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advantages from this fact. A warm sympathy, combined with a complete understanding of the intellectual equipment of the educated Persian, enables Professor Browne to lay bare the heart of the matter. He is also something of a Russophobe, but this leaning can hardly be said to lower the value of his narrative, since he is conscious of it, and careful to make due allowance. If it be added that he is a patriotic Englishman, earnestly desirous that his country's press and government should speak the truth and do the right, three points are established which fix his position firmly.
His method of presentation is admirably adapted to a subject of which the western world knows little, and whose materials are mainly documents in a language read by very few. No important statement of fact and few expressions of opinion are left without the support of definite references. In fact, from one point of view the book may be described as a well-selected and well-arranged series of translations, abstracts, and quotations, connected and interpreted in a moderate and convincing manner. Not the least valuable of the contents of the book to the student of political science is the translation, given in an Appendix, of the "Bases of the Persian Constitution," in particular the "Fundamental Laws of December 30, 1906," and the "Suppiementary Fundamental Laws of October 7, 1907."
The author's account of the course of events cannot be reviewed here. A few words about the genesis and the character of the Persian constitution may, however, not be amiss. Fixed laws and a parliament were talked of as early as 1890 (p. 37), but no insistent demand for constitutional government arose until the summer of 1906. At that time, under the leadership of certain mujtahids, or learned doctors, supported by nearly all the Ulema, or educated Moslems, some thousands of persons took refuge at the British Legation, and thus put such pressure upon the Shah that he promised by the Fármán of August 5, 1906, to establish a "National Consultative Assembly.” A committee of the friends of popular government prepared an Electoral Law which was promulgated September 9th. Direct election, participated in by male Persian subjects over twenty-five years of age, persons of responsibility and favorably known, was to be employed for the choice of 156 deputies. In order that the new scheme might come rapidly into operation, 60 deputies were to be chosen from the capital city, which contains but three per cent of the population, and these were to constitute the Assembly, until the members from the provinces should join them. The Assembly met October 7, and pro
ceeded with despatch to draw up Fundamental Laws. The first instalment, promulgated December 30, was concerned with the character and powers of the assembly and with the establishment of a Senate of 60 members, 30 of whom were to be appointed by the Shah, and 30 to be elected by the people; in each group onehalf were to be chosen from residents of the capital city. The remainder of the provisions usually found in constitutions were fashioned more slowly, and were promulgated October 7, 1907. The hand of the learned doctors is apparent in the opening articles. Islam according to the Shia doctrine of the Twelve Imams is declared to be the official religion of Persia, and a court of constitutionality in the form of a committee of five or more theologians is provided for, to sit in the Assembly and pronounce upon all proposed laws, judging them with reference to conformity with the Sacred Law of Islam. Article 2. which establishes this court, is declared not subject to amendment. Thus the supremacy of the Sacred Law over all other law, which is affirmed also by the Turkish Constitution, is in Persia to be maintained effectively by a special organ of government, irrevocably delivered into the control of the Ulema. An elaborate bill of rights sets forth the rights of the nation, the deputies, and the crown. Popular sovereignty is affirmed. The Shah is asserted to have no powers beyond those explicitly stated. The ministers are individually and collectively responsible to both of the Chambers. Finance is to be strictly controlled by the Assembly.
After the overthrow of the first Assembly by Muhammad Ali, June 23, 1908, and the consequent revolt of the provinces, and while the nationalists were closing in on Teheran, July 1, 1909, a new Electoral Law was proclaimed, which abrogated the disproportionate representation of Teheran, reduced the number of deputies to 120, and made elaborate provision for a new apportionment, and for election by two stages. Four deputies were to represent the small non-Moslem groups: an Armenian, a Nestorian, a Zoroastrian, and a Jew. The second Assembly was chosen under this law. Meantime the Shah had been deposed, his minor son Ahmad had been crowned, and the way was clear for an attempt at sovereign rule by the Assembly, under the Sacred Law, unhindered by obstructive and reactionary royal power.
Professor Browne's book may yet have to serve as an epitaph; he takes care that it shall not profess to be a prophecy. He has simply followed the "bird of time" "a little way." The book undoubtedly
reveals as regards many Persians (as doomed Mírzá Rizá said, p 74) "of how feeble a texture these people are, and how they love life, and position.” Whether the post-revolutionary Persians will prove to be of so much better stuff that they can maintain their nation in substantial independence, the author hopes but does not venture to predict (p. 350). If they should be overwhelmed prematurely by foreign interference, it will not be the fault of this friend of Persia, who has labored so effectively to make the situation clear.
ALBERT H. LYBYER.
The Story of Korea. By JOSEPH H. LONGFORD. (New York:
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1911. Pp. vii, 400).
