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of municipal departments. The author points out various instances in which the new type of government has not measured up to expectations because of the common failure of commission charters to give adequate attention to what may be called the functioning mechanism of city administration. A more extended notice of the book will appear in a later issue of the REVIEW.

Prof. John E. Macy of the Boston University Law School has published through Messrs. Little, Brown & Co., a volume entitled Selection of Cases on Municipal or Public Corporations (Boston, 1911). The cases are arranged in eleven chapters which deal with the following topics: definition and nature, creation, powers, public easements, public services, limitations on municipal discretion, municipal bodies, contractual liabilities, liabilities for torts, rights and remedies of creditors and state control of municipal affairs. On the whole the decisions have been chosen with good judgment although one notes some rather important omissions, as, for example, the well-known decision in Hitchcock v. Galveston (96 U. S. 341) dealing with the delegation of powers by higher authorities to lower, and the oft-quoted case of Hill v. Boston (122 Mass. 344). On the other hand, there are many decisions embodied in this book on such matters as the rules of procedure in city councils and the limits of state control over municipalities which have not yet found a place in compilations of this type. The fact that the author has in mind the situation of Massachusetts cities particularly, will no doubt explain the absence of cases dealing with such topics as constitutional limitations on special legislation for cities, on the classification of cities, and on many questions connected with the system of home-rule charters. Nevertheless, the book will prove of great value to students of munici

pal law.

Prof. Joseph H. Beale of the Harvard Law School has also issued a volume of decisions entitled Selection of Cases on Municipal Corporations (Cambridge, 1911). This compilation includes practically all the decisions which were brought together some years ago in a smaller collection edited by Prof. Jeremiah Smith. This latter volume performed valued service in its time and was widely used in law school instruction. With the development of the subject through the judicial decisions of the last ten years, however, it became somewhat out of date, and Professor Beale has now added a large number of cases chosen

from among the extensive list available. To some extent this volume and that of Professor Macy mentioned in the preceding paragraph, cover the same field, but Professor Beale's collection contains a more extensive list of decisions relating to municipal powers and liabilities.

Interesting pamphlets recently issued are Home Rule for Cities, by Robert S. Binkerd, published by the Municipal Government Association of New York State (11 pp.); Paying the Bills for City Planning, by Nelson P. Lewis, chief engineer of the New York Board of Estimate and Apportionment; and Housing Conditions in Fall River, by C. Aronovici, published by the Associated Charities' Housing Committee of Fall River.

The Social Research Council of Boston has issued a preliminary list of recent social investigations in Greater Boston. The editor of the bulletin is Dr. R. F. Foerster, director of the Council, and the publication includes a statement of all investigations now being made by any betterment organization in the metropolitan district of Boston.

The Division of Recreation of the Russell Sage Foundation has printed a Recreation Bibliography which contains the list of books, reports and review articles dealing with the subject indicated by its title.

The May number of the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science is devoted to the subject of Efficiency in City Government. The following is a list of the individual contribution to the issue: “Efficiency in City Government," by Henry Bruère, Joint Director of the New York Bureau of Municipal Research and Training School for Public Service; "The Need for Co-ordinating Municipal, State and National Activities," by Frederick A. Cleveland, Ph.D., of the President's Commission on Economy and Efficiency; "Efficiency through Accounting," by William A. Prendergast, Comptroller of the City of New York; “Results Obtainable through Reorganization of Accounting Methods,” by B. J. Taussig, Comptroller of the City of St. Louis; “The Application to a Municipality of Modern Methods of Accounting and Reporting,” by John M. Walton, Comptroller of the City of Philadelphia; "Efficiency in Child Saving," by Joseph S. Neff, A.M., M.D., Director of Public Health and Charities, Philadelphia; "Efficiency in the Fiscal Operations of Cities," by Edmund D. Fisher, President of the National Association of Comptrollers

