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il Ki. 19. 21.

21 went out, and bowed himself before the king on his face upon the ground. And

Araunah said, Wherefore is my lord the king come to his servant? And David ' se Ge. 2. 8–16

said, To buy the threshing-floor of thee, to build an altar unto the LORD, that 22 the plague may be stayed from the people. And Araunah said unto David, * Num. 16. 47–50. Let

my lord the king take and offer up what seemeth good unto him : behold, Gee!! here be oxen for burnt sacrifice, and threshing instruments and other instruments 23 of the oxen for wood. All these things did Araunah, * as a king, give unto the * I. 32 & 24 king. And Araunah said unto the king, The LORD thy God 'accept thee. And

the king said unto Araunah, w Nay; but I will surely buy it of thee at a price : neither will I offer burnt offerings unto the Lord my God of that which doth

cost? me nothing. So * David bought the threshing-toor and the oxen for fifty 25 shekels of silver. And David built there an altar unto the Lord, and offered

burnt offerings and peace offerings. So the LORD was intreated for the land, and P the plague was stayed from Israel.

I Ere. 20. 40, 41.

m Ge. 23. 13

see 1 Chr. 21. 24, X

• ver. 14: eh. 21. 14:

Lam, 1
P ver. 21.

1 Had Araunah's offer been accepted, the sacrifice / would have been his, not David's.

NOTE ON THE CHARACTER OF DAVID. In many parts of Scripture, David is presented to us as David his father had done' (1 Kings xv. 11; 2 Kings one of the most eminent of God's servants, and is repeat- xviii. 3; xxii. 2). edly mentioned by the honourable appellation, a man But more than this, David's whole character and conafter God's own heart.' These words were uttered in im- duct, with the sad exceptions which he himself bemoaned mediate connection with a condemnation of Saul's dis- with the most penitential sorrow, is one on which the obedience (1 Sam. xiii. 14), and predicted a successor mind dwells with the highest admiration. His youthful whose character and conduct should be in direct opposi- piety-his lofty and varied genius—his heroic couragetion to those of Saul; who should not, like Saul, seek to his largeness of heart and tenderness of feeling-his conexercise an independent regal authority, but should be a fidence and delight in God, and stedfast adherence to his faithful servant of Jehovah, obeying his commands as service and worship, and zeal for his honour,--all these, delivered by his prophets; and whom, therefore, God as displayed in his history and in his writings, form a would approve and continue to favour. Thus the ex- combination of excellencies both rare and wonderful pression is interpreted by St. Paul, in Acts xiii. 22: ‘I With reference to his lamentable fall, several points have found David, the son of Jesse, a man after mine are worthy of observation :-his deep sorrow on account own heart, which shall execute all my will. The par- of his sin; his unreserved confession of his guilt; his proticular purposes for which God advanced David to the found humiliation before God and man, even after he throne appear to have been-1. To maintain the know- had received assurance of pardon from God himself; his ledge and service of the one true God, and to enforce the respect for his reprover, whom he continued to honour enactments of his law, in opposition to all forms of idolatry and confide in as long as he lived; and the resignation of and irreligion.—2. To free the people from the power of his after-life under all the painful chastisements of the the Philistines, and of all their enemies; and by a wise Almighty. And that holy Judge who had pronounced and just administration to make the nation prosperous his approval of the general tenor of David's life has inand happy. All the pleasure of God in these important structed the sacred historian impartially to record this respects he faithfully performed ; leaving an illustrious great sin, with the prophet's severe rebuke, and the many example to all his successors in the kingdom ; of any of sufferings which clouded his later years. Surely no one, whom the highest praise is, that he did that which without wilfully perverting this history, can derire from was right in the sight of the Lord, according to all that it excuse or encouragement to sin.

THE FIRST BOOK OF THE KINGS,

OTHERWISE CALLED

THE THIRD BOOK OF THE KINGS.

