. &. them out of the hand of their enemies all the days of the judge : 6 for it repented ch.10 16.66.66 the Lond? because of their groanings by reason of them that oppressed them and

vexed them. 19 And it came to pass, ' when the jndge was dead, that they returned, and cor

rupted themselves more than their fathers, in following other gods to serve them, and to how down unto them; they ceased not from their own doings, nor from

their á stubborn way. 20 And the anger of the Lord was hot against Israel; and he said, Because that

this people hath “ transgressed my covenant which I commanded their fathers, 21 and have not hearkened unto my voice; " I also will not henceforth drive out 22 any from before them of the nations which Joshua left when he died: that | eh. I h

through them I may ” prove Israel, whether they will keep the way of the LORD Go. 21; Dee 23 to walk therein, as their fathers did keep it, or not. Therefore the Lord left

those nations, without driving them out hastily; neither delivered he them into

the hand of Joshua. 3 Now these are the nations which the Lord left, to prove Israel by them, even 2 as many of Israel as had not known all the wars of Canaan; only that the

generations of the children of Israel might know, to teach them war, at the least 3 such as before knew nothing thereof; numely, 'five lords of the Philistines, and Jos 13 3.

all the Canaanites, and the Sidonians, 3 and the Hivites that dwelt 'in mount 4 Lebanon, from mount Baal-hermon unto the entering in of Hamath. 'And they

were to prore Israel by them, to know 4 whether they would hearken unto the commandments of the Lord, which he commanded their fathers by the hand of Moses.

The Israelites are oppressed by the king of Mesopotamia, and delivered by Othniel. 5 " AND the children of Israel dwelt among the Canaanites, Hittites, and 6 Amorites, and Perizzites, and Hivites, and Jebusites: and - they took 'their "5:34

. 16; Deu. 7. daughters to be their wives, and gave their daughters to their sons, and served 7 their gods. And the children of Israel did eril in the sight of the Lord, and "ch. 2. !). 8 forgat the Lord their God, y and served Baalim and the groves." Therefore the anger of the Lord was hot against Israel, and he a sold them into the hand of

Chushan-rishathaim king of 'Mesopotamia (or, Aram-naharaim]: and the children of Israel served Chushan-rishathaim eight years. 9 And when the children of Israel d cried unto the Lord, the LORD 'raised

deliverer to the children of Israel, who delivered them, even / Othniel the son of 10 Kenaz, Caleb's younger brother. And 6 the Spirit of the Lord came upon him,

and he judged Israel, and went out to war: and the Lord delivered Chushan

rishathaim king of " Mesopotamia into his hand; and his hand prevailed against 11 Chushan-rishathaim. And the land had rest forty years. And Othniel the son

of Kenaz died.?

The king of Moab oppresses the Israelites; they are delivered by Ehud, and by Shamgar. 12 AND the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the LORD: and the ch. 2 19.

LORD * strengthened 'Eglon the king of Moab against Israel, because they had 13 done evil in the sight of the Lord. And he gathered unto him the children of

• Jos. 11.3

teh. 2. 22.

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.eh. 6 25; Ex. 34. 13:

Dew. 6. 71. ach. 2. 14. 20:

refs Den 30. o lab, 3. 7. e Ge. 24. 10 ver. 15; rh, 43; 6 7: 10 10 13 : I Sim. 12 10; No 9. 7: Ps. 5; 106.

44: 10. 13, 19.
. ch. 2. 16
ch. ), 13
#ch. 6 31; 1!. 9: 12

25: 14. 6. 19; Yur.
2. 18; S. 11. 6:
2 (hr. Il
Jeb., drum.

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Ex. 9. 16: I. 11 San. 12. 9.

1 These were extraordinary officers having temporary 5 The Hebrew word translated groves probably means, and sometimes only local authority, prompted and often here and elsewhere, statues of Astarte, which were worexpressly called by God through some outward designation shipped in groves. See note on ch. ii. 13. to their office and work. In ordinary circumstances, the 6. Those who in the day of their mirth had cried to patriarchal rule of the chiefs of the tribes under the Baalim and Ashtaroth, now they are in trouble cry to the administration of the high priest, the chief minister of Lord; their consciences telling them that their idols the King of Israel, was sufficient for the order and pros- could not help them, and their troubles causing conperity of the people.

science to be heard. But though they were driven to 2 He altered the course of his Providence, acting as God by distress, he did not reject their prayers. though he repented. See note on Gen. vi. 6, 7.

