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The provisional apportionments of Representatives made in the Constitution, in 1787, and afterwards by Congress were as follows :

STATES.

17871 17902 (18003 18104 18205 18306 18407 18508 18609

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10 Maine..
New Hampshire..
Massachusetts
Rhode Island
Connecticut...
Vermont.
New York..
New Jersey..
Pennsylvania
Delaware.
Maryland
11 Virginia ....
North Carolina..
South Carolina
Georgia ...
Kentucky.
12 Tennessee.
130 bio.
14 Louisiana.
161 ndiana
16Mississippi.
17Illinois..
18 Alabama....
19Missouri.
20 Michigan..
21 Arkansas.
22 Florida...
23Iowa.
24 Texas
25 Wisconsin..
26California.
27 Minnesota.
28 Oregon..
29Kansa8.
SO West Virginia...

4

8 21 13 9 9 18 13 19 3 7

6

10 11 21

4 10

8 10 10 21

4 11 5 9 7 7

8 19

5 11

5 14 6 9 6 3

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1 As per Constitution. 2 As per act of April 14, 1792, one Representative for 33,000, first census.

3 As per act of January 14th, 1802, one Representative for 33,000, second census.

4 As per act of Dec. 21, 1811, one Representative for 35,000, third census. 5 As per act of March 7, 1822, one Representative for 40,000, fourth census. 6 As per act of May 22, 1832, ope Representative for 47,700, fifth census. 7 As per act of June 25, 1842, one Reprezentative for 70,680, sixth census. 8 As per act of July 30, 1853, one Representative for 98.702, seventh census.

10 Previous to the 3d March, 1820, Maine formed part of Massachusetts, and was called the District of Maine, and its Representatives are numbered with those of Massachusetts. By compact between Maine and Massachusetts, Maine became a separate and independent State, and by act of Congress of 30 March, 1820, was admitted into the Union as such ; the admission to take place on the 15th of the same month. On the 7th of April, 1820, Maine was declared entitled to seven Representatives, to be taken from those of Massachusetts.

11 Divided by action of State Legislature and Congress in 1861 and 1862, and State of West Virginia created therefrom.

12 Admitted under act of Congress of June 1, 1796, with one Representative. 13

April 30, 1802,

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14 Admitted under act of Congress of April 8, 1812, with one Representative. 15

December 11, 1816, 16

December 10, 1817, 17

December 3, 1818, 18

December 14, 1819, 19

March 2, 1821, 20

January 26, 1837, 21

January 15, 1836, 22

March 3, 1845, 23

Mar. 3, 1845, with two Representatives. 24

December 29, 1845, two 25

May 29, 1848, with three 26

Sept. 8, 1850, with two 27

May 11, 1858, with two 28

Feb. 14, 1859, with one 29

Jan, 29, 1861, with one 30 Previous to December 31, 1862, West Virginia was part of the State of Virginia, which State was el titled to eleven members of the House of Representatives.

When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the Executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.-Const. U.S., Art. I, Sec. 2.

No Senator or Represensative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whe eof shall have been increased during such time; and no person, holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office. -Const. U.S., Art. I, Sec. 6.

SECTION VI.

QUORUM. A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum to do business ; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House may decide.-Const. U. S., Art. I, Sec. 5.

In general, the chair is not to be taken until a quorum for business is present; unless, after due waiting, such a quorum be despaired of, when the chair may be taken and the House adjourned. And whenever, during business, it is observed that a quorum is not present, any member may call for the House to be counted ; and being found deficient, business is suspended.—2 Hats., 125, 126.

The President having taken the chair, and a quorum being present, the journal of the preceding day shall be read, to the end that any mistake may be corrected that shall have been made in the entries.-Rules of the Senate 1.

SECTION VII.

CALL OF THE HOUSE.

On a call of the House, each person rises up as he is called, and answereth; the absentees are then only noted, but no excuse to be made till the House be fully called over. Then the absentees are called a scond time, and if still absent, excuses are to be heard.— Ord. H. of C. 92.

They rise, that their persons may be recognized; the voice, in such a crowd, being an insufficient verification of their presence; but in so small a body as the Senate of the United States, the trouble of rising cannot be necessary.

Orders for calls on different days may subsist at the same time. -2 Hats., 72.

SECTION VIII.

ABSENCE.

No member shall absent himself from the service of the Senate without leave of the Senate first obtained. And in case a less number than a quorum of the Senate shall convene, they are hereby authorized to send the Sergeantat-Arms, or any other person or persons by them authorized, for any or all absent members, as the majority of such members present shall agree, at the expense of such absent members, respectively, unless such excuse for nonattendance shall be made, as the Senate, when a quorum is convened, shall judge sufficient; and in that case the expense shall be paid out of the contingent fund. And this rule shall apply as well to the first convention of the Senate at the legal time of meeting, as to each day of the session, after the hour is arrived to which the Senate stood adjourned.-Rule 8.

SECTION IX.

SPEAKER.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided.-Const. U.S., Art. I, Sec, 3.

The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.-Const. U. S., Art. I, Sec. 3.

The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers. -Const. U. S., Art. I, Sec. 2.

When but one person is proposed, and no objection made, it has not been usual in Parliament to put any question to the House ; but without a question, the members proposing him conduct bim to the chair. But if there be objections, or another proposed, a question is put by the clerk.—2 Hats., 168. As are also questions of adjournment.-6 Grey, 406. Where the House debated and exchanged messages and answers with the King for a week, without a speaker, till they were prorogued. They have done it de die in diem for fourteen days.-1 Chand., 331, 335.

