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enactment. The charter provides for a single-branch council to take the place of the bicameral council now existing. It also provides for the merit system. A committee of fifty, appointed by a mass meeting of the business men to consider the question, through a subcommittee, reported an amended draft of the charter in which provision is made for non-partisan nominations and elections and the recall, and also that four members of the Board of Estimates and Awards be elected, the other member being appointed by the mayor.

The City Wide Congress, a body composed of delegates from about sixty-five civic, business, and improvement associations of the city has urged the insertion of the initiative and referendum in the proposed charter. The result is that the charter will be introduced into the legislature as agreed upon by the council of fifty and the initiative and referendum will be submitted as a separate proposition. It is generally understood that the city administration is opposed to the proposed charter, and its adoption, whether submitted to the vote of the people or not, is uncertain.

By a very decisive majority the voters of Ottawa, Canada, expressed on January 1 their approval of the formation of a federal district made up of the Dominion capital and the municipalities immediately adjoining it. The movement for a federal district, somewhat on the Washington plan, was inaugurated early in 1911 by the Ottawa Board of Trade and had its immediate origin in a conviction that the Canadian capital ought to have a sufficiently large area to enable the city to be planned, developed and beautified to the best advantage. The proposal upon which the voters have passed affirmatively is that the new federal district should be governed by a paid commission, partly nominated by the Canadian government and partly elected by the voters of Ottawa, the elective members to be in the majority. Provision is made that the Canadian government shall contribute a fair proportion of the revenue necessary for the federal district and that the district shall continue to be represented in the House of Commons.

Now that the plan has been approved by the voters of the city, provincial and federal legislation both will still be necessary to make it effective, but as yet no assurance has been received from either the Canadian or Ontario government that these authorities will take kindly to the scheme. The reason for the departure from the Washington plan is that Ottawa, besides being the capital of the Dominion,

is rapidly becoming an important industrial center. The voters of the city are accordingly not ready to hand over to any government commission the exclusive charge of the city's industrial and commercial prospects.

Governor Foss of Massachusetts has appointed, after long delay, the new Directors of the Port of Boston. The chairman of the Directors, who is appointed for five years at a salary of $15,000 a year, is Major General Hugh Bancroft. The board will have the spending of about nine millions of dollars in the development of Boston's harbor facilities and in the encouragement of the city's maritime commerce. Its jurisdiction extends over the entire harbor front of the old Boston metropolitan district.

The Water Department of St. Louis has decided to apply the meter system of charges throughout the whole city. St. Louis has had in operation the flat-rate system of charges and the waste of water has been very great. In making the present change the water commissioner has had the backing of the Board of Public Improvements, but has also had vigorous opposition from all quarters of the city.

Final census returns of urban population and growth in the United States show that there are now fifty American cities with populations exceeding a hundred thousand. Three states have five or more cities in this class, namely, New York, Massachusetts and Ohio. The city showing the greatest percentage of growth is Birmingham, Ala., where the increase has been 245 per cent; next come Los Angeles with 212 per cent, Seattle with 194 per cent, and Spokane with 183 per cent.

A special bulletin on the foreign-born white population of large cities shows that this element increased in New York during the decade 1900–1910 by 665,982, or 52.7 per cent. Persons born in Germany and in Ireland decreased in numbers, the former by 13.9 per cent and the latter by 8.2 per cent. Marked increases took place in the number of persons born in Italy, Russia and Finland, and Austro-Hungary.

Census reports on typhoid death rate in American cities show the lowest rate (8.8 per hundred thousand population) in Cincinnati and the highest rate (45.7) in Milwaukee. The rate in other important cities is New York 11.6, Cleveland 13.7, Philadelphia 17.5, Buffalo 20.4, Detroit 23, and Baltimore 42.