7 It was probably somewhere about this period that the 3 Rather, all the Canaanites even the Sidonians,' or idolatry of the Danites occurred, as well as the war with Phænicians.

the Benjamites, related in chaps. xvii.-xxi., and the 4 That is, to make known; to give proof.

events recorded in the book of Ruth.

1

#ch. 1. 16. .L., 23-25; Deu.

28. 8.

15

30. 16.

а

I see Am. 3. 16

1 Sam. 24. 3.

Ammon and * Amalek, and went and smote Israel, and possessed " the city of eh. 5. 14; Ps. 83 6 14 palm trees.' So the children of Israel • served Eglon the king of Moab eighteen years.

But when the children of Israel Pcried unto the Lord, the Lord raised themP ver. 9; Ps. 78. 31. up a deliverer, Ehud the son of Gera, a Benjamite, a man left-handed : and by 16 him the children of Israel 4 sent a present? unto Eglon the king of Moab. But Siden. 10. 97; la

Ehud made him a dagger which had two edges, of a cubit length; and he did 17 gird it under his raiment upon his right thigh. And he brought the present unto

Eglon king of Moab: and Eglon was a very fat man. 18 And when he had made an end to offer the present, he sent away the people 19 that bare the present. But he himself turned again' from the quarries3 [or, Jos. 4. 20.

graven images] that were by Gilgal, and said, I have a secret errand unto thee,

O king: who said, Keep silence. And all that stood by him went out from him. 20 And Ehud came unto him; and he was sitting in a summer parlour' (or, a parlour

of coolingʻ], which he had for himself alone. And Ehud said, I have a message 21 from God unto thee. And he arose out of his scat. And Ehud put forth his left 22 hand, and took the dagger from his right thigh, and thrust it into his belly: and

the haft also went in after the blade; and the fat closed upon the blade, so that 23 he could not draw the dagger out of his belly'; and the dirt came out.? Then

Ehud went forth through the porch, and shut the doors of the parlour upon him,

and loeked them. 24 When he was gone out, his servants came; and when they saw that, behold,

the doors of the parlour were locked, they said, Surely he covereth his feet in 23 his summer chamber. And they tarried till they were ashamed: and, behold,

he opened not the doors of the parlour; therefore they took a key, and opened

them: and, behold, their lord wos fallen down dead on the earth. 26 And Ehud escaped while they tarried, and passed beyond the quarries, and 27 escaped unto Seirath. And it came to pass, when he was come, that " he blew a

trumpet in the mountain of Ephraim, and the children of Israel went down 28 with him from the mount, and he before them. And he said unto them, Follow

after me; for y the Lord hath delivered your enemies the Moabites into your ch. 7:9, 15; 1 Sam.

hand. And they went down after him, and took the fords of Jordan toward 29 Moab, and suffered not a man to pass over. And they slew of Moab at that time

about ten thousand men, all lusty, and all men of valour; and there escaped not 30 a man. So Moab was subdued that day under the hand of Israel. And e the land

4 ver. il. had rest fourscore years.' 31 And after him was Shamgar the son of Anath, which slew of the Philistines behan; 1 Sam.

six hundred men with an ox goad:10 d and he also delivered · Israel.

The Israelites are oppressed by Jabin king of Canaan, and delivered by Deborah and Barok. 4 AND S the children of Israel again did evil in the sight of the LORD, when Ehud s ch. 2. 19. 2 was dead. And the LORD 8 sold them into the hand of Jabin king of Canaan, that * ch. 2. 16.

reigned in “ Hazor;11 the captain of whose host was "Sisera, which dwelt in sos ... 1,40:19.36 3 * Harosheth of the Gentiles. And the children of Israel'cried unto the LORD: for he had nine hundred " chariots of iron; and twenty years

12 » he mightily oppressed the children of Israel.

And Deborah, ° a prophetess,13 the wife of Lapidoth, she judged Israel at that 5 time. P And she dwelt under the palm tree of Deborah between Ramah and

Beth-el in mount Ephraim: and the children of Israel came up to her for judg6 ment. And she sent and called . Barak the son of Abinoam out of Kedesh. Heh. 11. 32.

naphtali, and said unto him, •Hath not the LORD God of Israel commanded,

u eh. 5 14: 6.34;

I Sam. 13. 3.
Sch. 7. 24; 17. 1; 19.

1; Jos. 17. 15.

17. 47. * ch. 12. 5; Jos. 2. 7.

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13. 19, 22. ei Savi. 17. 47, 50. deh. 2 16. "eh. 4.1, 3, etc.; 10.7,

17: 11. 4, ele.; I Sam. 4.1.

il 12. 9.