The two Books of the Kings originally formed one in mediate bearing upon their relation to their Divine Sothe Hebrew: but they were divided by the Greek trans- vereign, and consequently upon the religious state of the lators, and called the Third and Fourth Books of the people. All this is exhibited in particular connection Kings; the Books of Samuel being the First and Second. with the promise given to David (2 Sam. vii. 12—16), They further develop the leading subjects of the former which, indeed, furnishes the key to the subsequent history. Books (sec Preface to 1 Samuel), taking up the history It is shown that the Lord fulfilled his gracious promise; of the Hebrew nation at the period of its greatest glory; chastising the seed of David for their sins, and even castrecording its division into two independent states; and ing them off, but not for ever. So that the kingdom was tracing their gradual declension to the time of their not wholly taken from his family for the sin of Solomon subversion.

(1 Kings xi. 32–37; xii. 20); nor was the nation nor

the family extinguished when Jerusalem and the temple In the history of the monarchy, the various characters were destroyed (2 Kings xxv. 27-30). of the successive kings, and the general spirit of their This view of the special purposes of the history will government, are faithfully portrayed ; together with such explain why, in some parts, more prominence is given to of their actions, and such national events, as had an im- the affairs of the ten tribes than to those of the kingdom

342

of Judah; inasmuch as they offer more exemplary illus- | (2 Chron. xi. 15; xii. 22); that Jchu, the son of Hanani, trations of the manner in which the invisible Sovereign had recorded the life of Jehoshaphat (2 Chron. xx. 34); asserted his supremacy over both kings and people. The that annals of the kings from Uzziah to Hezekiah had been introduction and obstínate maintenance of idolatry made kept by Isaiah, among whose prophecies may be found it needful that, by his servants the prophets, He should narratives almost verbally agreeing with these. (sce 2 continually remind the nation of their backslidings; Chron. xxvi. 22; xxxii. 32; Isa. xxxvi.-xxxviii. 1-8, should alarm hardened sinners by signs and wonders ; 21, 22; xxxix. ; compared with 2 Kings xviii. 13——37; and should publicly punish their kings, who led the people xix. ; xx. 1-19); and that Jeremiah had done the into sin, by frequent changes of the dynasty. so that, in same in his days (see 2 Kings xxiv. 18—20; xxv.; Jer. the short space of 250 years, the throne was occupied by li.). From such records of contemporary prophets, some nine different families; until at last, after warnings and inspired writer, in the time of Nebuchadnezzar and milder punishments had failed to produce amendment, Evil-Merodach, compiled the present books, containing the kingdom was utterly

overthrown, and Ephraim ceased as much as the Holy Spirit deemed necessary. See 1 to be a people (Isa. vii. 8).

Kings xi. 41; xiv. 19, 29; xv. 7, 23; xvi. 5, 14, 20. The In the sinaller state of Judah, which continued faith-Jewish tradition, which ascribes this work to Jeremiah, ful to the house of David, the existence of the temple will appear highly probable if we compare the period at worship and of the Levitical priesthood tended to up- which the history closes (see 2 Kings xxv. 27—30) with hold the authority of Jehovah. Some idolaters appear what we know of the duration of his life; and if we among the monarchs, but their reigns were generally further observe the occasional resemblance in style and short; while those of the pious kings were, according to expression to some parts of his writings. the Divine promises by Moses, usually long and prosperous. These princes, with the aid of the prophets and The chronology of this period is not easily settled; and priests, repressed idolatry, and revived from time to time nothing more than an approximation to correctness seems the knowledge and service of Jehovah. Thus Judah, now to be attainable. The parallel histories in the Books though a much smaller country, preserved her national of the Kings and the Chronicles disagree respecting existence for more than a century longer than Israel ; some dates, and other dates are manifestly erroneous in but, finally, as no lasting reformation was effected, her both. See Note at the

end of Esther; and

Chronological land also was desolated, and the best of her sons were Table of the Kings of Judah and Israel. The most caresubjected to a seventy years' exile.

