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tendent of public instruction are all elective officials. And even over those officials whom the governor appoints he is given no effective power of removal. In many states, however, there are evident tendencies to increase the power of the governor and to make his control and supervision more effective. The governors themselves through their influence over legislation are gradually bringing about this result, and in time real responsibility may be secured.
(1) The Governor. The most important administrative power of the governor is his power of appointment. Formerly most of the state officials were elected by the legislature, but gradually they came to be elected by the people or appointed by the governor. yet, nearly all appointees of the governor have to be approved by the upper house of the legislature. In a few states the legislature still elects the secretary of state, state treasurer, and a few other officers, but these are the exception. Such officers are everywhere else elected by popular vote, except in one or two states where they are appointed by the governor. In some states the governor appoints the judges, although in a majority of the states these are elected. In some states the governor appoints various important administrative officials, such as the commissioner of insurance, commissioner of public works, state health officer, the commissioner of banking, and other officers of similar nature. In a large number of states the governor appoints the members of the semi-professional and expert commissions like the railroad commissions, the industrial commissions, and the labor bureau; the trustees of public institutions like the boards of control, the university regents, and managers of penal institutions; and the members of various examining boards. But as compared with the appointing power of the president, for instance, the appointing power of the governor, even, is very limited. And in the power of removal the governor is much more restricted than the president. The governor can sometimes remove the officials whom he appoints but seldom any others, and even in the case of officials whom he appoints his hands are frequently tied. Other officials can only be removed by impeachment. There is a tendency, however, to extend the governor's power both of appointment and removal. In some states the governor is given considerable power to make investigations into the conduct of various state officials.2
The governor is commander-in-chief of the military forces of the state, and appoints a staff who receive complimentary titles and accompany him on occasions of state. He is charged with the enforcement of law and may call upon the state militia to assist him, and to maintain peace and order throughout the state. In most states at different times the governor has been called upon to order out the militia to quell an insurrection, suppress a riot, stop a strike or a lynching, or to restore order where the local police forces have been ineffective. But in times of peace the military powers of the governor are not important.3
In most states the governor has the power to grant pardons for offenses against the state, and in most states this power is unlimited; but a few states in recent years have created boards of pardon, who share with the governor the power to grant pardons. These boards usually make the investigations and recommend action to the governor. The governor also generally has the power to stay executions and to commute or reduce sentences. In addition to these administrative, military, and civil powers, the governor has various social functions to perform. He is the general representative of the state. It is his duty to receive and welcome the state's visitors, to give opening addresses at celebrations and public meetings, to dedicate public buildings, and to represent the state on state occasions. Both in a social and a political way, while the actual powers of directing the state affairs are still limited, the office of governor carries with it a great deal of dignity and prestige. It frequently serves as a steppingstone to the presidency.4 Cleveland, McKinley, Roosevelt, and Wilson of the recent presidents all served as governors of their respective states. That the office is coming to be looked upon, however, more as an end in itself than as a step in political preferment is evidenced by the fact that during the last five years an annual conference of governors has been held for the study of executive and state problems.5
(2) Lieutenant Governor. In all but a few of the states there is also a lieutenant governor, who succeeds the governor in case of death, resignation, or removal from office, and who acts as governor whenever the latter is incapacitated or absent from the state. During the legislative sessions the lieutenant governor acts as president of the senate, but at other times he has little to do. As a rule the office is filled by someone who will make a good running mate for the governor in securing votes, or used to sidetrack a formidable rival for the nomination. Much more importance should be attached to the office than it now receives, especially as the lieutenant governor is liable to be called upon to act as governor at any time. Where there is no lieutenant governor, the president of the senate or the secretary of state usually succeeds the governor.
(3) The Secretary of State. The administration, under the supervision of the governor, is divided into a large number of departments. The most important of these is the department of state. The secretary of state is the custodian of the state archives and the keeper of the great seal of the state. He has charge of the publication and distribution of the laws, signs all proclamations and commissions issued by the governor, and issues certificates of incorporation to all companies incorporated under the laws of the state. He is the one charged with issuing the notices for state elections, receives the returns from the counties, and keeps all election records. He makes report to the governor and the legislature on many subjects, and performs many other duties in connection with the state government of a clerical and routine nature. He does not, however, have many discretionary duties and has little to do with formulating state policy, as is the case in the federal department of state. Except in Pennsylvania and a few other states he is elected by the people for a short term and receives a fixed salary.
(4) The State Treasurer. The treasurer is the custodian of the moneys belonging to the state received from taxes, fees, trust funds, and other sources, and upon warrants issued by the auditor or other proper authority pays out the money appropriated by the state legislature. He is also elected by the people as a rule, and is required to give a heavy bond conditioned upon the faithful discharge of his duties and to protect the state from loss in case of his dishonesty or careless
The treasurer usually receives an annual salary, and in times past received, many times, the interest from state funds deposited in the banks. Formerly state treasurers received thousands of dollars in this way, but such moneys are now in most states paid back into the state treasury. At times the office of state treasurer becomes a very responsible position. The treasurer is held personally responsible for all moneys