« PředchozíPokračovat »
Government is entering upon the biggest The farmers near Chatfield, Minn., have experiment of our time, a policy of tariff the remedy. They have established a revision that is designed for nothing else coöperative laundry next to the coöperative than to reduce the cost of living and to lay creamery. A farmer coming to the creamthe burden of the cost of Government ery on Monday morning brings the wash more largely upon those who can best with him. On Wednesday he can take afford to carry it.
it home with him. Even by such homely
things as these - were such laundries A STRIKE OF FARMERS' WIVES
established all through the country
could a very vital change be wrought in FEW months ago there appeared the economics of the Nation. in the Century a story by Edna
Kenton called “Solidarity.” It was the story of a strike of farmers' wives.
THE JAPANESE CONTROVERSY They demanded running water and other F WE have not already lost it, we are conveniences in their houses, and they
fast losing the friendship of the Japleft the men to do their own cooking,
anese people. Officialdom in Japan washing, cleaning, and mending until
will do for us everything that it can. But they should provide the proper equipment California's attitude toward the holding for modern housekeeping and decent of land by Japanese, coupled with the living. In the story the women got what fact that they are (by treaty) ineligible they wanted. In the country they have to citizenship in this country, has all but not; at least, the majority have not.
stopped the flow of friendship of the A year or two ago the Agricultural people of Japan toward us. We have Department of the State of Missouri touched their most sensitive point — their made an investigation of the reasons why belief in the equality of their race with all the prosperous Missouri farmers gave up others in the world. Whatever else comes their farms and moved to town. The from California's action, the loss of the chief reason was the life that the women good will of the Japanese people is a serious were compelled to live on the farm. And loss to the whole country. as it is in Missouri, so is it elsewhere. If
The Japanese protest against the prohiyou will ride through the countryside you bition by the California legislature of will pass farm after farm equipped with Japanese land owning is based upon the modern machinery to help the men do following clause of the treaty of 1911: their work. You may even see an automobile standing by the old well from which
The citizens or subjects of each of the high the farmer's wife draws the water for her contracting parties shall have the liberty to kitchen, for her house, and for her washing, enter, travel, and reside in the territories of but you will see few such conveniences to the other, to carry on trade, wholesale and lighten the labor of the home.
retail, to own or lease and occupy houses, The women in towns and cities, if they manufactories, warehouses, and shops; to emdo their own washing at all, do it with the ploy agents of their choice, to lease land for aid of hot and cold running water, laundry erally to do anything incident to or necessary
residential and commercial purposes, and genrooms, and generally with the aid of hired for trade upon the same terms as a native help. Washing on the farm is a different citizen or subject, submitting themselves to ordeal -- carrying water from the well, the laws and regulations there established. heating it on the kitchen range, and washing an endless amount of clothing - not Read literally, the article seems to proonly of the family, but of the hired men as vide only facilities for trade (and for homes well — with no help at all, or with only for people engaged in trade). It is carethe most inefficient kind. This is what fully, explicitly, and fully phrased and it drives the women off the farms. It is does not include the privilege of leasing but another phase of the unorganized or owning land for agricultural purposes. isolation of country life.
New York and the District of Columbia
have laws that provide, as California their American competitors. They come wished to provide, that no alien may own also with a just pride in their own race land unless he has declared his inten- and its traditions.
