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The schools are managed locally by the regular school committee. The law requires the appointment of advisory boards similar to those of Massachusetts. In New Jersey the state board of education, which is almost entirely a lay-body has little control over the vocational schools. Usually the school is controlled by the local board of trustees, a lay-body, consisting of the Governor, Mayor and eight others appointed by the Governor. No advisory.committees are authorized or required under the law.

In the recent laws of Wisconsin, we find the most complete assertion of lay interest in the country. The part-time and continuation schools of the state and practically all other vocational training has been placed in the hands of the state industrial commission made up largely of laymen and having no responsibility for the general education of the state. In the cities and towns, local boards of control, entirely independent of the regular school committee are provided for and given the duty and power of carrying on the part-time and continuation schools. There is every indication that the legislation of the future will give a larger recognition to the place of the layman in the state systems of vocational training which cannot help but have its effect upon the practice of the regular schools in this respect.

The two most significant pieces of legislation with reference to vocational education in 1910-11 were the innovations introduced into the laws of Ohio and Wisconsin. In both these commonwealths, the emphasis has been laid upon the encouragement of part-time and continuation schools; in both the approach has been partly through an attempt to claim by law a portion of the working day of the adolescent for after-training at the expense of the public.

In 1910, Ohio, without any previous legislation on the subject, injected a provision for part-time and continuation education into the attendance laws of the state. No state aid is given to vocational training of any kind and there is no state board of education for the administration of either general or practical training. The Ohio statute which was the first enacted in this country for the compulsory part-time schooling of those who were engaged in wage-earning occupations, required the attendance at school of all those under sixteen years of age who are not able to meet a test for fifth year pupils in reading, spelling, writing, English, grammar, geography and arithmetic. Those who have satisfactorily completed the eighth year of

House Bill 452–Ohio Session Laws 1910.

the common schools but are not regularly employed are required to attend the regular schools until they secure employment or have reached their seventeenth birthday. Whether or not a town or city shall establish part-time classes for those who have gone to work is left as a referendum to the board of education of the community. In school districts where no part-time day classes are provided all those fourteen years of age who have accepted regular employment after meeting the fifth grade test either in class or by examination are exempt from further school attendance; but wherever the Board of Education provides part-time day classes for the instruction of youths over fourteen years of age who have taken employment, attendance by such pupils upon this instruction is obligatory until they have either completed the eighth grade of the common schools or reached their seventeenth birthday.

As the result of the recommendations of the Wisconsin Commission on Industrial Education, 1910, laws were passed in 1911 in which the responsibility of the state for the training of all adolescents up to the age of sixteen, whether they remain in school or go to work is asserted; the state taking complete control educationally, so to speak, of the child from his seventh to his sixteenth year.

No child under sixteen is permitted to work at any occupation hazardous to body, health or character.10 Every normal child is required to attend regularly the public school, or other equivalent school, from the seventh to the fourteenth year. Between fourteen and sixteen years of age there is an alternative; every child shall continue to attend the common school faithfully or, upon obtaining a definite permit from the Commission of Labor, a truancy officer, or the judge of a state, county, or municipal court, the child may 'enter upon a definitely specified useful occupation, working thereat not more than 48 hours per week, including five hours per week to be spent in the industrial school. If he discontinues the permitted occupation at any time he must return at once to the public school and the employer must return the permit for cancellation.

Every child in Wisconsin between fourteen and sixteen years of age, who, under a special permit enters upon some useful employment, must go to an industrial, commercial, continuation or evening school for five hours each week, the employer continuing the wages during those hours, the attendance upon school being for such hours, and at such places, as the local Board of Education prescribes.

