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Roman Law. The reception of Roman law in the sixteenth century. II. W. S. Holdsworth. Law Quart. Rev. Jan., 1912.

MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT

Books

American academy of political and social science. Commission government in American cities. Philadelphia: Am. Acad. of Pol. Sci.

Pp. 300. Bigeard, Henri. De la réglementation des jeux publics, spécialment des jeux forains, par l'autorité municipale. Angers: G. Grassin. Pp. 168.

Österreichisches Stadtebuch, auf Grund der Berichte v. grösseren österreichischen Stadten. Wien: Hof-u. Staatsdruckerei. Pp. 21, 351, 427.

POLITICAL SCIENCE (GENERAL) AND POLITICAL THEORY

Books

Guy-Grand, Georges. La Philosophie nationaliste. Paris: B. Grasset. Pp. 228.

Hercourt, Raymond. L'“Utopia” de Thomas Morus. Poitiers: Soc. Fr. d'imprimerie et de librairie. Pp. 151.

Le Dantec, Pelix. L'egoisme seule base et toute société étude des déformations resultant de la vie en commun. Paris: E. Flammarion. Pp. 327.

Mühlbrecht, Herm. Übersicht der gesammten staats-u. rechtswissenschaftlichen Literatur des J. 1910. Berlin: Puttkammer & Mühlbrecht. Pp. 44, 409.

Vizetelly, Ernest A. The anarchists, their faith and their record. London: Lane. Pp. 324.

MISCELLANEOUS

Books

Alden, Percy. Democratic England. New York: Macmillan. Pp. 12, 271.
The American year book. New York: Appleton. Pp. 20, 863.

Baring, Maurice. The Russian people. New York: Geo. H. Doran & Co. Pp. 366.

Barry, Rev. N. F. The papacy and modern times; a political sketch. New York: Holt. Pp. 9, 11, 256.

Boyle, James E. Beginner's civics for North Dakota. New York: Am. Book Co. Pp. 285.

Bucher, Max. Die Gewerbegerichte der Schweiz. Luzern: Prell & Co. Pp. 8, 189.

Butler, N. Murray. Why should we change our form of government? Studies in practical politics. New York: Scribner. Pp. 14, 159.

Gosnoskey, Thdr, v. Die Politik im Habsburgerreiche. Randglossen zur zeitgeschichte. Berlin: Allgemeiner Verlag f. deutschen Literatur. I. Bd. Pp. 3, 322.

Chase, Prentice. Labor, law and justice. Stamford, Conn: Bulletin Pub. Co. Delpy, Jacques. Le paternaliste et ses limites. Paris: A. Rousseau. Pp. 218.

Haskin, Frederic J. The American government. Philadelphia: Lippincott. Pp. 17, 398.

Holderness, Sir T. W. Peoples and problems of India. London: Williams & Norgate. Pp. 256.

Jenks, J. W. and Lauck, W. J. The immigration problem. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. Pp. 16, 496.

Jones, Chester L. Readings on parties and elections in the United States. New York: Macmillan. Pp. 15, 354.

Laband, Nach, Wagner u. a. Handbuch der Politik. Berlin: N. Rothschild. I. Bd. Pp. 20, 128.

Le Chatelier, A. Réforme républicaine, idées modernes. Paris: E. Leroux. Pp. 300.

Longford, J. H. Japan of the Japanese. New York: Scribners. Pp. 314.

Mason, Bertha. The story of the woman's suffrage movement. London: Sherrett & Hughes. Pp. 96.

Moses, Bernard. The government of the United States. (Minnesota Ed. New York: Appleton. Pp. 424, 36.

Ostrogorski, N. La Démocratie et les partis politiques. Paris: Calmann-Lévy. 1912. Pp. 728.

Rees, Sir J. D. Current political problems with pros and cons. New York: Longmans. Pp. 11, 423.

Schieman, Th. Deutschland und die grosse Politik anno 1911. Berlin: G. Reimer. Pp. 424.

Schloesser and Clark. Legal position of trade unions. London: P. S. King & Son.

Pp. 268. Sighele, Scipio. Il nazionalismo e i partiti politici. Milano: fratelli Treves. Pp. 8, 259.

Stier-Somlo, Fritz. Studien zum sozialen Recht, insbesondere zur Reichsversicherungsordnung. Mannheim: J. Bensheimer. Pp. 7, 316.

Stillich, Osc. Die politischen Parteien in Deutschland. 2. Bd. Der Liberalismus. Leipzig: W. Klinkhardt. Pp. 8, 346.

