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impressed the Greeks and Roumanians that her works. And among her enemies these they did not join the Allies when the Bul- things breed a spirit of revenge far keener gars joined Germany.

than any enmity developed by a fair fight.

They breed a feeling that is against any THE PRINCES AGAINST THE settlement by compromise, a bitterness PEOPLE

that is out of all proportion to the num

ber of people involved. N GREECE the popular hero, Ven- If Germany feels sure of ultimate victory, izelos, is against Germany. King it is folly for her to stimulate her enemies to

Constantine, the hereditary ruler, is the last possible effort by making them exfor Germany. Bulgaria joined the Central pect neither humanity nor generosity when Empires more because Ferdinand wished they surrender. If Germany does not it than because the Bulgarian people feel sure of complete victory, she can look wished it. The Austrian Government forward confidently to seeing her asinine states that King Emmanuel entered the atrocities chalked up heavily against her war against Italy's former allies because he and her allies on the day of settlement. was forced to by the populace. It is cer- Not the least of the German asininities tain that the Italian public is more friendly are the continuing bomb and incendiary to France and England than to Germany conspiracies which are discovered here. and Austria. In Sweden, the democratic No one knows exactly what connection elements are pro-Ally, the military pro- the German Government has with the German. Despite the fact that auto- incendiaries and bomb makers in this cratic Russia is on the Allied side, the voice country who are trying to destroy muniof the people practically the world over is tions and munition ships leaving our ports. against Germany, for everywhere men But these attempts are too frequent not recognize that the Prussian system is the to be carefully planned. They are all greatest menace to the existence of demo- in Germany's interest. It hardly seems cratic civilization. Equally clearly the reasonable to believe that carefully planned several hereditary rulers realize that if the campaigns which are in Germany's interHohenzollerns should be subjected to the ests are entirely unknown to the Gerwill of the people they, too, would soon man Government. come under the popular yoke. Even the These bomb and burning conspiracies Czar of Russia is leading his armies against have not succeeded in appreciably stopping the hereditary power of himself and his the flow of munitions, but they do increase descendants, for if the Hohenzollerns were the sense of resentment which every Amerdefeated and democracy ruled in Germany ican has that Germany holds us so cheaply it would add tremendously to the rising in estimation that she carries on such outpower of the people in the Empire of the rages among us, particularly with the Romanoffs.

Lusitania still not disavowed and still It becomes plainer every day that the unatoned for. war is a struggle for democracy and a test At the same time certain Germans in of the ability of democracies to survive. this country with American citizenship

papers are using the votes thus acquired ATROCITIES AND ASININITIES against the President of the United States

because he did not acquiesce in Germany's HE shooting of the English Red violation of our rights—which even Ger

Cross nurse, Miss Edith Cavell, many now admits was unjustifiable. These

for helping British prisoners to political efforts of the German-Americans escape; the continuing Zeppelin raids on are not spontaneous. They have a history, London, which kill non-combatants; the a very enlightening history, to which Amerbeginning of Austrian bomb-dropping on icans with their customary good nature Venice; the Turkish massacres of the have paid little attention in the past. Armenians--these continue to prejudice There is a very interesting glimpse of this the neutral world against Germany and all history fifteen years ago in Mr. William


Roscoe Thayer's “Life and Letters of THE NOTE TO GREAT BRITAIN John Hay.”

This German propaganda has gone on HIS task of championing the inunmolested in the past, but there is no rea

tegrity of neutral rights son that it should continue. The Presi

against the lawless conduct of dent was right in calling upon the Nation belligerents, arising out of the bitterness to speak and act against those who use of the great conflict which is now wasting their citizenship for alien ends:

Europe, the United States unhesitatingly

assumes." The only thing within our own borders that has given us grave concern in recent months

This is the keynote of the long note sent has been that voices have been raised in America

by our State Department to the British professing to be the voices of Americans, which