10 Wisconsin Child Labor Law, Chap. 479; Chap. 616, Acts 1911.

Wisconsin is apparently determined to do away with illiteracy, Section 1728a-1111 requiring that no person shall employ a minor over fourteen years of age in a community where there is an industrial school for the industry in which the minor works without first securing a written permit from “the commissioner of labor, state factory inspector, or any assistant factory inspector, or from the judge of a juvenile court where such child resides, authorizing the employment of the minor as provided in Section 1728b of the statutes, and certifying either to his ability to read at sight, and write legibly simple sentences in the English language, or that he is a regular attendant at the public evening school or continuation school.” This provision operates only against illiteracy, as attendance upon industrial schools in other cases is not compulsory after the age of sixteen.

Wisconsin has likewise rewritten her apprenticeship laws. The former law was written in 1849 and under present industrial conditions was obsolete. It becomes a punishable offense to form “any contractual relation in the nature of an apprenticeship" without complying with this new law. The law requires that all apprenticeship agreements shall be signed by the legal representative of the minor and by the employer. The agreement shall state the number of hours to be spent in work and the number of hours to be spent in instruction; the total of such hours shall not exceed fifty-five in any one week.

The agreement must provide that the whole trade, as carried on by the employer, shall be taught, and shall state the amount of time to be spent at each process machine; also that not less than five hours per week of the before mentioned fifty-five hours per week shall be devoted to instruction, including instruction in English, in citizenship, business practice, physiology, and such other branches as may be approved by the State Board of Industrial Education. It shall name the amount of compensation to be paid the apprentice.

The instruction may be given in a public school, or in such other manner as may be approved by the State Board of Industrial Education. Failure to attend school subjects the apprentice to a loss of compensation "for three hours for every hour such apprentice shall be absent without good cause." It is not required that the apprentice attend school during such parts of the year as the public school is not in session.

11 Chap. 522, Laws 1911. Sec. 1728a-11-17, Wisconsin Statutes. 12 Chap. 347, Laws 1911.

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The new Truancy Law13 (Section 439a, etc., published by the Industrial Commission, Madison) by specific provisions, requires all truancy officers, and others in interest, to see to it that every child up to sixteen years of age shall attend the common school, or an equivalent parochial school, until he has graduated from the elementary school and can furnish proper certificate to that effect, "or, if over fourteen and under sixteen years of age, to attend school, or become regularly employed at home or elsewhere," under permit as before mentioned, and with five hours per week in the industrial school.

C. A. PROSSER, Secretary National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education.

Correction. In the August issue it was stated that Maine had voted against prohibition. This was a mistake, the question of resubmitting the question to the people of Maine, already a prohibition State, being voted down by a few hundred votes. It was also mistakenly stated that Massachusetts had repealed the "bar and bottle" law.

18 Sec. 439a, Laws 1911.

NEWS AND NOTES: PERSONAL AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL.

EDITED BY W. F. DODD.

Mr. S. Gale Lowrie has been elected Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Cincinnati to fill the vacancy left by Professor Brooks who went to Swarthmore as Professor of Political Science. Mr. Lowrie will also be Head of the Municipal Reference Bureau of Cincinnati.

Mr. Milton E. Loomis has been appointed Instructor in Political Science at the University of Wisconsin to take the place of Mr. W. L. Bailey who has accepted an Assistant Professorship at Iowa College.

Professor H. L. McBain of the University of Wisconsin has been granted a leave of absence for the first semester. He will spend the time in New York.

Dr. S. K. Hornbeck, Professor of Political Science in the Provincial College at Hongchow and Secretary of the Famine Relief Commission of Shanghai will become an Instructor in Political Science at the University of Wisconsin next semester. Professor Hornbeck is now engaged in making an investigation of the commercial situation in Manchuria, with special reference to the open door policy.

Dr. Benjamin B. Wallace is spending the year at the University of Wisconsin in making an investigation of the open door policy for the Carnegie Foundation.

Dr. Herman G. James, until recently a graduate student at Columbia University, has been appointed adjunct professor in the school of government of the University of Texas.

Dr. W. B. Munro, until recently assistant professor of government at Harvard University, has been elected professor of municipal government in the same institution.

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