Treitsch, Davis. Deutschland und der Islam. Eine weltpolitische Studie Gr.Lichterfelde-Ost: Orient-Verlag. Pp. 108.

Weyl, Walter E. The new democracy. An essay on certain political and economic tendencies in the United States. New York: Macmillan. Pp. 8, 370.

Articles in Periodicals

Italy. Italy's policy and her position in Europe. J. Ellis Barker. Fortnightly Rev. Jan., 1912.

Majority Rule. The history of majority rule. Th. Baty. Quarterly Rev. Jan., 1912.

Political Thought. Changes of current in political thought. Edinburg Rev. Jan., 1912.

Recall. Democracy and the recall. Gwendolen Olerton. Forum. February, 1912. Recall. The recall. Dean C. B. Seymour. Yale Law Jour. Mar., 1912.

Recall. The operation of the recall in Oregon. James D. Barnett. Am. Polit. Sc. Rev. Feb., 1912.

Religion. The law in the United States in its relation to religion. Edwin G. Goddard. Mich. Law Rev. Jan., 1912.

Restraint of Trade. Restraints on trade-I, II. Roland R. Foulke. Col. Law Rev. Feb.,-Mar., 1912.

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It is the pleasant duty of every Swiss, addressing an audience of American citizens on a subject of political science, to begin by acknowledging the debt of gratitude his country owes theirs, for the benefit it has derived from the historical example of the United States.

For over a century a continuous exchange of political ideas has been going on between our two nations. After all the flattering and gratifying commentaries on our institutions that have been made on this side of the ocean, it is but fair that we Swiss should frankly admit that in this exchange we have received more than we have given.

At the end of the 18th century Switzerland was a loose confederation of independent republics, some of which were barely more than rural communes, some commercial oligarchies and some landed aristocracies. Today, and ever since 1848, Switzerland is one country, not indeed powerful in numbers or in

1 This paper was read at the last annual meeting of the National Municipal League at Richmond, Va., on November 15, 1911. For several formal corrections I am indebted to my friend and colleague, Dr. Arthur N. Holcombe, who kindly consented to read my manuscript.

: I refer to such works as J. M. Vincent, State and Federal government in Switzerland (Baltimore, 1891); W. D. MacCrackan, The Rise of the Swiss Republic (Boston, 1892); H. D. Lloyd, A Sovereign People (New York, 1907).

military resources, but strong in the consciousness of its political unity; and in all of its twenty-two constituent cantons, the democratic principle prevails. The causes to which this rapid evolution is due are, as I believe, mainly economic in their nature. But the example of the thirteen American colonies proclaiming their independence in 1776 and of the United States of America adopting the Constitution of 1789 certainly contributed in no mean measure to guide this evolution and to shape it toward a peaceful and successful close. Before taking up the subject I have been called upon to treat before you, I will, if you permit, substantiate this statement by briefly recalling a few episodes of our national history.

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The first democratic movement that broke out in Switzerland after the American revolution was that which, in 1781, aimed to overthrow the aristocratic régime of Fribourg. Speaking of this movement in an unpublished article, Nicolas d’Alt, one of the members of the threatened aristocracy, says:“The bourgeoisie of Fribourg, numbering from four to five hundred armed men, impressed with the bravery of the Americans, formed a plan similar to theirs." 3 The revolutionary author of an anonymous pamphlet, published in Fribourg in the same year, begins his appeal to his countrymen with the following words: “Glorious Americans! You have taken up arms in defence of your rights....

Another outburst of democratic feeling took place in the canton of Zurich in 1794. Among the few books that were found at the club • of the leaders of this uprising was Ramsay's History of the American Revolution. We have evidence to show that the

3 “La Bourgeoisie de Fribourg, composée de quatre à cinq cents hommes portant armes, frappée de la grandeur du courage des Américains fit un plan ressemblant au leur.” See Les Troubles de 1781 à Fribourg par Nicolas d'Alt. Collection Gremaud, fol. 41, Archives d'Etat de Fribourg.

, "Glorieux Américains! vous avez pris les armes pour la défense de vos droits ... See Exposé justificatif pour le peuple du canton de Fribourg en Suisse, au sujet des troubles arrivés en 1781. (Fribourg, 1781), p. 49.

The “Leseverein Stäfa." • Cf. J. J. Hottinger, Vorlesungen über die Geschichte des Untergangs der schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft (Zurich 1844) p. 130.

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