and its traditions. They have no idea tion to become a citizen. Arizona and
Arizona and of exchanging their heritage for the Washington have laws on their statute heritage of the white men, nor of being books that specifically prohibit “aliens ingredients in the “melting pot” of races. ineligible to citizenship” from owning They have a contempt for white men land. No complaint against these laws that they do not conceal, and they do not has yet been made. The President's atti- intend to adopt the point of view of a tude is that it is the function of the people whom at heart they regard as their Supreme Court to decide whether the inferiors. There has been little interCalifornians' wish is constitutional in face marriage between the two races and what of the existing treaty which is, of course, there has been has not been particularly a part of the supreme law of the land. successful. The Japanese live in “quarThat is a wise and quieting attitude. ters,” both in the cities and in the rural disSecretary Bryan's visit to the Coast is tricts of California — settlements that are evidence to Japan of the Washington almost as distinctive and certainly as exotic Government's friendly attitude. The case, as the “Chinatowns” of San Francisco and of course, will be amicably settled, as Fresno. Wherever they live, their presseveral other similar situations created by ence depreciates the value of all adjacent race prejudices have been settled before. property. Their mercantile establishBut there is one unquieting aspect to ments are of no significance in the comit all. We have many differences with mercial life of the community, being other nations. We ended our treaty with almost wholly small shops that cater Russia. We have violated the spirit if not only to the necessities and small luxuries the letter of our obligations to Great of their own people. Britain concerning the collection of tolls on In the rural districts, however, they are shipping through the Panama Canal. Yet a strong and growing influence. They there have been no mobs demanding war are in demand in the fruit growing secagainst the United States in St. Petersburg tions as laborers because, havingfew women and London. In Japan the probability of and no possessions, they can move to the passage of an act by one state discriminat- country when they are needed and shift ing against its people brings out mobs and for themselves in the towns when they talk of war. Of course it is only talk, are not. The land laws, however, are but even that is not pleasant from a coun- aimed especially at the Japanese farmers try to which we have sent so many emis- who lease land for cultivation. The saries of peace and from which we have experience with these Japanese farmers received so many similar delegations. repeats the history of tenant farming II
everywhere: the tenant forces his crops
as much as possible, quickly "mines” Whatever may be the end of these the soil to exhaustion, and then moves anti-Japanese land laws of the California on to fresh land. legislature, in all probability the purpose There is no logical ground for special that lies behind them will sometime be complaint against the Japanese for his achieved. The purpose is to keep out of commercial or agricultural activities. the Pacific Coast states the problem of a American farm laborers in California are non-assimilable race. The racial an- even less dependable than the Japanese tipathy between Japanese and Caucasians laborers; American tenant farmers are as is profound — and entirely mutual. The careless of other people's land as the Japanese dislike the Californians as heartily Japanese farmers are. The whole comas the Californians dislike them. They plaint ultimately comes back to a procome to the country with all the equip- found dislike of Japanese neighbors of ment of bodily vigor, native intelligence, any sort, based on difference of color, initiative, and courage that they find in creed, language, ideals of government and
society, standards of morals, and — differ- On the other hand, the new leaders of ence of race. And where that difference China have even more difficulties to overenters in, any problem becomes not only come than the framers of our Constitution more immediately troublesome but fraught had. They have a much greater territory with untold possibilities in the future. and a much larger population to govern,
and the means of communication in China THE GREAT EXPERIMENT IN
are still woefully inadequate. Wagon
roads practically do not exist; the rivers CHINA
are greatly used, but of course serve only EVEN hundred earnest men of the commerce that originates along their mature years, nearly all of them courses. Railroads have made great prodressed in European fashion, met
gress in China during the last ten years, recently in Peking and with simple and but they are not extensive enough to solemn ceremony opened the first Chinese carry more than an infinitesimal proportion Parliament, thus making the oldest nation of the nation's internal commerce. The in the world into the youngest republic. telegraph and postal services are not in They were elected by 40 million voters to popular use, nor is the telephone. Morebegin a new era in the government of 400 over, the language of the common people million people. With this Parliament of one province is not spoken in another: begins popular government upon a larger even from one valley to the next there scale than has ever been tried in the are changes. Nor is China racially homohistory of the world. Our population is geneous. The five colors of the new flag about one fourth that of China. No other are symbols of five races which the Chinese republic approaches China in population count among themselves. To make China even so closely as this. As an indication a governable republic there is need of a of the spirit with which the great task is common language and efficient communibeing undertaken, the Government ap- cation-a public school system, wagon pealed to all the Christian churches in roads, railroads, telegraphs, telephones, and China to set aside a certain day of prayer newspapers. Until these things come for the success of the new régime.
