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226.

POLITICAL SCIENCE (GENERAL) AND POLITICAL THEORY

Allen W. Harvey. Woman's part in government whether she votes or not. New York: Dodd, Mead. Pp. 15, 377.

Ames, Edg. Nilley. New York state government. New York: Macmillan. Pp. 56.

Ashley, Roscoe S. The American federal state. New ed. New York: Macmillan. Pp. 46, 629.

Bonnet, Theodore. The regenerators; a study of the graft prosecution of San Francisco. San Francisco: Pacific Pr. Pp. 10, 251.

Boyle, James. The initiative and referendum, its folly, fallacies and failure. Columbus, Ohio: A. H. Smythe. Pp. 120.

Bradford, Ernest S. Commission government in American cities. New York: Macmillan. Pp. 14, 359.

Brownlow, J. M. E. Women's work in local government. London: Nutt. Pp.

Books

Bruncken, Ernest. Die amerikanishe Volksseele. Gotha: F. A. Perthes. Pp. 7, 165.

Burton, T. E. Corporations and the State. New York: Appleton. Pp. 16, 248. Clayton, J. The rise of democracy. London: Cassell.

Clemenceau, Georges. South America today; a study of conditions, social, political and commercial in Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. New York: Putnam. Pp. 12, 434.

Dawbarn, Charles. France and the French. New York: Macmillan. Pp. 12,

322.

Devon. The criminal and the community. London: Lane.

Forman, S. E. The American republic; a text in civics, etc. New York: Century Co. Pp. 18, 359.

Garner, James W. Government in the United States, national, state, local. New York: American Book Co. Pp. 416, 32.

238.

Gieseck, Albert A. Questions in municipal civics. Syracuse, N. Y.: Bardeen. Granger, Frank. Historical sociology. Text book of politics. London: Methuen. James, J. A. and Sanford, A. H. Government in state and nation. Rev. ed. New York: Scribner. Pp. 14, 341.

Kleeberg, G. S. B. The formation of the republican party as a national political organization. New York: Moods Pub. Pp. 244.

Lombrose. Crime and its causes.

London: Heineman.

Low, A. Maurice. The American people; a study in national psychology, vol. 2. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin. Pp. 6, 608.

Mitchell, C. Ainsworth. Science and the criminal. Boston: Little, Brown. Pp.

Oberholtzer, Ellis Paxson. The referendum in America. New ed. with supplement. New York: Scribner. Pp. 12, 533.

Parsons, etc. Second chambers in practice. London: P. S. King & Son.

Rembaugh, Bertha. The political status of women in the United States; a digest of the laws concerning women. New York: Putnam. Pp. 13, 164.

Robinson, Lewis N. History and organization of criminal statistics in the United States. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin. Pp. 8, 104.

Saleilles, Raymond. The individualization of punishment. 2nd. ed. London: Heineman. Pp. 366.

Virtue, G. Ole. The government of Minnesota. New York: Scribner. Pp. 11, 200.

MISCELLANEOUS

Articles in Periodicals

Aviation. The Connecticut Statute for the Regulation of Air-Ship Voyages. Simeon E. Baldwin. Zeitschrift für Völkerrecht und Bundesstaatsrecht. 4. Heft.

V. Band.

Aviation. Der erste internationale Kongress für Luftrecht. Alex Meyer. Archiv des Öffentlichen Rechts. Achtundzwanzigster Band. Zweites und Drittes Heft. Aviation. La navigation aérienne au point de vue juridique. H. Sperl. Revue Générale de Droit International Public. Sept.-Oct., 1911.

Canada. American and Canadian Political Methods. H. J. Ford. N. Amer. Rev. Nov., 1911.

Corruption. The Science of Political Corruption. F. McArthur. Forum. Jan.,

1912.

Courts. How to Put the People behind the Law. P. S. Grant. N. Amer. Rev. Nov., 1911.

Crime. Crime and Immigration (Report of Committee G. of the Institute). Gino C. Speranza. Jour. of Crim. Law & Crim. Nov., 1911.

Crime. The Future Attitude Toward Crime. George W. Kirchwey. Jour. of Crim. Law & Crim. Nov., 1911.