and Accounting Officers, and Deputy Comptroller of the City of New York; “Economy and Efficiency in the Department of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity of New York City,” by J. Leggett Pultz, in charge of the Bureau of Economy and Efficiency Department of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity, New York City; "Efficiency in Water Revenue Collection," by J. H. Clowes, of the New York Bureau of Municipal Research; “Securing Efficiency through a Standard Testing Laboratory," by Otto H. Klein, Director, Standard Testing Laboratory, City of New York; “The Problem of Securing Efficiency in Municipal Labor," by Benjamin F. Welton, Engineer in Charge of the Bureau of Efficiency, Office of the Commissioner of Accounts, New York City; "Efficiency in Highway Administration with Special Reference to Pavements," by E. P. Goodrich, Consulting Engineer, Borough of Manhattan, New York City, and W. B. Holton, Jr., Member of the Staff of the Bureau of Municipal Research, New York City; “Standardization of Specifications for Public Works,” by William H. Connell, Chief of the Bureau of Highways and Street Cleaning, Philadelphia; "Efficiency in Budget Making,” by Herbert R. Sands, C.P.A., and Fred W. Lindars, C.P.A., of the Bureau of Municipal Research, New York City; "Efficiency Value of the Budget Exhibit," by J. Harold Braddock, New York Bureau of Municipal Research; “Attaining Efficiency in City School Systems,” by Frank P. Bachman, Ph.D., of the Committee on School Inquiry, New York; “Effective Charity Administration," by L. A. Halbert, General Superintendent of the Board of Public Welfare, Kansas City, Mo.; “Efficiency in County Government," by Otho Grandford Cartwright, Director of Research of the Westchester County Research Bureau; “A Proposed Municipal Administrative Code for New Jersey Cities,” by D. 0. Decker, New York Bureau of Municipal Research;“Efficient Supervision of Weights and Measures," by Fritz Reichmann, Ph.D., Superintendent of Weights and Measures, State of New York; “Securing Efficient Administration under the Commission Plan," by Frederick W. Donnelly, Mayor of Trenton, New Jersey; “The New York Bureau of Municipal Research," by George B. Hopkins, Trustee of the Bureau; "The Outlook for Municipal Efficiency in Philadelphia," by Jesse D. Burks, Ph.D., Director, Bureau of Municipal Research; “The Cincinnati Bureau of Municipal Research,” by Rufus E. Miles, Director; “The Milwaukee Bureau of Economy and Efficiency," by J. E. Treleven, Secretary of the Bureau; "Investigations as a Means of Securing Administrative Efficiency," by Charles E. Merriam, Professor of

Political Science, University of Chicago; “A National Fund for Promoting Efficient Municipal Accounting and Reporting," by U. L. Leonhauser, C.P.A., Secretary of the Fund; “Training Men and Women for Public Service," by William H. Allen, Ph.D., Joint Director of the New York Bureau of Municipal Research and the Training School for Public Service.

The May issue of Special Libraries contains a Check List of References on City Planning. The publication is a comprehensive bibliography of 125 pages and the work of preparing the data for it was performed by the Library of Congress and the Department of Landscape Architecture at Harvard University. The purpose of the bibliography is to meet an immediate demand for references on this subject, to show the extent of easily accessible material, and to disclose other material not included in the list, so that when the publication reaches another edition it may approach a definitive bibliography of the subject.

Wacker's Manual of the Plan of Chicago, edited by Walter D. Moody, Managing Director of the Chicago Plan Commission, is a publication designed to show school children the progress of city building in ancient, mediæval and modern times. More than one half the book is devoted to this general subject and is profusely illustrated by photographic views. The latter part of the book deals particularly with the proposed improvements in the street, park and public buildings' arrangements of Chicago.

The Census Bureau has recently published a bulletin giving the population of the various metropolitan districts of the United States. This publication is of great importance to students of municipal problems, because in more senses than one the populations of the metropolitan district represent with greater accuracy than the municipal figure the relative importance of the city as an economic center and indicate more clearly the nature of the problem with which the administrative authorities have to contend. In general, the Census Bureau has included within each metropolitan district all territory located within ten miles from the boundaries of that city which forms the district's nucleus. Under this method of grouping population the figure for metropolitan New York is 6,474,568; for Chicago 2,466,921; for Philadelphia 1,972,342; for Boston 1,520,470; for Pittsburgh

1,442,855; and for St. Louis 828,733. The cities which chiefly gain through this method of grouping population are Boston and Pittsburgh. The population of municipal Boston is only 670,585, while that of municipal Pittsburgh is only 533,905. From many points of view, the comparison of urban populations on this basis is more profitable than on any other, since municipal boundaries are wholly arbitrary. Some cities like Chicago have already taken in nearly all the territory included within their metropolitan areas; others like Boston contain within their municipal limits less than one half of such territory.

The September number of the National Municipal Review contains various papers read at the National Municipal League's annual meeting in Los Angeles last summer, as well as contributed articles. Among these papers and articles are "Expert City Management" by Hon. William Dudley Foulke, “Municipal Home Rule in California" by Prof. Thomas H. Reed, “The Working of the Initiative, Referendum and Recall” by Dr. John R. Haynes, “Chicago and Cleveland's Street Railway Settlement” by Dr. Delos F. Wilcox, and a discussion of the Los Angeles Charter by John J. Hamilton.

An interesting report on windowless rooms in tenement houses has been made by Commissioner John J. Murphy of the New York Tenement House Department. The report declares that there are at the present time more than fifty thousand rooms in Greater New York tenement houses which either have no windows at all or such small ones that they are of no service. While this number is still astonishingly large, in view of state legislation on the matter, it represents a great improvement over conditions as they existed two or three years ago. In 1909 the number of such rooms exceeded 360,000, but through steady pressure upon the landlords, the situation has been so much bettered that by the end of 1913, Commissioner Murphy hopes to have the windowless room completely eliminated.

The State Food Investigating Commission of New York through its Committee on Control over Market Prices and Costs has published a report in which it recommends that the various cities of the state secure amendments to their charters providing for the establishment of a Department of Markets in every municipality of the state. The report recommends that this new department shall be given charge

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