83. 9. A vers. 13, 16. Ich. 3. 9. mch. ). 19. "eh. 5. $; Deu. 28 29

Ps. 106. 12. • Ex. 15. 20. 2 Ki. 22.

14; N. 6. 11 P Ge. 35. 8.

$

Jos, 19. 37. 5 Jos. 1. 9.

1 This was probably the territory where the city of 8 This appears to be an idiom for lying down to sleep. Jericho had formerly stood, and the adjacent villages. See 1 Sam. xxiv. 3.

2 Probably the tribute which Eglon had imposed. 9 Some suppose that this applies chiefly to the land

3 In every other place in the Bible the Hebrew word east of Jordan, which had been oppressed by the Moabhere used means 'graven images ;' and it is supposed by ites. It seems, from ver. 31, that the south-western part many to refer to some idols set up by the Moabites. of Canaan was at that time much infested by the

+ This was addressed either to the servants, commanding Philistines. See ch. v. 6, 7. them to withdraw, or to Ehud, requiring him not to 10 A weapon well suited for the purpose in the hands of deliver his message till the servants were gone.

a strong man; being eight feet long, six inches round at 5 A cool, shaded apartment, now called a kiosk; pro- one end, and armed with a spike and a plate of iron. bably separate from the rest of the house.

il Jabin was a name common to the Canaanite kings of 6 From this whole narrative, especially ver. 15, it may Hazor (Josh. xi. 1-10), which had been rebuilt, and had be inferred that Ehud, in performing this deed, was acting regained its former power. under a special commission from God, who saw fit thus to 12 A longer period than either of the former oppressions punish

the oppressor of his people, after having first made had lasted--the repetition of the sin aggravating the use of him for their correction.

offence and increasing the chastisement. 7 Or, ‘and it (the blade) went out behind.

13 See note on Exod. xv. 20.

(Es. 14 4: Joull.

10; P. 9, .

Ich. 2 14

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20. 10.

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Num. 10. 29.

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• P, 819, 19: $0

refs. Jou 10 la

saying, Go and draw toward mount Tabor,' and take with thee ten thousand men 7 of the children of Naphtali and of the children of Zebulun?? And 'I will draw

unto thee to the "river Kishon, Sisera, the captain of Jabin's army, with his "ro KL 18. 8 chariots and his multitude; and I will deliver him into thine hand. “And Barak

said unto her, If thou wilt go with me, then I will go: but if thou wilt not go 9 with me, then I will not go. And she said, I will surely go with thee: not

withstanding the journey that thou takest shall not be for thine honour; for the

LORD shall *sell Sisera into the hand of a woman. And Deborah arose, and 10 went with Barak to Kedesh. And Barak called y Zebulun and Naphtali to Kedesh;

and he went up with ten thousand men 'at his feet: and Deborah went up with him. 11 Now Heber a the Kenite, which was of the children of Hobab the father-in-law

of Moses, had severed himself from the Kenites, and pitched his tent unto the

plains of Zaanaim, which is by Kedesh. 12 And they showed Sisera that Barak the son of Abinoam was gone up to mount 13 Tabor. And Sisera gathered together all his chariots, even nine hundred chariots

of iron, and all the people that were with him, from Harosheth of the Gentiles

unto the river of Kishon. 14 And Deborah said unto Barak, Up; for this is the day in which the Lord hath

delivered Sisera into thine hand : is not the Lord gone out before thee? So Den? Som 15 Barak went down from mount Tabor, and ten thousand men after him. And

*the Lord discomfited Sisera, and all his chariots, and all his host, with the edge

of the sword before Barak; so that Sisera lighted down off his chariot, and fled 16 away on his feet. But Barak pursued after the chariots, and after the host, unto

Harosheth of the Gentiles : and all the host of Sisera fell upon the edge of the

sword; and there was not a man left. 17 Howbeit Sisera fled away on his feet to the tent of Jael the wife of Heber the

Kenite : for there was peace between Jabin the king of Hazor and the house of 18 Heber the Kenite. And Jael went out to meet Sisera, and said unto him, Turn

in, my lord, turn in to me; fear not. And when he had turned in unto her into 19 the tent, she covered him with a mantle. And he said unto her, Give me, I pray

thee, a little water to drink; for I am thirsty. And she opened la bottle of ch.5.5 20 milk, and gave him drink, and covered him. Again he said unto her, Stand in

the door of the tent, and it shall be, when any man doth come and inquire of 21 thee, and say, Is there any man here ? that thou shalt say, No.5 Then Jael Heber's

wife s took a nail of the tent, and took an hammer in her hand, and went softly * ch. %

unto him, and smote the nail into his temples, and fastened it into the ground: 22 for he was fast asleep and weary. So he died. And, behold, as Barak pursued