Professor Longford, of King's College, London, has already to his credit what may be considered the best brief and popular history of Japan before the restoration. It might be too much to expect a similar success within a year and in a less familiar fie d, yet his "Story of Korea" deserves almost equal praise. It is, frankly, a story, told in an easy and popular way. No pretence is made of important contributions to the history of the Hermit Kingdom, but instead judicious use is made of the best of existing authorities. And so within a fairly brief compass a most readable account of the history of Korea is given, from the dark ages to the annexation to Japan.
Although the volume contains many of the desirable features of the earlier work, the use of the best material, the skilful condensation, the attractive style, yet it lacks the personal knowledge and enthusiasm which make the “Story of Japan” so notable. The merit of a brief history consists largely in the choice of the subjects treated, and exception may be taken to the proportions assigned by Professor Longford in the present work. Too little attention seems to be paid to the history of the Korean people and too much to other things. One chapter is given to “The Country and the People” but two chapters tell of Hideyoshi's fruitless invasion of 1592–98. One chapter covers the history from 1600 to 1868, but two chapters are devoted to the early Christian propaganda and persecution. And the important period of the Japanese protectorate is covered in fifteen pages. A necessary result of the treatment by topics is the lack of chronological sequence which is at times disturbing to the reader and necessitates frequent reference to earlier or later chapters.
Professor Longford is most optimistic as to the future of Korea under Japanese rule. Few people "realize the great addition which its incorporation in the dominions of the Emperor of Japan will make to the military and commercial resources of his Empire. Its magnificent harbors will provide new bases, and its coast population, which produced brave and skilful sailors in the Middle Ages, will afford abundant recruits for his fleet. Its peasants will furnish a large contingent to his armies, which scientific training, discipline, and good treatment, the writer, judging from his own experience in Japan, believes, will convert, ere another generation has passed away, into soldiers not less fearless or efficient than are now the Japanese themselves. Its abundant natural resources, favored by a good climate, by rainfall and sunshine that are both abundant, and by entire exemption from the disasters of floods and earthquakes that are the terrors of Japan, only require intelligent, honest and scientific development to convert their potientialities into realities of industrial and commercial wealth. All this will be given by Japanese administrators, who will bring to Korea the methods which they have already so successfully exploited in their own country as to raise it, within half a century, from impotence and indigence, into the position of one of the great military and commercial powers of the world.”
The story of Korea is well told, and it is indeed an interesting one. It should be better known in this country and no account could be more highly recommended to the general reader. The volume is enriched with thirty-three illustrations and three maps, a list of works consulted by the author and an index.
PAYSON J. TREAT.
Papers on Inter-Racial Problems Communicated to the First
Universal Races Congress. Edited by GUSTAVE SPILLER (London: P. S. King & Sons. 1911. Pp. xvi, 485.)
The first universal races congress, which held its sessions at the University of London, July 26-29, 1911, was from one point of view a most notable gathering, and a great success from the point of view of the white race, because it represented an awakened conscience on the part of the white man toward the weaker and inferior races. The congress was unsatisfactory from the standpoint of some of the colored races because it assumed the superiority of the Caucasian race in all
things, and looks for progress in the colored races only as they follow in the trail of the white man, overlooking the great achievements of the colored races in the progress of the world.
Fifty-nine papers were submitted to the congress and all of them are comparatively free from racial bitterness or prejudice. The many and difficult racial problems were presented from many different points of view by representative men and women from all parts of the world, representing many of the races of mankind. Religion, language, intermarriage, and commerce were all discussed from many different points of view as being the means by which the races of mankind may come to a better understanding of each other through mutual respect and co-operation. Commerce and a common language, however, were most emphasized as agencies in the accomplishment of international peace and racial harmony.
To the student of Political Science the papers showing the progress of the colored races in self-government are of special interest and tend to dispel the common notion that the white race, and the Anglo-Saxon in particular, only understand the fundamental principles of selfgovernment. Papers on the government of colonies and the treatment of dependent peoples are also of interest. A number of papers dealing with primitive peoples are of special interest to the students of Sociology and Anthropology. The race problem in the United States was presented in a very carefully prepared paper by Dr. W. F. B. Du Bois, and the tribal life of the North American Indians was interestingly depicted by Dr. Charles A. Eastman (Ohiyesa).
At the last session of the congress a permanent international committee was established with headquarters in London to carry on the propaganda through affiliated committees in all parts of the world and to convene fature congresses. The volume of papers contains an excellent bibliography covering the subjects of Anthropology, Ethnography, and Race Contact. A fair index adds to the usefulness of the volume.
FRANK EDWARD HORACK.
Eléments du droit public et administratif, à l'usage des étudiants
en droit (capacité). By GASTON JÈZE, professeur agrégé à la faculté de droit de Paris. (Paris: V. Giard et Brière, 1910 Pp. 315).
The basis of this little book, we are told, were the notes of a course on the elements of public law given by Professor Jèze in 1909 and 1910.