The First Congress of the Canadian Public Health Association was held in McGill University, Montreal, during the second week of December. Delegates were present from all the important Canadian

cities, and discussions were devoted to water supply, municipal sanitation and housing. The Association will endeavor to follow the lines already marked out by the Royal Sanitary Institute of Great Britian and the American Public Health Association.

The University of Toronto, Canada, has arranged to inaugurate a course of lectures on civic art and town planning as part of the regular instruction in that institution. The course will be given by Thomas H. Mawson, recently of the University of Liverpool.

The city of Juarez in Mexico has undertaken the unique experiment of placing full control of all the city parks and recreation grounds in charge of a board of eight women.

The American Association for Highway Improvements held its first annual congress in Richmond during the third week of November. The programme included papers on various matters relating to municipal construction and contracts.

(For various items in the foregoing pages I am indebted to Prof. W. F. Dodd of the University of Illinois and to Mr. F. W. Dickey of Western Reserve University.-W. B. M.)



The Eighth Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association was held December 27-30, 1911, at Buffalo, New York, and Toronto, Ontario. The American Historical and the Mississippi Valley Historical Associations were also in annual meeting at Buffalo at this time, and two joint sessions were held with the former of these societies. The first of these joint meetings was devoted to the addresses of the presidents of the two associations, Governor Baldwin, president of the Political Science Association, taking as his subject “The Progressive Unfolding of the Powers of the United States." His paper is published in full in this issue of the REVIEW. The papers at the second of the joint sessions dealt with Latin-American topics. The papers and discussions at the other sessions of the Political Science Association were devoted respectively to “Courts and Judges as Governing Powers,” “State Constitution Making,” “The County Problem in Municipal Government,” “Efficient State Government, ” and “Canadian Government," the last topic being discussed at the session which was held in the halls of the University of Toronto. The papers read at these meetings appear in the SUPPLEMENT to this issue of the REVIEW, where will also be found the statement by the Secretary of the matters of business transacted by the Association. The very delightful social entertainment furnished visiting members included a reception and a luncheon by the Buffalo Historical Society, a reception at the Twentieth Century Club, a reception and smoker at the University Club, a smoker and musicale at the Buffalo Club, and a luncheon at the University of Toronto.

Dr. Edward S. Corwin has been elected professor of politics in Princeton University.

During October, 1911, Sir Frederick Pollock delivered the Carpentier lectures at Columbia University, taking as his subject “The Genius of the Common Law.” These lectures have been published in book form by the Columbia University Press.

The library of Marquis Olivart, one of the most complete libraries of international law in existence, has been purchased by Harvard University. Marquis Olivart is known to students of international law by his writings in that field, and by his bibliography of international law, which was made up largely from books in his own possession.

Professor W. W. Willoughby has in press (Baker, Voorhis & Co.) an abridgment of his two-volume treatise on United States Constitutional Law, published in 1910. The volume, which will appear early in the spring, is designed for use as a text-book for college and law school classes.

A second edition of Judson's Law of Interstate Commerce (T. H. Flood & Co.) is announced.

A French edition of Ostrogorski's Democracy and Political Parties has appeared from the press of Calmann-Lévy (Paris, 1912, pp. 728). The work, it will be remembered, is a revised abridgment of the author's two-volume work Democracy and the Organization of Political Parties, published in 1902.

Prof. William M. Sloane of Columbia University will occupy the Theodore Roosevelt professorship at the University of Berlin in 1912–13, and will lecture on the History of Political Parties in the United States.

A politics laboratory has been established at Columbia University. Material is being collected illustrative of the actual working of political machinery in federal, state and local government. A collection of ballot forms has been gotten together; legislative manuals, election laws and other materials of a similar class are being accumulated. Current newspapers and periodicals are provided, and the effort being made to bring the teaching of politics into intimate relation with the present operation of political machinery.

On October 25 to 28, 1911, a national conference on Civic and Social Center Development was held at Madison, Wis. Addresses were made by Governor Francis E. McGovern of Wisconsin, Governor Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey, Governor W. R. Stubbs of Kansas,

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