ful investigations give from 422 to 432 years for the two

books—from the accession of Solomon to the capture of In these books also is further displayed the agency Jerusalem-divided into four periods : 1. The undivided and influence of the prophets, who were specially com- monarchy under Solomon, 40 years. 2. From the division missioned by the Supreme King of Israel to assert his to the accession of Jehu, who put to death the two kings rights, and demand obedience to his laws; counselling, of Judah and Israel, between 88 and 92 years. 3. From guiding, and aiding the monarchs and the people when the accession of Jehu to the captivity of the ten tribes, they acted aright, and warning and judging them when between 161 and 167 years. 4. The duration of the kingthey sinned. Great prominence is given to the prophetic dom of Judah alone, 133 years. ministry; so that we find it frequently interposing in the affairs of the nation, as well as declaring the Divine pur- The First Book OF THE KINGs comprehends a period poses respecting the future. Nathan's interference secures of about 120 years, from the accession of Solomon to the the accession of Solomon (1 Kings i. 45). Ahijah an- death of Jehoshaphat; and it may be divided into two nounces the division of the kingdom, with its causes (xi. principal parts :29_40). Shemaiah, after the division has taken place, I. The history of the UNDIVIDED KINGDOM under Soconfirms it, by directing Rehoboam to disband his army lomon; including David's old age and death, Solomon's (xii. 21, 22). By various prophets, Jeroboam's idolatry is accession to the throne, and suppression of Adonijah's publicly reproved, and its punishment threatened (xiii. conspiracy. (ch. i., ii.); Solomon's vision and prayer, 1-3; xiv. 7); judgment is denounced against the and his wisdom (ii.); his court and officers, and the house of Baasha (xvi. 1); and Ahab's doom is distinctly extent and prosperity of his kingdom (iv.); the builddeclared (xxii, 17—28). Whilst, in the midst of the na- ing of the temple, and of Solomon's houses (v.-vii.); tional history, the wonderful works of the two great dedication of the temple (vii.-ix. 9); Solomon's transprophets, Elijah and Elisha, occupy so much of several actions with Hiram, his wealth and magnificence, and chapters, that the kings appear to hold but a secondary the queen of Sheba's visit (ix. 9—x.); Solomon's wives, place (1 Kings xvii.—2 Kings xiii.) And besides these, and idolatry-God's displeasure-Solomon's adversaries there were Isaiah, Jeremiah, Hosea, and others, whose (xi.) inspired writings, if carefully compared with the contem- II. The history of the two SEPARATE KINGDOMS for poraneous histories, will afford much aid in understanding about 80 years; including Rehoboam's accession, and the national affairs, and particularly the moral state of the revolt of the ten tribes (xii. 1-24); Jeroboam's the times. A tabular view of the prophets, showing the idolatry, and the prophecies against him and his family periods at which they respectively lived, is given at the (xii

. 24-xiv, 20); the reigns of Rehoboam, Abijam, and commencement of the Prophetical Books.

Åsa in Judah (xiv. 21-xv. 24), and of Nadab, Baasha,

Elah, Zimri, Omri, and Ahab in Israel (xv. 25—«vi.); Nothing certain is known with respect to the author- Elijah's prophecy and ministry, and the call of Elisha ship of these Books of the Kings; but it appears that nar- (xvii.- xix.); war between Israel and Syria (xx.); ratives of Solomon's reign had been composed by Nathan, murder of Naboth, and Elijah's reproof of Ahab (xxi.); Ahijah the Shilonite, and Iddo (2 Chron. ix. 29); that Jehoshaphat's league with Ahab-Micaiah and the false a history of Rehoboam had been written by Shemaiah and prophets-- death of Ahab (xxii. 1-40); Jehoshaphat's Iddo, to which the latter had added an account of Abijah' reign in Judah, and Ahaziah's in Israel (xxii. 41–53).

David's old age ; Adonijah's conspiracy; and Solomon's accession to the throne. 1

NOW king David was old and stricken in years; and they covered him with 2 clothes, but he gat no heat. Wherefore his servants said unto him, Let there be

sought for my lord the king a young virgin: and let her stand before the king,

and let her cherish him, and let her lie in thy bosom, that my lord the king may 3 get heat. So they sought for a fair damsel throughout all the coasts of Israel, 4 and found Abishag a Shunammite, and brought her to the king. And the damsel

was very fair, and cherished the king, and ministered to him: but the king knew her not.