Government. The note explains carefully were not indeed and in truth American, but and courteously that we cannot admit which spoke alien sympathies, which came

that the British blockade is effective or from men who loved other countries better legal; that we cannot acquiesce in a British than they loved America, men who were par- policy based upon their expediency and tisans of other causes than that of America and not on international law; and that "the had forgotten that their chief and only allegi- United States

cannot with comance was to the great Government under which

placence suffer further subordination of its they live. These voices have not been many, but they have been very loud and very clamor

rights and interests to the plea that the ous. They have proceeded from a few who exceptional geographic position of the were bitter and who were grievously misled.

enemies of Great Britain requires or jusAmerica has not opened its doors in vain to tifies oppressive and illegal practices." men and women out of other nations. The The note very accurately states in legal vast majority of those who have come to take language the prevailing public feeling in advantage of her hospitality have united their the United States. spirits with hers as well as their fortunes. These We believe that our rights are as importmen who speak alien sympathies are not their

ant when we are at peace as those of any spokesmen but are the spokesmen of small

other nation are when it is at war. groups whom it is high time that the Nation should call to a reckoning. The chief thing

did not believe this, we should have to go necessary in America in order that she should

to war to get our rights on an equal basis let all the world know that she is prepared to

with others. We with all other nations maintain her own great position is that the real

have agreed to accede certain unusual privvoice of the Nation should sound forth un- ileges to nations at war, but these privileges mistakably and in majestic volume, in the deep are fixed and agreed. They cannot be unison of a common, unhesitating, national changed at the fighting nations' convenifeeling. I do not doubt that upon the first

ence. If we did not maintain this position, occasion, upon the first opportunity, upon the we should not be honest in our declaration first definite challenge, that voice will speak

of neutrality and we should lose our selfforth in tones which no man can doubt and with commands which no man dare gainsay or resist.

respect. If the necessity of maintaining

this position hurts the Allies and helps The American Truth Society, a pro- Germany, most people in the United German organization which has attacked States will be sorry, for the majority want the President and the United States Gov- the Allies to win; yet this feeling will not ernment in the interests of Germany, re- deter us from the obvious duty of maincently telegraphed the President that Con- taining our rights against encroachments gressman Bennet of New York, a Republi- from whatsoever quarter they come. And , can, was elected by their efforts as a re- this duty would be incumbent on us as a buke to the American Government. This matter of principle whether or not it should cause Mr. Bennet some embarrass- meant much to us commercially. ment, and it should be a warning to the But we feel somewhat differently about rest of us to drop all other political dif- interference with American commerce to ferences until we have cleansed the coun- neutral ports to which British commerce try of the hyphenates.

goes. If the American people become

If we

convinced that the British Government is depth of one hundred feet. Nets—both allowing British merchants to capture floating and anchored-are scattered a profitable trade while the British Navy through the war zone; and the British interferes with our merchants in their harbors are protected by great booms and effort to get this same trade, we will begin nets. A Franco-American improvement to feel that the British blockade is hostile on the microphone, an instrument which to us as well as to Germany.

detects the sound of the propeller of a subNo one can help contrasting the tone of marine and the direction in which it is this note with the notes sent to Germany. traveling, has added to the hazards of the It is as different as is the difference between U-boats. And a wireless call from the interfering with trade and murder. There microphone station can bring the deis no threat of the use of force, no hint stroyer fleet to the scene. of our intentions if our point of view is not Perhaps the most remarkable part of met. The note by inference at least as- the British defense against submarines is sumes that the matters it discusses will be that although the Germans had sunk, up amicably settled as did our first note to to October 14th, according to the British Germany. It is unlikely that this British official statement, 183 merchant ships excorrespondence will ever acquire any other clusive of fishing boats, not a single transtone, for all our diplomatic relations with port or supply ship plying between EngGreat Britain for the last hundred years land and France has been touched. The indicate that we can reach a satisfactory great nets defending the lane from England settlement in disputes with that country the floating indicator nets which bob without the use of force.

down when a submarine runs into one of

them--the aeroplane and dirigible patrol THE BALTIC BLOCKADE

and other devices have rendered the l'.

boats impotent in that area. Submarine HE main submarine effort has passed efficiency depends, perhaps more than in from the German hands to the other kinds of fighting, on the skill of the

British. The submarine blockade commander, and so many of the German of Great Britain is over. The effort to commanders and crews have been lost that close the Baltic to Germany is under way. the former efforts toward blockading cost The possibilities of submarine blockades are more than they are worth. made somewhat clearer by a glance at the

II means of defense against the undersea boats.

