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Massachusetts. The legislature of Massachusetts passed five specific acts calculated to strengthen and improve her civil service laws and extend their application. (Laws, 1911, pp. 518, 392, 71, 39, 343.) Provision is made for the review of the action of any board or officer who removes, lowers in rank or compensation, suspends or transfers any persons holding office under the classified service except members of the police department of Boston, of the police department of the metropolitan park commission and members of the district police. A second act requires that all answers of applicants to questions in examinations relating to training and experience, outside the labor service, must be under oath if the commissioners require it. No question may be asked which involves a statement as to any offence committed before the applicant reached the age of 16 years, except in the case of applicants for police and prison service. A provision in a former law requiring that the examination of applicants for employment as laborers shall relate to their capacity for labor and their habits of sobriety and industry and to the necessities of themselves and their families was stricken out. The provisions of the civil service act were extended to the superintendent, chief of police or city marshal of all cities except Boston and of all towns which have or may hereafter accept the provisions of that act.

Montana. The civil service laws of Montana pertain to any city having a commission form of government, and any city of the commonwealth may abandon its present organization at any time and adopt the commission form. All appointive officers and employees of any such city except departmental heads are placed in the classified civil service and the board of civil service commissioners, after testing the qualifications of applicants, supply a certified list of competent candidates to the city council. (Laws, 1911, p. 108.)

New Jersey. New Jersey materially enlarged and amended her civil service acts. (Laws, 1911, pp. 35, 727, 718, 276.) The competitive class is made to include all positions in the classified service for which it is practicable to determine the merit and fitness of applicants by competitive examinations. A "sectional eligible list” is provided for, to supply positions wherein a special acquaintance with a municipality or section of the state is necessary. The commission is authorized to admit citizens of other states to examination when the position to be filled requires special technical training and specialization in a line of work for which candidates are not easily procured and when suitable candidates from New Jersey are not forthcoming. The civil

service act of April 10, 1908, was extended so as to apply to all school districts of the state, after its adoption therein by the vote of the qualified electors. The court attendants in all counties which had previously adopted this act were placed in the competitive list. County examinations are to be held annually to ascertain the qualifications of candidates for positions on the district boards of registry and election. No persons are admitted to examination except such as are recommended to the state civil service commission by reputable members of either party, familiar with the locality. A certified list of successful candidates is furnished by the state civil service commission to the county election boards.

New York. The civil service laws of New York were not materially changed. The state Superintendent of Highways, an office newly created, is authorized to remove division and resident engineers, clerks, officers and employees of the commission except the secretary, subject to the provisions of the civil service laws. A slight territorial readjustment was made to accommodate appointees to positions in the state service the duties of which are confined to a locality outside of Albany county. (Laws, 1911, pp. 1483, 1230.)

Tennessee. The amendatory act of the state of Tennessee is wholly negligible, it clarifies the law but does not extend its application. (Laws, 1911, p. 1184.)

Wisconsin. The civil service laws of Wisconsin were amended in several particulars. Legislative employees who have held positions by appointment under the civil service rules and who have been separated from the service without delinquency or misconduct but owing to reasons of economy or otherwise, may be reinstated within two years. All rules governing examinations held to test the qualifications of applicants for civil service positions in cities were made subject to the approval of the mayor; the character of examinations is more clearly defined; subordinate municipal appointees may not be discharged by their superiors for political or religious affiliations; officers and clerks entrusted with the handling of money are exempted from competition and examination, and positions involving fiduciary responsibility are surrounded with more adequate safeguards; and the certification of an eligible list is more clearly prescribed. (Laws, 1911, pp. 522, 669.)


Legislative Investigations. One of the most hopeful signs in the legislation of recent years is the recognition by legislators that their

ability to legislate equitably depends upon thorough investigation and knowledge of the subjects to be legislated upon, and their willingness to gather all available information through special committees of their number or special commissions working through the recess of the legislature.

Each year sees an increase of this kind of investigations. A review of the commissions reporting in 1912 and 1913 to the different legislatures will indicate their scope and importance. Three states have commissions on a reform of their building laws, Pennsylvania, Illinois and Ohio. The last had a partial report at the session of 1911, which was adopted. Delaware is investigating child labor, Ohio is revising her laws relating to children and Connecticut is investigating the care of dependent and wayward children.

Cold storage and foods are receiving attention in Massachusetts and New York. The former has the single subject of cold storage, while the latter is investigating the price, purity, production, distribution and consumption.

Prisons and related topics occupy several commissions. Pennsylvania is investigating the method of inflicting capital punishment and the feasibility of one central prison for the death penalty. Convict camps in Georgia were investigated by a special sub-committee; the utilization of convict products is to be reported on in Massachusetts; and penal farms for workhouses in Indiana.