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5 Then Adonijah the son of Haggith exalted himself, saying, I will be king : | * 2 Sam. & e

and he prepared him chariots and horsemen, and fifty men to run before him. | • 2 Samu 15. 1. 6 And his father had not displeased 2 him at any time in saying, Why hast thou

done so ? and he also was a very d goodly3 man; and his mother bare him after Sam. 13:4; 1 Chr. 7 Absalom. And he conferred with Joab the son of Zeruiah, and with 8 Abiathar 8 the priest: and "they following Adonijah helped him. But Zadok the priest,

and Benaiahs the son of Jehoiada, and Nathan the prophet, and 'Shimei,o and

Rei, and * the mighty men which belonged to David, were not with Adonijah. * 2 Sam 2 & 9 And Adonijah slew sheep and oxen and fat cattle by the stone of Zoheleth,?

which is by En-rogel [or, the well Rogel'), and called all his brethren the king's 10 sons, and all the men of Judah the king's servants : but Nathan the prophet, and

Benaiah, and the mighty men, and Solomon his brother, he called not. 11 Wherefore Nathan spake unto Bath-sheba the mother of Solomon, saying, Hast

thou not heard that Adonijah the son of " Haggith doth reign, and David our 12 lord knoweth it not? Now therefore come, let me, I pray thee, give thee counsel, 13 that thou mayest save' thine own life, and the life of thy son Solomon. Go and

get thee in unto king David, and say unto him, Didst not thou, my lord, O king,

swear unto thine handmaid, saying, “ Assuredly Solomon thy son shall reign after *1 Chr. 2 2 14 me, and he shall sit upon my throne? why then doth Adonijah reign? Behold,

while thou yet talkest there with the king, I also will come in after thee, and

confirm thy words. 15 And Bath-sheba went in unto the king into the chamber: and the king was 16 very old; and Abishag the Shunammite ministered unto the king. And Bath

sheba bowed, and did obeisance unto the king. And the king said, What wouldest 17 thou? And she said unto him, My lord, P thou swarest by the LORD thy God : Gera

unto thine handmaid, saying, Assuredly Solomon thy son shall reign after me, 18 and he shall sit upon my throne. And now, behold, Adonijah reigneth; and 19 now, my lord the king, tħou knowest it not : 9 and he hath slain oxen and fat

cattle and sheep in abundance, and hath called all the sons of the king, and

Abiathar the priest, and Joab the captain of the host : but Solomon thy servant 20 hath he not called. And thou, my lord, o king, the eyes of all Israel are

upon thee, that thou shouldest tell them who shall sit on the throne of my 21 lord the king after him. Otherwise it shall come to pass, when my lord the king shall 'sleep with his fathers, that I and my son Solomon shall be counted "eh

. 2. 10: Dec 31 48 offenders. 22 And, lo, while she yet talked with the king, Nathan the prophet also came in. 23 And they told the king, saying, Behold Nathan the prophet. And when he was

come in before the king, he bowed himself before the king with his face to the 24 ground. And Nathan said, My lord, O king, hast thou said, Adonijah shall 25 reign after me, and he shall sit upon my throne? • For he is gone down this day,

and hath slain oxen and fat cattle and sheep in abundance, and hath called all the king's sons, and the captains of the host, and Abiathar the priest : and,

behold, they eat and drink before him, and say, 'God save king Adonijah (or, 26 Let king Adonijah live). But me, even me thy servant, and Zadok the priest,

and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and thy servant Solomon, hath he not called. 27 Is this thing done by my lord the king, and thou hast not showed it unto thy

servant, who should sit on the throne of my lord the king after him? 28 Then king David answered and said, Call me Bath-sheba. And she came into 29 the king's presence, and stood before the king. And the king sware, and said, 30 “ As the LORD liveth, that hath redeemed my soul out of all distress, * even as I

sware unto thee by the Lord God of Israel, saying, Assuredly Solomon thy son shall reign after me, and he shall sit upon my throne in my stead ;

even so will 1 Adonijah does not appear to have intended to depose 3 Benaiah was the fifth of David's mighty men, the his father, but to assert his claim to the crown, as being captain of twenty-four thousand men for the third month the eldest surviving son. The invisible King of Israel (1° Chron. xxvii. 5), and commander of David's bodyhad, however, reserved to himself the power of appoint- guard; and was consequently a man of great infiuence. ing his vicegerent, irrespectively of the law of primogeni- He succeeded Joab as commander-in-chief under the reign ture; and had promised the kingdom to Solomon, the of Solomon.

man of peace,' who was to build the temple (1 Chron. 6 This man was not Shimei of Bahurim; but probably xxii. 9; xxviii. 5); and Adonijah was cognizant of this the son of Elah, and the same who was afterwards one of decision. See ch. ii. 15.

