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THE BUDGET AND RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT EDITED BY SAMUEL MCCUNE LINDSAY, PH.D., LL.D.,

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY A series of handbooks for the student and general reader, giving the results of the newer social thought and of recent scientific investigations of the facts of American social life and institutions. Each volume about 200 pages. 1. The New BASIS OF CIVILIZATION. By

Simon N. Patten, Ph.D., LL.D., Uni

versity of Pennsylvania. 2. STANDARDS OF PUBLIC MORALITY. By Ar

thur Twining Hadley, Ph.D., LL.D.,

President of Yale University. 3. MISERY AND ITS Causes. By Edward T.

Devine, Ph.D., LL.D., Columbia Uni

versity. 4. GOVERNMENTAL ACTION FOR SOCIAL WEL

FARE. By Jeremiah W. Jenks, Ph.D.,

LL.D., Cornell University. 5. SOCIAL INSURANCE. A PROGRAM OF So

CIAL REFORM. By Henry Rogers Sea

ger, Ph.D., Columbia University. 6. SOCIAL REFORM AND THE CONSTITUTION.

By Frank J. Goodnow, LL.D., Columbia

University. 7. The CHURCH AND SOCIETY. By R. Ful

ton Cutting, LL.D. 8. THE JUVENILE COURT AND THE COMMUNITY.

By Thomas D. Eliot, M.A., Ph.D. 9. The City WORKER'S WORLD IN AMERICA.

By Mary Kingsbury Simkhovitch. 10. THE HOUSING OF THE UNSKILLED WAGE

EARNER. By Edith Elmer Wood. 11. THE BUDGET AND RESPONSIBLE GOVERN

MENT, By Frederick A. Cleveland,
Ph.D. and Arthur Eugene Buck, Ph.D.

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
Publishore 64-66 Fith Avenue Now York

AND
RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT

A Description and Interpretation of the Struggle for
Responsible Government in the United States, with
Special Reference to Recent Changes in State Con-
stitutions and Statute Laws Providing for Ad-
ministrative Reorganization and Budget Reform

BY
FREDERICK A. CLEVELAND

AND
ARTHUR EUGENE BUCK

INTRODUCTION BY
WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT

New york
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

1920

All rights reserved

OOPYRIGHT, 1920,
BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

Set up and electrotyped. Published May, 1920.

EDITOR'S NOTE

Along with the discussion of a budget system and budgetary procedure in city, state and nation, which has progressed with growing intensity during the past fifteen years, there has been a wide range of practical experimentation in the application of the budget idea, especially in municipal and state governments in the United States. It seemed a few months ago when the National Budget Committee was organized and incorporated under the laws of the District of Columbia, as a citizens' movement, that the time had come to have this experience summarized and interpreted by competent authorities, especially when the appointment of select committees of inquiry in both houses of Congress indicated that we were likely to have national legislation in the near future looking to the establishment of some kind of a national budget system.

The editor of this series was gratified to find that he could get Dr. Frederick A. Cleveland and Mr. Arthur E. Buck to undertake the task, and former President William Howard Taft to furnish an introduction to the volume. Dr. Cleveland is not only a pioneer but also the foremost authority in America on the subject of the budget. He has had an exceptional professional training and experience in the underlying political theories of democracy, and the technical problems of public accountancy. The whole budget movement in the United States owes much to his persevering activities, since he planned and installed the budget system of the great municipal government of New York City ten years and more ago, on a scale that almost rivalled in complexity and size of operations the business of the Federal Government not many decades ago. Later he was the Chairman of Presi

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