The German U-boat blockade wrought The British Government officially regreat damage, but it did not seriously ported that in twelve days twenty German interrupt the traffic of the British Isles. It merchant ships were sunk in the Baltic. did not interrupt the transport of British This is England's effort to cut off the suptroops. It did not reduce the preponderance plies that Germany has been getting from of the British navy. It failed because the Sweden. Elsewhere in this magazine Mr. British learned successfully to combat the D. Thomas Curtin, recently returned from U-boats. The ceaseless patrol of armored Sweden, explains the importance of this speed launches whose draft is so shallow trade and the commercial battles which that a torpedo passes harmlessly under the England and Germany have been fighting hull, torpedo boats, destroyers, converted on the neutral soil of Sweden. The Engcruisers, the battle cruiser fleet, and occa- lish submarine blockade, if it were even sionally the great battle fleet—these make reasonably successful, might deal an effecit dangerous for a submarine to come to tive blow against Germany. It has an the surface anywhere within the German- advantage over the German attempt in made war zone. And added to these the North Sea in having Russian ports as are innocent looking tramp steamers bases and neutral waters as temporary which are, in reality, armed decoys. havens of refuge.

havens of refuge. However, both shipping Aeroplanes and dirigibles act as scouts, for and submarines will be handicapped by from an aircraft a submarine is visible at a the ice in the Baltic until spring.


In the meanwhile German submarines The Democratic governors of Maryland have slipped into the Mediterranean, and Kentucky have been accepted as good there to menace the troop ships and com- signs for national Democracy, but the merce of the Allies, and the Allies' sub- pluralities by which they were elected marines slip up the Dardanelles with im- were not large enough to be of any parpunity and destroy the Turkish transports ticular comfort to the Administration. on their way to Gallipoli. Up to October The election proved nothing definite 26th British submarines had sunk 213 ves- in national politics, except that Mr. Root sels of all descriptions in the Sea of Mar- is not a possible Republican candidate. mora. These activities, however, are meant The defeat in New York of the state constiat best to harass the enemy. They are not

tution, of which he was chief sponsor, main operations in themselves as the Ger- made this clear. man blockade of Great Britain and the British Baltic blockade were intended.





HERE are half a dozen "favorite

sons” of as many states coquetting HE result of the election of Novem

with the public in the hope of ber 2d was disappointing. The receiving enough encouragement to an

Democracy of New York City won, nounce their candidacy for the Republican which is a misfortune, for the Democracy nomination for the Presidency–Senators of New York City is Tammany. The Re- Burton, Borah, Cummins, Weeks, and expublicans won in Philadelphia, which is a Vice-President Fairbanks. Some of these misfortune, for in Philadelphia the Re- are able men, Senators Burton and Borah publican machine is about as bad as Tam- in particular, but none of them has conmany. The draft of the state constitution vinced the public that he has the ability was defeated in New York by an unpre- of Justice Hughes or Mr. Root. The very cedented majority and thereby a measure evident feeling of the general public that of great governmental progress was lost. Justice Hughes and Mr. Root are abler

Various people have endeavored to get (though the defeat of the constitution in some consolation out of the election, but New York proves Mr. Root unavailable) it is a rather fruitless effort. The suf- somewhat dampens the enthusiasm for fragists point with gratification to the great these other candidates. There is, morenumber of votes which they polled. Yet over, another even more blighting influence unquestionably they had hoped to carry at over the whole field of choice for a Republeast one Eastern state, and their failure to lican nominee: Mr. Roosevelt's shadow do so cannot help but be a disappointment. stretches from Oyster Bay across the whole Moreover, it is not necessarily true that Republican map. There is little hope of their next effort will be more successful the rehabilitation of the party without his than this one. In Michigan, for instance, help. There is no hope against his active suffrage was beaten by 760 votes in 1912 opposition. If the Republican Party does and by 106,144 in 1913.