Solomon's officers (ch. iv. 18). Josephus calls him the 2 Showing the same laxity of parental discipline which friend of David' (Antiq. vii, 14). had produced such disastrous consequences in the instances 7 This was on the eastern side of Zion, by the fountain of Amnon and Absalom.

En-rogel and the king's gardens, at the junction of the 3 This personal quality, no doubt, as in the case of king's dale with the valley of Hinnom. Absalom, contributed to his success.

8 The omission of Solomon shows that Adonijah con4 This means only that Adonijah was next in age to sidered him as his rival. Absalom; for they were not sons of the same mother. 9 See note on 1 Sam. xxiv. 21.

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y Ne. 2. 3; Dan. 2. 4

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? Chr. 32. 30. ch, 19. 16. 1 Sam.

10. 1; 16. 3, 12, 1 Sams. 2. 4; 53:

ki. 9. 3; 11. 12 de San. 15. 10; 2Ki.

9. 13; 11. 14. • ch. 2.15; Ps. 72, title.

& ver. 47.

i 2 Sam. 15. 18.

Ex. 30. 2333; Ps. 89. 20

1 Sam. 10. 24.

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31 I certainly do this day. Then Bath-sheba bowed with her face to the earth, and

did reverence to the king, and said, Let my lord king David live for ever. 32 And king David said, Call me Zadok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, and 33 Benaiah the son of Jehoiada. And they came before the king. The king also

said unto them, - Take with you the servants of your lord, and cause Solomon 34 my son « to ride upon mine own mule, and bring him down to Gihon:1 and let

Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him there king over Israel : 35 and blow ye with the trumpet, and say, God save king Solomon. Then ye

shall come up after him, that he may come and sit upon my throne; e for he

shall be king in my stead : and I have appointed him to be ruler over Israel and 36 over Judah. And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada answered the king, and said, 37 Amen: the LORD God of my lord the king say so too. As the Lord hath been a 2.5, 17; 1 Sam.

with my lord the king, even so be he with Solomon, and s make his throne

greater than the throne of my lord king David. 38 So Zadok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, 4 and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, "2 Sam. 8. 18; 23 20

and 'the Cherethites, and the Pelethites, went down, and caused Solomon to ride 39 upon king David's mule, and brought him to Gihon. And Zadok the priest took

an horn of soil out of the tabernacle, and 'anointed Solomon. And they blew 40 the trumpet; mand all the people said, God save king Solomon. And all the chr. 29.9.

people came up after him, and the people piped with pipes, and rejoiced with

great joy, so that the earth rent with the sound of them. 41 And Adonijah and all the guests that were with him heard it as they had

made an end of eating. And when Joab heard the sound of the trumpet, he said, 42 Wherefore is this noise of the city being in an uproar? And while he yet spake,

behold, * Jonathan the son of Abiathar the priest came : and Adonijah said unto 43 him, Come in; for • thou art a valiant? man, and bringest good tidings. And

Jonathan answered and said to Adonijah, Verily our lord king David hath made 44 Solomon king. And the king hath sent with him Zadok the priest, and Nathan

the prophet, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and the Cherethites, and the 45 Pelethites, and they have caused him to ride upon the king's mule: and Zadok

the priest and Nathan the prophet have anointed him king in Gihon: and they

are come up from thence rejoicing, so that the city rang again. This is the noise 46 that ye have heard. And also Solomon sitteth on the throne of the kingdom. p 1 Chr. 29. 23 47 And moreover the king's servants came to bless our lord king David, saying,

