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with adequate citation of authorities, practically all questions that arise in the use of case law.

Edward Jenks' Short History of English Law (London, Methuen, 1912, pp. xxxv, 396) is a scholarly work dealing primarily with private law. The author touches lightly upon the development of the courts and the relation of the state towards its subjects because these matters have already been adequately treated elsewhere. Perhaps because of leaving aside to a large extent the development of the courts, Mr. Jenks' work nowhere presents as well rounded a picture of the important steps in English legal development as was given by Professor Maitland in his much briefer discussion. (Maitland's Collected Papers, II, 417-496).

Die norwegisch-schwedische Union, ihr Bestehen und ihre Lösung, (Breslau, Marcus, 1912) by Professors Anathon Aall and Nicholas Gjelsvik, traces the history of the Union from 1814, gives an account of its dissolution, and of the settlement of questions arising out of the dissolution. Much attention is devoted to the character of the union between Norway and Sweden, the authors asserting that the union was one between states which remained sovereign and each of which preserved all the attributes of independent states. In spite of evidence of bias the volume is of real scientific value.

Of the work by Dr. Adolph Gerber, Niccolo Machiavelli; Die Handschriften, Ausgaben und Übersetzungen seiner Werke im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert (Gotha: F. A. Perthes) two parts have appeared, one of text (pp. 102), a minute and painstaking study of the MSS. of Machiavelli, and the other comprising a series of excellent facsimiles intended to illustrate the various MSS. and early printed editions. While this study is one which will appeal primarily to bibliographers and philologists, it is a work of value to students of politics in that it throws light upon the use and misuse made of Machiavelli's writings during the 16th and 17th centuries, and therefore upon the growth of the Machiavelli tradition. Another part, a study of the early editions in Italian and in translation is in press.

A new (third) edition was issued in 1911 of Les Questions actuelles de politique étrangère en Europe (Bibliothèque d'Histoire Contemporaire. Paris, Alcan, pp. 322). The subjects discussed are the English

foreign policy, German foreign policy, the question of Austria-Hungary, Macedonia and the Balkans, Russian internal affairs, and the relations of Russia with other European countries. The authors dealing with these questions are such well-known authorities as F. Charmes, A. Leroy-Beaulieu, R. Millet, A. Ribot, A. Vandal, R. de Caix, R. Henry, G. Louis-Jaray, R. Pinon, and A. Tardieu. The volume first appeared in 1907, and has now been carefully revised to 1911 by the authors. It constitutes a valuable contribution to the literature dealing with European external relations. M. Louis-Jaray's discussion of the Austro-Hungarian question is especially valuable.

In recent years there has been a great deal of discussion among Argentine scholars as to whether the Argentine government may be classed as presidential or parliamentary, and this discussion has its basis in the fact that the government in its operation does not conform to either of these two types. An important contribution has been made to this subject by a volume entitled Función Constitucional de los Ministros (Buenos Aires, 1911, pp. xxxv, 196), which forms volume two of the Biblioteca Argentina de Ciencias Politicas. In the volume are collected articles by a number of the leading students, most of the articles having previously appeared in the Revista Argentina de Ciencias Politicas. Of interest also in connection with this subject is Professor Adolfo Posada's La República Argentina: Impressiones y Comentarios (Madrid: Suarez, 1912. Pp. xi, 488). Professor Posada's volume is devoted mainly to general impressions of the country, but there is an interesting chapter on the Argentine constitution and the political régime. He is inclined to agree with those who regard the government as neither presidential nor parliamentary, but as possessing some of the characteristics of both types.

The Negro in Pennsylvania, Slavery-Servitude-Freedom, 1639-1861, (American Historical Association, Washington, 1911, pp. ix, 314) by Professor Edward R. Turner, was awarded the Justin Winsor Prize in American History for 1912, and is perhaps the best study that has appeared upon the negro in some one state. Students of government will find much of interest in the volume, and should be more particularly interested in the chapters on the legal status of the slave, the legal status of the free negro, the suffrage, and fugitive slaves. Students of constitutional history and constitutional law would have welcomed a fuller discussion of the case of Prigg v. Pennsylvania.

The sixth volume of the Jahrbuch des oeffentlichen Rechts has appeared (Tübingen; J. C. B. Mohr, 1912. Pp. viii, 536). In general plan the volume is similar to those of previous years, and the high standard of excellence of the earlier volumes is maintained. Of the reports upon recent legislation in the field of public law perhaps the most important are those upon the new constitutions of Alsace-Lorraine and Monaco, upon the Mecklenburg proposed constitution, upon the public law of Turkey from 1909 to 1911, and upon constitutional developments in China since 1901. Prof. Ernst Freund of the University of Chicago contributes an article upon the movement for uniform legislation in the United States.