through the slow processes of educating a The twenty-two provinces of China are people, the machinery of government will nearly as autonomous as our states were be clogged by ignorance and prejudice. before the adoption of the Constitution. In the meanwhile, the immediate probThese provinces collect tariff dues upon
lems would be critical even for a people goods passing from one to another. long practised in the use of the machinery They are not used to acting in cooperation; of democratic government. The Manchu and even in their relations to the former government, derived its revenue from what Imperial Government at Peking they often practically amounted to tribute money showed a feeling of independence. Under from the provinces. For the conduct of the Manchus, China was a loose confeder- the multitudinous affairs of a modern acy with a weak central government that government, this tribute money is pitifully had neither the power nor the money to inadequate. It was hardly enough to become effective. To clothe the central support the Manchus' medieval court. government with power and credit is the The salt monopoly is practically the only immediate task before the framers of the other source of revenue for the central new constitution. The foundation upon government. The customs duties, colwhich they can build is (as it was with us a lected under English supervision, are used century and a quarter ago) the knowledge to pay indemnities of one kind and another and practice of local self-government. It which the European countries have imis now and has been for centuries a funda- posed upon China, to repay loans. Thus mental part of Chinese life. This, and the the country's greatest source of revenue, inherent ability of the Chinese in agri- the tariff, is used chiefly for the benefit of culture and commerce, is a solid ground- foreign nations. The immediate problems work for an effective national government. before the Republic are to get control of its finances; to get an adequate source of more to realize what his interests are and revenue, so that it will not be subject to his power to enforce them. In Germany, the demands of the money-lending coun- however, the natural military spirit in tries; and to build up an army and navy the people, the memory of their successful that will prevent further encroachments by wars with Austria, Denmark, and France, foreign Powers, for no government will long and the Government's continual propabe popular in China that is forced to make ganda for more battleships and more ignoble concessions to other nations. And soldiers, have combined to prevent any the new leaders are already beset. Russia, effective popular protest against the on the northwest, has practically taken Kaiser's ever-increasing expenditures for Mongolia; and England, on the southwest, warlike purposes. has given notice that it has acquired an But, unhappily for the Government, interest in Thibet. And money for China's
And money for China's almost simultaneously with its proposal urgent needs is offered by foreign countries for an extraordinary war measure, comes only upon humiliating terms, the accep- the disclosure that at least a part of the tance of which creates a popular feeling demand for greater armaments is manuagainst the new government.
factured clandestinely by the ordnance The new Republic is in a most difficult and armor plate manufacturers for their situation. It is entitled to our sympathy own profit. The great Krupp Steel Works and support, to the formal recognition that are charged with bribing Government the United States Government has prom- officials in Germany, and another great ised it, and, so far as we can insure it, armament concern with sending an agent a fair chance to work out its own salvation. to Paris to induce a French journal to pub
lish a report that France was about to THE PRICE OF WAR
double its orders for field guns, so that the
German Government would feel that it, HIS year, the one hundredth anni- too, had to do the same. The armor plate
versary of the political uprising manufacturers are accused of subsidizing
and the new birth of Prussia and German newspapers to conduct crazy of the twenty-fifth year of the reign of the campaigns of hatred against England and present Emperor of Germany, finds him France, all the while selling weapons to sponsoring the addition of 4,000 officers these nations — playing one nation off and about 130,000 non-commissioned against another for their own profit. officers and men to the present tremendous In the words of President Jordan, of German army. The increase by itself Leland Stanford University, written six is 30 per cent. larger than our whole army. months ago: With it the German army is seven and a
There can be no doubt that the most powerhalf times as large as ours. To put its
ful lobby in the world is that employed by the fighting force on this new basis the Government proposed to raise $240,000,000 by a
great armament builders of England and Ger
many. It is equally plain that these huge single extraordinary war contribution of
rival war trusts consciously and purposely play per cent. upon private fortunes above
into each other's hands. The war scare as $2,500 and of 2 per cent. upon incomes of promulgated through the "Armor-Plate Press” $12,500 and above, and, after that, for of these countries is the chief agency for affectthe annual expense of maintenance, an ing public opinion and controlling the action extra $45,000,000 a year.