God make the name of Solomon better than thy name, and make his throne 48 greater than thy throne. "And the king bowed himself upon the bed. And also thus said the king, Blessed be the LORD God of Israel, which hath "

'given one to sit on my throne this day, mine eyes even seeing it. 49 And all the guests that were with Adonijah were afraid, and rose up, and went 50 every man his way. And Adonijah feared because of Solomon, and arose, and 51 went, and caught hold on the horns of the altar.3 And it was told Solomon,

saying, Behold, Adonijah feareth king Solomon : for, lo, he hath caught hold on

the horns of the altar, saying, Let king Solomon swear unto me to-day that he 52 will not slay his servant with the sword. And Solomon said, If he will show

himself a worthy man, " there shall not an hair of him fall to the earth: but if "Sam14. 45; 2 Sam. 53 wickedness shall be found in him, he shall die. So king Solomon sent, and they

brought him down from the altar. And he came and bowed himself to king Solomon: and Solomon said unto him, Go to thine house.

David's charge to Solomon, and death, 2 NOW the days of David drew nigh that he should die; and yhe charged 4 2 Solomon his son, saying, "I go the way of all the earth :5 a bé thou strong there3 fore, and show thyself a man ;6 and keep the charge of the LORD thy God, to

walk in his ways, to keep his statutes, and his commandments, and his judgments, and his testimonies, as it is written in the law of Moses, that thou mayest

prosper (or, do wisely') in all that thou doest, and whithersoever thou 4 turnest thyself: that the LORD may continue his word which he spake con

cerning me, saying, “ If thy children take heed to their way, to i walk before me in truth with all their heart and with all their soul, * there shall not fail thee

9 ver. 37.

r Ge. 47. 31.

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14 Il; Ac. 27. 34.

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1 Chr. 2.. 12, 13 • 1 Sam. 18. 5, 14, 30.

? Sam. 8. 6. 14.

? Sam. 7. 11-16, 25. APs. 132. 11, 12 i? Ki. 21. 3. keh. 8. 25; 2 Sam. 7.

12, 13.

I Gihon was a fountain in the valley on the west of refuge previously to the enactment of the Mosaic laws. Zion; consequently on the side opposite to En-rogel, 4 This was done after Solomon had been a second time bere Adonijah and his party were (ver. 9); and was more publicly anointed. See 1 Chron. xxviii. et

seg. probably chosen on that account.

5 That is, all mankind (Gen. xi. 9; Josh. xxii. 14; 2 Or, "good,' 'worthy;' as in ver. 52, and Prov. xii. 4. 1 Kings x. 24).

3 According to the law in Exod. xxi. 12–14, the mur- 6 That is, Though thou art young, act with manly deren was to be taken from the altar and slain; which energy and wisdom. Solomon cannot have been more implies that the altar had been resorted to as a place of | than twenty years of age at this time.

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5 (said he) a man on the throne of Israel. Moreover thou knowest also what Joab the son of Zeruiah 'did to me, and what he did to the two captains of the hosts ch. 1.71 san :

30; 18, 12, 14, 14 of Israel, unto » Abner the son of Ner, and unto * Amasa the son of Jether, whom

he slew, and shed the blood of war in peace, and put the blood of war upon his 2 Sam. ia 6 girdle that was about his loins, and in his shoes that were on his feet. Do

therefore according to thy wisdom, and P let not his hoar head go down to the 7 grave in peace. But sho kindness? unto the sons of · Barzillai the Gileadite,

and let them be of those that "eat at thy table: for so they came to me when I sam. 2. 7, 10; 19. 8 fled because of Absalom thy brother. And, behold, thou hast with thee Shimei* · San is 13–15;

the son of Gera, a Benjamite of Bahurim, which cursed me with a grievous curs in the day when I went to Mahanaim: but he came down to meet me at Jordan, * ? Sam. 12 16–

and I sware to him by the LORD, saying, I will not put thee to death with the 9 sword. Now therefore hold him not guiltless : for thou art a wise man, and

knowest what thou oughtest to do unto him; but his hoar head y bring thou down ver. 6: le 2 *:

to the grave with blood. 10 So • David slept with his fathers, and was buried in the city of David. And in ; Ac 2 ; 11 the days that David • reigned over Israel were forty years : seven years reigned he in Hebron, and thirty and three years reigned he in Jerusalem.