With the appearance of volume three, 0. Orban's Le droit constitutionnel de la Belgique is now complete. The third volume of this work (Liége, Dessain, 1911, pp. 622, xxix) is devoted almost entirely to constitutional guaranties, but there is a brief discussion of some of the principles of Belgian administrative law. The section devoted to sanctions of constitutional guaranties should be of interest to American students. The author urges the adoption in Belgium of the principle of judicial power to declare laws unconstitutional, the legislature having power to initiate a constitutional amendment if it is dissatisfied with the judicial decision; he thinks that this would be more satisfactory in Belgium than in the United States, because of the less cumbersome machinery provided for the amendment of the Belgian constitution. His discussion suggests the movement for easier methods of amending constitutions in this country, a movement which in recent months has centered around the proposal for the "recall of judicial decisions."

Attitude of American Courts in Labor Cases, by Professor George Gorham Groat (Columbia University Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, Vol. 42, pp. ix, 400) is neither a statement nor a criticism of the general principles of law applied by the courts in labor cases. The purpose of the volume seems to be mainly to show the mental attitude of judges, by means of the quotation of views expressed in judicial decisions, irrespective of whether the views are obiter or not, and these views are arranged by subjects but without much analysis or classification; the subjects of employers' liability and workmen's compensation are not dealt with, but practically all other labor subjects are covered. Quotations from decided cases, even though

they may be dicta, are of value as showing the judicial point of view, but where subjects have been so much discussed elsewhere and where the judicial attitude has been called attention to so frequently, it is doubtful whether a work of this sort can possess any great value. We need badly a careful analysis and criticism of judicial decisions in labor cases, and it is to be regretted that the author did not attempt something of this sort.

In The Progress of Japan, 1853–1871 (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1911, pp. 323), Mr. J. H. Gubbins, lecturer in Japanese in the University of Oxford, has given a clear and satisfactory account of Japanese development during this formative period. The volume is devoted almost entirely to political events, and takes the subject down to the abolition of feudalism in 1871. Appendices covering nearly a hundred pages give the text of all important documents. This volume and Uyehara's Political Development of Japan, 1867-1909, afford English readers a satisfactory treatment of modern political developments in Japan. Of an entirely different character is Robert P. Porter's The Full Recognition of Japan (Oxford University Press, 1911, pp. x, 789). Mr. Porter gives some attention to the political development of Japan, but the volume is primarily devoted to a survey of present economic and social conditions.

Various countries of Latin-America have in recent years issued revised collections of their international treaties. The latest and most complete collection of this character has recently been published by the Argentine Republic in eleven volumes: Tratados, convenciones, protocoles, actos y acuerdos internacionales. (Publicación oficial, Buenos Aires, J. A. Alsina, 1911-12.)

This extensive work includes not only all the international treaties and conventions of Argentine with foreign countries, but also the protocols of armistice, conventions of international congresses, adhesions of Argentine to international agreements, arbitral decisions to which Argentine has been a party, and the interstate or inter-provincial agreements of the Argentine Republic. The last volume is of particular interest to students of colonial history in that it contains the great historical documents, with the ordinances, decrees and cedulas of the Spanish Crown and the conquistadores beginning with the Papal Bull of Alexander the Sixth in 1493 and coming down to the independence of Argentine in 1810. It is unquestionably the most

pretentious collection of international documents published by any country of Latin-America and will be invaluable to the student of the diplomatic history and international relations of the Argentine Republic.

Salvador has during the last year likewise published a new edition of its treaties in three small volumes: Pactos internacionales de el Salvador by P. Abraham Ramirez (San Salvador, Tip. La Union, 1910– 1911). The books make a poor appearance and the workmanship is inferior, both in editing and printing.

The Stanley Committee of the House of Representatives made its report on the United States Steel Corporation in August (62 Cong., 2d sess., House Report 1127). The majority report presents an elaborate and perhaps not always correct account of the development of the Steel Corporation. The majority of the committee recommend a bill strengthening the Sherman anti-trust law and defining what shall constitute unreasonable restraint of trade; the burden of proving reasonableness of combinations in restraint of trade is to be upon the combination, and a rebuttable presumption of unreasonableness is to arise in case of any combination controlling more than thirty per cent. of any industry. Under this bill it is planned that the control of corporations shall remain with the courts, and jud cial power as to this matter is much expanded. In its general characteristics the bill is similar to the one submitted some time ago by Senator LaFollette. The minority of the committee agrees with the majority bill, but considers that further control through a permanent administrative commission is necessary. Its views agree in large part with those presented by the Cummins bill and by Dr. Van Hise's recent book.

Concentration and Control: A Solution of the Trust Problem in the United States (New York, Macmillan, 1912, p. xiii, 281) is a sane and well balanced book. The volume presents what is perhaps the best brief statement of the movements toward concentration in the industrial world. The author's discussion of the place of competition in our present business organization is especially valuable. The chapter devoted to the laws regarding co-operation is the weakest of the book. But Dr. Van Hise has sufficiently mastered the legal situation to make his positive suggestions for the future of great value. He urges the necessity of permanent commissions to control large industries in a manner similar to that already developed for railways

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