In the Senate, a President pro-tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, is proposed and chosen by ballot. His office is understood to be determined on the Vice President appearing and taking the chair, or at the meeting of the Senate after the first recess.-Vide Rule 23.

Where the Speaker has been ill, other Speakers pro-tempore have been appointed. Instances of this are, 1 H, 4, Sir John Cheney, and for Sir William Sturton, and in 15 H. Sir John Tyrrell, in 1656, Jan. 27-1658, March 9—1659, Jan. 13. Sir Job Charlton ill, Seymour chosen, 1673, Feb. 18.

Not merely Seymour being ill, Sir Robert Sawyer chosen, 1678, ( pro tempore, April 15.

Chand., 169, Sawyer being ill, Seymour chosen.

276, 277. Thorp in execution, a new Speaker chosen—31 H. VI.-3 Grey, 11; and March 14, 1694, Sir John Trevor chosen. There have been no later instances.--Hats. 161.-4. Inst.-8 Lex. Parl, 263.

A Speaker may be removed at the will of the House, and a Speaker pro tempore appointed.—Grey, 186.—5 Grey, 134.-Vide Rule Sen. 23.

SECTION X.

ADDRESS.

The President shall, from time to time, give to the Congress information of the state of the Union, and recommend to their cousideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedieni.-Const. U. S., Art. II, Sec. 3.

A joint address from both Houses of Parliament is read by the Speaker of the House of Lords. It may be attended by both Houses in a body, or by a committee from each House, or by the two Speakers only. An address of the House of Commons only may be presented by the whole house, or by the Speaker.-—9 Grey, 473, 1 Chandler. 298, 301, or by such particular, members as are of the Privy Council. -2 Hats. 276,

SECTION XI.

COMMITTEES.*

Standing committees, as of privileges and elections, etc., are usually appointed at the first meeting, to continue through the session. The person first named is generally permitted to act as chairman. But this is a matter of courtesy : every committee having a right to elect their own chairman, who presides over them, puts questions, and reports their proceedings to the House.—4 Inst., 11, 12.--Scob., 7.-1 Grey, 112.

At these committees the members are to speak standing, and not sitting; though there is reason to conjecture it was formerly otherwise. -D'Ewes, 630 col. 1–4 Parl. Hist. 440—2 Hats. 77.

Their proceedings are not to be published, as they are of no force, till confirmed by the House.-Rushw., part 3, vol. 2, 74–3 Grey, 401 -Scob. 39. Nor can they receive a petition but through the House. -9 Grey, 412.

When a committee is charged with an inquiry, if a member proved to be involved, they cannot proceed against him, but must make a special report to the House ; whereupon the member is heard in his place, or at the bar, or a special authority is given to the committee to enquire concerning him.-9 Grey, 523.

So soon as the House sits, and a committee is notified of it, the chairman is in duty bound to rise instantly, and the members to attend the services of the House. 2 Nals. 319. Vide Rules H. R. 192.

It appears that on joint committee of the Lords and Commons, each committee acted integrally, in the following instances.—7 Grey, 261, 278, 285, 338—1 Chandler, 357, 462. In the following instances it does not appear whether they did or not.—6 Grey, 129, 7 Grey, 123, 229, 321.

*Mode of appointing committees.-Vide Senate Rules, 33, 34, Rules H. R., 7. SECTION XII.

COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE.

The speech, message, and other matters of great concernment, are usually referred to a committee of the whole House-6 Grey, 311, where general principles are digested in the form of resolutions, which are debated and amended until they get into a shape which meets the approbation of a majority. These being reported and confirmed by the House, are then referred to one or more select committees, according as the subject divides itself into one or more billsScob. 36, 44. Propositions for any charge on the people are especially to be first made in a committee of the whole-3 Hats. 127. Vide Rules H. R. 123, 124. The sense of the whole is better taken in committee, because in all committees every one speaks as often as he pleases.Scob. 49— Vide Rules H. R. 125. They generally acquiesce in the chairman named by the speaker; but, as well as all other committees, have a right to elect one, some member, by consent, putting the question.—Scob. 36—3 Grey, 301,- Vide Rules H. R. 118. The form of going from the House into committee, is for the Speaker, on motion, to put the question that the House do now resolve itself into a committee of the whole, to take under consideration such a matter, naming it. If determined in the affirmative, he leaves the chair, and takes a seat elsewhere, as any other member; and the person appointed chairman seats himself at the clerk's table.-Scob. 36-Vide Rules H. R. 118. Their quorum is the same as that of the House; and if a defect happens, the chairman, on a motion and question rises; the Speaker resumes the chair, and the chairman can make no other report than to inform the House of the cause of their dissolution. If a message is announced during a committee, the Speaker takes the chair, and receives it, becanse the committee cannot.—2 Hats. 125, 126.

In a committee of the whole, the tellers, on a division, differing as to numbers, great heats and confusion arose, and danger of a decision by the sword. The Speaker took the chair, the mace was forcibly laid on the table : whereupon the members retiring to their places, the Speaker told the House “he bad taken the chair without an order to bring the House into order.” Some excepted against it; but it was generally approved as the only expedient to suppress disorder. And every member was required, standing up in his place, to engage that he would proceed no further, in consequence of what had happened in the grand committee, which was done.—3 Grey, 139.

A committee of the whole being broken up in disorder, and the chair resumed by the Speaker without an order, the House was adjourned. The next day the committee was considered as thereby dissolved, and the subject again before the House ; and it was decided in the House, without returning into committee.-3 Grey, 130.

No previous question can be put in a committee; nor can this com. mittee adjourn as others may; but if their business is unfinished they rise on a question, the House is resumed, and the chairman reports that the committee of the whole have, according to order, had under their consideration such a matter, and have made progress therein ;

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