Solomon's kingdom established, and his enemies punished. 12 THEN sat Solomon upon the throne of David his father; and “his kingdom 13 was established greatly. And Adonijah the son of Haggith came to Bath-sheba 13 Sam. 7. 12, 13

the mother of Solomon. And she said, 'Comest thou peaceably? And he said, " Sam 16 1,5, 14 Peaceably. He said moreover, I have somewhat to say unto thee. And she said, 15 Say on. And he said, Thou knowest that the kingdom was mine, and that all | eh. 1.5, %

Israel set their faces on me, that I should reign: how beit the kingdom is turned 16 about, and is become my brother's : for o it was his from the Lord. And now I cam??!? ** 17 ask one petition of thee, * deny me not. And she said unto him, Say on. And

he said, Speak, I pray thee, unto Solomon the king, (for he will not say thee * Pa 132 18. 18 nay,) that he give me . Abishag the Shunammite to wife. And Bath-sheba said, ich 1.34

Well; I will speak for thee unto the king. 19 Bath-sheba therefore went unto king Solomon, to speak unto him for Adonijah.

And the king rose up to meet her, and bowed himself unto her, and sat down Bc. 20. 12

on his throne, and caused a seat to be set for the king's mother; 'and she sat on 20 his right hand. Then she said, I desire one small petition of thee; I pray thee,

say me not nay. And the king said unto her, Ask on, my mother: for I will 21 not say thee nay. And she said, Let Abishag the Shupammite be given to 22 Adonijah thy brother to wife. And king Solomon answered and said unto his

mother, And why dost thou ask Abishag the Shunammite for Adonijah ? ask for

him the kingdom 5 also; for he is mine elder brother; even for him, and for 23 m Abiathar the priest, and for Joab the son of Zeruiah. Then king Solomon

sware by the Lord, saying, "God do so to me, and more also, if Adonijah have - Ra. 1. 17. 24 not spoken this word against his own fe. Now therefore, as the Lord liveth,

which hath established me, and set me on the throne of David my father, and

who hath • made me an house, as he promised, Adonijah shall be put to death pesam? 1213; 1 25 this day. And king Solomon sent by the hand of Benaiah the son of Jehoiada ;

and he fell upon him that he died. 26 And unto Abiathar the priest said the king, Get thee to ? Anathoth, unto thine Jos. 9. 18; Jer. L 1.

own fields; for thou art worthy of death:7 but I will not at this time put thee

to death, because thou barest the ark of the Lord God before David my father, 27 and because thou hast been afflicted in all wherein my father was afflicted. So

Solomon thrust 8 out Abiathar from being priest unto the LORD; that he might

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1 Joab's life had long been forfeited by atrocious mur- death. He might have preserved his life on certain conders. These directions are to be attributed not to per- ditions, which he acknowledged to be reasonable, and yet sonal resentment on the part of David, but to a sense of violated on a very slight pretext (vers. 39, 40). justice, mingled perhaps with some self-reproach for 5 See note on 2 Sam. iii. 7. Adonijah's remarks about having, from reasons of policy, delayed the infliction of the desire of the people that he should be king (ver. 15), merited punishment; which, indeed, would even now seem to have awakened Solomon's suspicions, which were require peculiar wisdom, in order to avoid alienating the probably confirmed by some circumstances not recorded. army.

6 See refs. * House' here means the royal succession. 2 The dying king felt the claims of gratitude to be not 7 As an accomplice in Adonijah's treason. less sacred than those of justice.

8 The Jewish kings exercised the power of appointing 3 This word is used for showing kindness, especially or deposing the high priests at their discretion. “Abiathar when God sends help (Psa. lxix. 18; Lam. iii. 57). seems to have been second to Zadok. See ch. iv. 4. In

4 David's injunction evidently amounts to this —that later times, we find the high priest had a deputy called, Shimei was so dangerous a person, that he must be closely in 2 Kings xxv. 18, the second priest, and afterwards watched, and on the first act of disobedience be put to named Sagan.

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