of Reichstag and Parliament. The greater A military policy of this kind, promul- and more imminent the danger, the louder the gated when Germany is at peace with the journalistic noise, the greater the appropriaworld, shows how far removed the Ger
tions are likely to be. But when one remem
bers that the financial resources of all the Government is from the great nations concerned are already strained to the democratic forces which have made over
limit of exhaustion by war expenditures in so many governments in the last fifty time of peace, and this in spite of the interreyears. War is against the interests of the lations and mutual dependence of the civilized common man and he is coming more and world which render war impossible, one can
see no reality in these clamors. They would like its present extent if we had had an be simply ridiculous were it not for their adequate trained army when we went to malicious efficiency in wasting the substance
war in 1846, 1861, or 1898. Somewhere of the people.
between these two extremes lies the path From 1881 to 1910, six nations (Ger- of common sense and statesmanship. many, England, France, Austria, Italy, and Russia) have spent $31,930,000,000. FIFTY YEARS OF FREEDOM Germany, with no wars during this period, spent $6,000,000,000, or about as much as T IS fifty years since the Emancipaone fourth the capitalization of all the in- tion Proclamation was issued. It is dustrial and manufacturing corporations in a fair time to strike a balance sheet the United States in 1910. And now, just of the Negroes' condition and progress. after a $500,000,000 war in the Balkans, There is no better judge of the condition when money for the constructive work of of the American Negro than Mr. Booker the world is scarce, the German Government T. Washington. He has traveled and proposes its $240,000,000 increase in its taught and talked and worked among his war establishment. This can hardly be people from one end of the South to the classed as twentieth century economic other, and in the North as well. For statesmanship, for certainly no nation comparison, not long ago he made trip whose foreign affairs are well managed to study the conditions of the lower strata should be on such terms with its neighbors of society in Europe. As a result of these that it has to levy such extraordinary war investigations he says, in his book, “The taxes.
Man Farthest Down": If Germany expects war — in that case such preparations are justified. The last If I were asked what I believed would be two wars, the struggles between the Allies the greatest boon that could be conferred upon and Turkey and between Japan and
the English laborer, I should say that it would Russia, as well as the Franco-Prussian war,
be for him to have the same opportunities for
constant and steady work that the Negroes point the same military moral. Modern
now have in the South. war is intense and short; and the victory goes to the side that is prepared.
And Germany is taking no chances of unpreparedness. It is so well prepared that its
The Negro in the South has opportunities in very preparation has become a menace to
another direction that no other man in his the peace of Europe. The country and its position has, outside of America: he has the
opportunity to get land. army have become, not insurance of peace, but a continual threat of war. This Another record of Negro progress comes state of preparation of the German people in a recent bulletin of the Hampton costs $400,000,000 a year. The United Institute, prepared by Mr. Monroe N. States is at the opposite extreme. So far Work. The following are a few striking as the army is concerned we are unpre- statistics of the Negroes' material advance: pared for war and always have been. We In 1867, there were only 111,442 pupils believe in that policy. When war comes and 2,087 teachers in schools for Negroes. upon us we send our unprepared citizen of these teachers, only 699 were colored. soldiery into the field to get their training Last year, 1,700,000 Negro pupils were at the hands of the enemy. This is an taught by 31,000 Negro teachers. In 1867. expensive method also. The citizens of
The citizens of only 4,661 Negroes were studying in higher the United States pay now approximately institutions of learning; last year more $460,000,000 a year (more than the Ger- than 100,000 students were enrolled in mans will pay even after the proposed normal schools and colleges for colored increase) for a scattered, unprepared army folk. In 1863, there were only four inof 100,000 men, an efficient though under- stitutions in the United States for such manned navy, and a pension roll of citizen advanced study. Now there are in the soldiers which would not exist in anything South alone 50 colleges, 13 institutions for