not name some one acceptable to Mr. The Republican Party can congratulate Roosevelt, it can look for his active oppoitself upon the election of a governor of sition, and, with it, defeat. Massachusetts. But even there the Dem- As matters stand now it is doubtful ocratic candidate, Governor Walsh, not that any candidate, even with Mr. Rooseparticularly a strong figure, received more velt's help, could threaten the President's votes than he received in the previous elec- hold upon the public. It seems as sure tion. There is not much national signifi- as such things ever are a year in advance cance in this result except as it points a way that he will be reëlected. The other toward a reunion of the Republicans and practically certain fact is that if the Progressives. In Massachusetts this re- Republicans want to rebuild the party into union can be accomplished without Mr. fighting trim they will have to do it with Roosevelt; nationally, it cannot.

the advice and consent of Mr. Roosevelt. And unless the Republican organization labor of Europe may come to do our unhas a change of heart (if not a change of skilled tasks. body) it is not likely to get Mr. Roosevelt's The Democratic Party, on the other endorsement. It still has too large an hand, representing the consumer, proposes element of the old stand-patters who have to check unfair foreign competition by the their faces turned steadfastly back to the same laws that operate against unfair days and ways of the McKinley régime, domestic competition. But in the shipping who would like to forget the progress they question and the immigration question its made under Mr. Roosevelt. And this Mr. position is not so clear. Mr. McAdoo Roosevelt will not allow. In the whole wants a Government-financed shipping situation, as far as personalities go, Mr. company. This is an expedient to get Roosevelt has the whip hand.

ships without a subsidy, but it is not

essentially a Democratic expedient. The II

Democratic House at the last session The Republican Party suffers from the passed a somewhat stricter immigration lack of a platform as well as from a lack law than the one we have now, but the of leadership.

President vetoed it. There are four subjects now particularly But however these items in the probefore the public mind on which the Re- gramme to meet the changed economic publicans must present a better programme conditions are handled, the Republicans than the Democrats, or convict the Demo- can make capital of them only if the crats of failure to carry through their country is not prosperous. If prosperity plans. These subjects are:

reigns, whether because or in spite of the (1) National defense, (2) the abolition Democratic handling of these questions, of the pork barrel, (3) economic provision the Democrats will get the credit for the to meet the conditions after the war, and prosperity. (4) Mexico.

The President has done the right thing The present Administration is now in Mexico but in the wrong way. Unputting forward measures for national questionably the majority of Americans defense far more adequate than any want Mexico to attend to itself. That is previous Administration ever advocated. also the main idea underlying the PresiIf these measures are passed, the defense dent's policy toward that country, But issue will not be worth much to the Repub- the agencies through which the Adminislican Party, for during fifty years of almost tration worked fumbled the policy so that unbroken power it left the country unpre- it was much misunderstood both in pared. In the same category is the pork Mexico and at home. And if Carranza barrel issue. Democrats and Republicans cannot improve matters in that unhappy alike indulged in the organized waste of country, the Republicans will be able public money. But the Republican Party to make some capital out of the Mexiwas the dominant party during the era

can issue. when this abuse assumed its present Altogether, then, the Republicans can gigantic proportions. Only if the Demo- only adopt a policy of watchful waiting crats fail to provide a remedy can this for the Democrats to measure up to the issue be used to help a Republican can- tasks before them. If the Democrats vass.

fail the failure will spell opportunity for The problem of meeting the economic the Republican Party. conditions which shall arise after the war is extremely complex. The business interests which usually look to the Republican The most interesting question, thereParty to give them what they want desire fore, in our political situation from the a high tariff-on dyestuffs, for example national and from both partizan standto protect their prices in the home market, points is whether or not the Democratic subsidies for American shipping, and a Party will continue to make good. That, liberal immigration law so that the cheap of course, depends upon the President's

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