Criminal Statistics. Criminal Statistics in the United States (Report of Committee 3 of the Institute). John Koren. Jour. of Crim. Law & Crim. Nov., 1911. Panama. Necessary Panama Canal legislation. E. R. Johnson. N. Amer. Rev. Nov., 1911.

Socialism. Le socialism juridique. S. Perozzi. Scièntia. Oct., 1911. Ethics. Begriff und Aufgaben einer juristischen Ethik. Jacques Stern. Archiv des Öffentlichen Rechts. Achtundzwanzigster Band. Zweites und Drittes Heft. Germany. L'Allemagne et les Nationalités. William Martin. Revue Politique et Parlementaire. Nov., 1911.

Initiative. Initiative, Referendum and Recall. J. Bourne, Jr. Atlantic Monthly. Jan., 1912.

Initiative. New Forms of the Initiative and Referendum. S. Gale Lowrie. Am. Polit. Sc. Rev. Nov., 1911.

Primaries. Direct Primaries and the Second Ballot. A. N. Holcombe. Am. Polit. Sc. Rev. Nov., 1911.

Public Rights. Der Verzicht auf subjektive öffentliche Rechte. Rudolph Wassermann. Archiv des Öffentlichen Rechts. Achtundzwanzigster Band. Zweites und Drittes Heft.

Recall. The Recall and the Political Responsibility of Judges. W. F. Dodd. Mich. Law Rev. Dec., 1911.

Representative Government. Courts of Law and Representative Assemblies in the Sixteenth Century. W. S. Holdsworth. Col. Law Rev. Jan., 1912.

EX.R.A

The American
Political Science Review

Vol. VI

MAY, 1912

No. 2

GOVERNMENTAL REGULATION OF INSURANCE IN CANADA

AVARD LONGLEY BISHOP

Scheffield Scientific School of Yale University

On the first of January, 1910, the total amount of life insurance in force in Canada, exculsive of that on the assessment plan, amounted to over 780 millions of dollars. Of this, all, excepting a little less than 68 millions of industrial insurance, represented what we may properly style as ordinary or old line business. The policies to the number of upwards of a million were distributed between 53 different companies of which 23 were Canadian, 16 American, and 14 British. The British companies carried risks amounting in the aggregate to less than 47 millions and they seemed to be, on the whole, inactive in the matter of securing new business. In 1909, 8 of the 14 British companies carrying risks in Canada wrote no new Canadian business at all. On the other hand, the American companies make a much better showing; the sum total of their policies was nearly 218 millions of dollars, of which approximately one-fifth represented industrial insurance. The rest of the business, amounting to over 515 millions, was carried by the Canadian companies themselves. From these figures, it is evident that the home companies are now strongly entrenched within

their own field. A comparison of the present situation with that of thirty years ago would show that the risks of the Canadian companies have increased much more rapidly than have those of their American rivals. In 1879, the amount of the policies of each in force in Canada was less than thirty-four millions. In the noteworthy expansion of life insurance which has since taken place, a number of causes have combined to swell the aggregate business of the Canadian companies. Not the least important factor here to be considered is that of sentiment a desire to develop Canada for the Canadians and to promote and foster home enterprises. Moreover, on the more popular forms of policies, the premium rates offered by the home companies have been, as a rule, lower than those of their neighbors across the border.

In Canada, both the Federal government and the governments of the various provinces may incorporate companies with authority to carry on insurance. The British and American companies doing business in Canada are required to take out a license which is obtained from the Department of InsurIn fact, every company, Canadian or foreign, must submit to this requirement and make a deposit of $50,000 in approved securities. Any company incorporated by the parliament of Canada is entitled to carry on business in each and every province if it so desires, although the various provincial legislatures may, and in fact do, subject the companies to certain legal requirements, of which the payment of a corporation tax for the privilege of doing business is the most important. In theory at least, a company chartered by any particular provincial legislature must confine its operations to that single province, but it would appear that that provision is coming to be evaded to a considerable degree. The rather delicate matter of governmental jurisdiction as between the Federal government and the provinces is by no means clearly defined as some have been foolish enough to imagine was the case, and the tendency seems to be towards greater confusion rather than towards concurrent and uniform legislation. A recent writer has summed up the whole situation, very correctly, as follows: "Looking the

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