Sisera, Jael came out to meet him, and said unto him, Come, and I will show thee the man whom thou seekest. And when he came into her tent, behold,

Sisera lay dead, and the nail was in his temples. 23 So God subdued on that day Jabin the king of Canaan before the children of Auch 1. N: 24 Israel. And the hand of the children of Israel prospered, and prevailed against Jabin the king of Canaan, until they had destroyed Jabin king of Canaan.

Deborah's song of praise. 5 THEN i sang Deborah and Barak the son of Abinoam on that day, saying,? 2

Praise ye the Lord for the 4 avenging of Israel,8 ? When the people willingly offered themselves. 3 Hear, Oye kings;—give ear, () ye princes ;

I, even I, will sing unto the Lond;--I will sing praise to the Lord God of Israel. 1 The meaning is, Collect an army upon mount Tabor. rules of hospitality, but the supposition that Jael aeted From vers. 6, 10, 14, taken together, it appears that under a special Divine impulse. Barak first assembled his army in Kadesh, and then led it 7 The impassioned energy, bold imagery, and rapid to Tabor, at the foot of which, in the plain of Jezreel transitions of this beautiful triumphal ode occasion some or Megiddo, the battle was fought.

obscurity, which appears the greater if we do not re2 These two tribes (see ch. v. 14—23) had been the member that it was probably designed to be responsive : principal sufferers under the oppression of Jabin; and but the general course of thought is as follows: After Barak himself was of the tribe of Napltali.

thanksgivings for God's former and recent deliverances 3 Or oak, or terebinth. See Gen. xii. 6.

(vers. 1-5), it sketches the late oppressed state and the 4 A more secret, and, in a hilly country, a more speedy present happy security of Israel (vers. 6—13), commends way of flight.

the patriotism of some tribes, rebukes the negligent, and 5 It is likely that Jacl had brought Sisera into the curses the traitorous (vers. 14-18), and vividly describes inner part of the tent, into which no one would think of the battle, and the hostile leader's flight and death, in intruding, as it was appropriated to the women, with the contrast with his mother's confident expectations of his intention of sheltering him.

triumphant return (vers. 18—27). 6 One of the long sharp pins, or spikes, used to fasten 8. This may possibly mean, 'for the complete emancithe tent cords to the ground. Nothing can account for pation of Israel;', but more probably, 'for the enterprise an action so entirely opposed to all eastern feelings and of the leaders in Israel, for the willingness of the people.'

igre Ex. 15 1: Ps.

18, title, *PST. 22. 49: Ps.

18 4:941. ? ver. 9; 2Chr. 17. 16:

Nr. 11. 2; ? Cer. * Denn. 32. 1.3: P. 2

10-19; 9.1.2.

m

* Deu. 33.2; Ps. 68.7.

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9. 6; Ps. 18. 7-15; 08. $; Is. 64. 3; lab.

3. 3-6, 10. + Ps, rỉ. li. o Dei. 4. 11; Ps 97.

5: 144.6; 1, 6L

--3; Nali. I. 5. Ex. 19. 18.

ch. 3. 31. Ich. 4. 17.

Le. 21 22; 2 Chr. 15.5: I. 33. 8: Lam.

1. 4; 4. IR sch, 4. 4-6; ? Sam,

20. 19; Is. 49. 3. Y ch. 2. 12, 17: Deu.

32. 16. . so I Sam. 13. 19, 22.

a rer. 2.

5

6 Ps. 105. 2; 145.3, 11.

ch. 1. 4. 12. 11. d Ps. 107. 32.

4 LORD, " when thou wentest out of Seir,

When thou marchedst out of the field of Edom,

• The earth trembled, and the heavens dropped,- —P the clouds also dropped water. •Sam. 22.8; Jalı 5 9 The mountains melted from before the LORD,

Even ' that Sinai? from before the LORD God of Israel. 6 In the days of Shamgar the son of Anath,-in the days of Jael,

The highways were unoccupied, -and the travellers walked through byways. 7 The inhabitants of the villages 4 ceased,—they ceased in Israel,

Until that I Deborah arose, that I arose * a mother in Israel. 8 They chose new gods ;—then was war in the gates :

Was there a shield or spear seen among forty thousand in Israel ? 9 My heart is toward the governors of Israel,

That offered themselves willingly among the people.