A Pennsylvania commission is revising the anthracite coal mining laws and another is looking into the causes and prevention of industrial accidents. Ohio has a commission on occupational diseases; Connecticut on state insurance for workmen; Delaware, Iowa, Michigan, Massachusetts, Nebraska and West Virginia on employers' liability and workmen's compensation; New Jersey has a permanent commission to report on the workings of their workmen's compensation law and also on old age pensions and insurance.

Taxation, as usual, has its quota of investigations. Pennsylvania has a commission on corporations and revenue; Michigan and Oregon on the general system; Massachusetts on the taxation of foreign corporations, to be made by the tax commissioner; Connecticut on taxation of forest lands and another on taxation of railways and street railways.

Railway subjects of investigation are: Transportation system of Boston, Commutation tickets and practices, Street railways-equip

ment with fenders, all to be made by the Massachusetts Railroad Commission. Railway taxation is to be investigated in Connecticut.

Election laws have two investigators. The Pennsylvania commission of 1911 was continued until 1913 and Oregon authorized an investigation of election and registration laws.

Education is prolific in subjects for investigation. Massachusetts reports on local and state share of cost, industrial education in textiles, high school education, part time schools, teachers' pensions and state supervision of schools, all to be made by the state board of education; Indiana has a commission on industrial and agricultural education; Wisconsin on text-book prices and conditions; and Delaware on higher education of women.

Women's work and wages caused several investigations, one of the most important because the first of its kind in this country being on wages of women and children and the advisability of establishing minimum wage boards in Massachusetts; Connecticut reports on conditions of labor of women and children in state institutions.

Other investigations under way by special commissions are: public utilities, county and township organization, drainage, road and bridge laws, fire insurance and old age insurance, and rivers, lakes and harbors, all to be reported on in Illinois, segregation, care and treatment of defectives, feeble-minded and epileptics, in Pennsylvania; recording titles to property, in Pennsylvania; infantile paralysis, in Massachusetts; finances of cities and towns in Massachusetts, by the director of the bureau of statistics; metropolitan plan of Boston; rural life conditions, in Nebraska; state engineering expense and organization, Massachusetts; water storage and conservation, New York; city and county government of Albany, New York; chestnut tree blight, Pennsylvania; banking and insurance laws codification, Georgia; manufacturing conditions in cities of first and second classes to promote safety; fire insurance rates and classification, Wisconsin; local government-uniform methods, Georgia; and port conditions and pier extensions, New York, New Jersey and United States government jointly.


Reports of Occupational Diseases and Accidents. In 1911, for the first time in America, six states enacted laws requiring physicians to report cases of occupational diseases. These states are California, Conneticut, Illinois, Michigan, New York and Wisconsin. These laws have many points in common, and most commonly the diseases

to be reported are: anthrax, compressed air illness, and poisoning from lead, phosphorus, arsenic and mercury or their compounds.

In Illinois employers are required to cause all employees who come into direct contact with such dangerous processes as those involved in the use of sugar of lead, white lead, lead chromate, litharge, red lead, arsenate of lead, paris green, or in the manufacture of brass or in the smelting of lead or zinc, to be examined once every calendar month by a licensed physician, who must report immediately to the State Board of Health the result of the examination. If a diseased condition is found, the physician must report the name, address, age, sex, last place of employment of the patient, the name of the employer, and the nature and probable extent of the disease. A copy of the report must be transmitted by the Board of Health to the Department of Factory Inspection.

In most instances the notification by the physician is to include as a minimum the name and full postal address and place of employment of the patient, and the disease. Michigan specifically requires in addition, "the length of time of such employment," and New York adds, "with such other and further information as may be required by the commissioner of labor.” In four states the reports are to be sent to the State Board of Health and thereby transmitted to the department most directly interested in industrial inspection within the state. In Connecticut and New York notification is direct to the commissioner of labor. In every state except Connecticut there is a penalty for failing to report, but in all states except California and Connecticut, where a fee of fifty cents is allowed, no compensation is paid for reports.

This pioneer legislation is part of a definite effort to arouse wider interest among physicians in the subject of industrial hygiene, and to secure for public use a regular supply of information from those who should be best informed on the subject. This legislation is based on twelve years experience with similar measures in England, where in 1900 more than 1,000 workers in that country were reported as suffering from lead poisoning. In 1910 the number was only 553, although the system of recording each case has steadily improved. In some branches of the dangerous trades in England this occupational poison is now only one fourth as serious in its extent as it was ten years ago.

The desirability of the uniform reporting of industrial injuries in the different states is so apparent to those who wish to make intelligent use of such statistics rather than merely to compile columns of figures,

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