Bless ye the Lord. 10 • Speak (or, meditate),-yee that ride on white asses,5

“Ye that sit in judgment, 6 _and walk by the way:
11 They that are delivered from the noise of archers in the places of drawing water,

There shall they rehearse the righteous acts of the LORD,
Even the righteous acts toward the inhabitants of his villages in Israel :

Then shall the people of the LORD go down to the gates.
12 Awake, awake, Deborah :-awake, awake, utter a song:

Arise, Barak, -and lead thy captivity captive,8 thou son of Abinoam. 13 Then he made him that remaineth have dominion over the nobles among the * Ps 13. 14.

people:9
The LORD made me have dominion over the mighty.
14 Out of Ephraim was there a root of them against Amalek; 10

After thee, Benjamin, among thy people;11
Out of Machir came down governors, 13

And out of Zebulun they that handle the pen of the writer. 13
15 And the princes of Issachar were with Deborah ;—even Issachar, and also “ Barak:

He was sent on foot into the valley. 14

For (or, in) the divisions 15 of Reuben-there were great thoughts of heart. 16 Why abodest thou " among the sheepfolds,—to hear the bleatings of the flocks?

For (or, in) the divisions of Reuben-there were great searchings of heart. 17 •Gilead abode beyond Jordan : 16—and why did Dan remain in ships ? 17

P Asher continued on the sea shore (or, port),—and abode in his breaches. 18 18 Zebulun and Naphtali were a people that jeoparded their lives unto the death

In the high places of the field.

Sam. 12. 7: Ps 145. 7.

S Ps. 57. 8; 1082; Is.

53. 1. & P. 68. 18; Eph. 1. &

i eh. 3. 27.
keh. 3. 13

I Num. 32. 39, 40.

meh. 4. & 14

" Num. 32. 1.

o see Jos. 13. 25, 31.

P Jos. 19. 29, 31.

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i Perhaps, were shaken.' And so in Isa. lxiv. 1, 3. be read thus : Out of Ephraim came the root of them Verses 4 and 5, which greatly resemble those referred [who fought] against Amalek;' i. e. Deborah, who beto in the margin, pourtray in poetic imagery the general fonged to the tribe of Ephraim (ch. iv. 5). The Amalekcourse of the Divine manifestations on behalf of Israel; ites perhaps had joined Sisera. reminding us that every new display of God's mercy 11° Rather, after thee (О Ephraim, came) Benjamin should awaken the remembrance of his past favours. among thy people,' i. e. thy forces: Benjamin, whose 2 Or; .as did Sinai itself from before,' etc.

quota of men was probably small, being incorporated with 3 Some suppose Jael to be the name of a judge not men- Ephraim. tioned elsewhere; but it is better to regard the text as a 12 Machir was the son of Manasseh, and the father of poetical phrase, meaning between the days of Shamgar Gilead. The meaning is, Out of Manasseh came military and those of Jael.'

leaders. 4 Or, chiefs,' or judges.' So in ver. 11.

13 Rather, 'the rod of the numberer,' referring to the 5 The ass has always been much used in Palestine and enlisting of troops under Barak. Egypt for riding about the towns; and whitish animals 14 This refers to ch. iv. 14. As they had to encounter are commonly preferred, on account of their rarity, by Sisera's chariots, this showed great faith and courage. persons of distinction.

15 This may mean either that through the fickleness 6 Or, that sit on carpets.' All classes of the town po- and divisions of Reuben their fellow-countrymen were pulation-the wealthy who ride, or who rest at home, and discouraged; or more probably (see ver. 16) that the the common people who walk-are called upon to give Reubenites remained at home amidst their possessions thanks for their present security.

and comforts, and had many deliberations, but without i Robbers frequently lurk about watering places in any practically useful result. the east, that they may fall upon travellers and others 16'That is, the Gadites, who possessed part of Gilead, who resort thither.

(see Josh. xiii. 24, 25), and perhaps also part of the half 8 That is, 'lead those captive who before held thee in tribe of Manasseh. Or this may be put as an interrogacaptivity.'

tion, Did Gilead remain beyond Jordan?' in contrast 9 Rather, "Then came down the residue of the nobles; with the Reubenites. the people of Jehovah came down to me with the mighty. 17 That is, “Why was Dan so intent upon his ships and

10 Here begins the enumeration of the tribes who had merchandise?' The port of Joppa belonged to Dan. fought under Barak. This clause is elliptical, and may 18 Or, creeks,' or 'havens.'

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