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MR. JOHN FOX, JR.
PRESIDENT A. LAWRENCE LOWELL OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY, WHO HAS MODIFIED THE ELECTIVE SYSTEM OF STUDY, PROVIDED FOR A FRESHMAN DORMITORY, AND SO ALTERED THE SPIRIT OF THE STUDENT BODY THAT THE AVERAGE OF SCHOLARSHIP HAS RISEN GREATLY
THE GROWTH OF AMERICAN CITIES UPPER PICTURE: THE BUSINESS CENTRE OF PASADENA, CAL., IN 1888. LOWER PICTURE: THE SAME VIEW IN 1910. THE POPULATION OF PASADENA INCREASED FROM 9,117 IN 1900 10 30,291 IN 1910, OR 232 PER CENT.
THE TWO BIG TASKS OF CONGRESS tariff discussion with the status quo as the
point of departure. The status quo is, in HE tug-of-war now comes with the
many respects, not a normal condition, but reduction of the tariff. This a highly artificial condition. The manu
difficult task is at once a great facturers that will be helped far outnumber opportunity and a difficult necessity. those that will be hurt. For, of all subjects (not excluding even the And it is encouraging to see that the making of appointments to office), this is commercial world has so far behaved with the most hazardous, politically the most great good sense, good sense that points dangerous, and, in general, the most hopefully to our weathering this tariff heavily “loaded” of all public subjects. storm without serious disturbance. This If the tariff were eliminated from our is another proof that, when we undertake political history, our political history even the most difficult tasks with reasonwould be a simple story; for it has been ableness and with honesty and with resoluthe mother of the largest brood of our tion, we can always count on the great troubles for the greater part of a century. reserves of character and even self-denial
The duty of reducing the rates equitably that distinguish the American people and - that is, substantially but not ruinously make our democracy the most reasonable - is now undertaken with intelligence, and satisfactory scheme of government with diligence, and with resolution. From that men have yet invented or evolved. whatever point of view it be regarded, mistakes will be made. There will be
II fierce criticism, even bitter feeling, aroused. Following the tariff, will come some The necessary effect on some branches of
change in our currency and banking laws. business will be bad — for a few persons, This is another long-deferred and difficult for a short time; for some permanently; task. But we have been approaching it for old abuses yield somebody a profit. so gradually, and discussion and events The general effect will be to cause a certain have so well prepared the ground, that hesitation in commercial and financial life there is hope that this, too, may be accom- a part of it a wise hesitation, much more plished without rude shocks to the current of it mere groundless fear, the contagion business of the country. of uncertainty. The commercial world, If these two long-standing and difficult at least a part of it, must readjust itself to tasks be done with reasonable success, the new conditions.
new Administration will have passed two But the consumer, which is to say the dangers that beset it and will have done whole people, will be helped by a judicious two most serious and helpful duties to our readjustment. Commerce itself will re- commercial and financial life and to the ceive a large benefit by the substitution American people. of natural for artificial forces. Of the economic righteousness of judicious reduc- THE ORGANIZATION OF COUNTRY tions in many of the present rates, no man
LIFE who has a firm grasp on commercial facts can have a doubt.
HE organization of country life — In discussing the disturbance that
these words have been worn SO changes in duties make, it is too much the
threadbare that we fail to take in fashion to consider only those changes
their full meaning or to be thrilled by them. that do damage to some group of manu- But, if country life can be properly facturers agd too little the fashion to con- organized, the most helpful task in our world sider those changes that will be of great
will have been done - or begun; for it is a benefit to a larger number of manufacturers process, like all other normal growths, that as well as to consumers. For every one will never end. man who is "hit" by reductions, there are It is cheerful news that Secretary Houston, ten or twenty or a hundred who are helped. of the Department of Agriculture, regards We are far too likely to conduct all our this large piece of constructive work as his
especial duty and opportunity; and the teacher; in others, the whole people without President, of course, is of a like mind. definite leadership - for one good purpose
When you come to think of it, the essential here, for another good purpose there. difference between the town and the country Now if the Department of Agriculture, is this: one is organized and the other is not. after it collects accurate information about The town is organization. Street-cars, the all these agencies and forces each working very streets themselves, banks, churches, in its own way but all toward the same great exchanges, clubs, libraries, sewers, water, task — if, along with this investigation, it shops -- all these denote organization. It is can use the knowledge and authority of the by these that men do their business, live their Government to stimulate and to coördinate lives with the least waste of time and effort, them, a great movement toward a general and enjoy what we call “civilization." organization of country life throughout the Everything in the town is organized, corre- United States will have been begun. lated, conducted, not on an individual but This is not spectacular work; but, if there on a community basis.
be work of greater value to the producing On the other hand, the farmer as a rule part of the population and for the building must yet do everything on an individual up of our permanent prosperity and for the basis, or too nearly on an individual basis. well-being of the people, you will find it He grows his crop, harvests it, gets it to difficult to name it. market, sells it; he buys his necessities And we have come to a time when it is individually; he does his chores individually; practicable. The people thoroughly underhe is a man far too much by himself, far too stand the necessity of making life in the much deprived of the economic and social country profitable and comfortable for the advantages of combined action. This sums mass of industrious men -- the necessity of up his disadvantages. Now there are, of removing the economic and social hindrances course, in many parts of the United States, which have come, in a perfectly natural way, in spite of our backwardness in cooperation, with the rapid development of the town. many successful organizations, some for If events could have been ordered so as to selling, some for buying, some for both, present an unparalleled opportunity to some for other economic duties, some for Secretary Houston they could not have been social help of many sorts. But the great better ordered. It is an opportunity for mass of our country folk are yet unorganized. constructive and permanent work in nation
The Department of Agriculture has at building. His promptness in seeing it and once set about the task of finding out what in proceeding to undertake it shows a grasp sort of organizations exist and do good on the fundamental economic tasks of our service in the several parts of the country - time and country. how they work, what they achieve, how they were begun, and how more like them may THE PASSING OF THE MORGAN be started.
EPOCH This is the first step toward encouraging the multiplication of such organizations as HE death of J. Pierpont Morgan have grown up out of the necessities of the
removed one of the great men of people and have proven their practical worth. our time. He was one of the In Minnesota, it is a coöperative store or a strongest characters not only of our councoöperative grain elevator; somewhere else, try but of our era, a real world-figure. it is a coöperative dairy; somewhere else, And his dominant and at times domineercoöperative selling activity by truck-growers; ing personality was the key to his character somewhere else, organizations for social and and to his career. What he did he did intellectual help and pleasure. In one com- by the force of his mind and will. munity, it may be an agricultural college It might be called an accident of birth that has led the way; in another, a grange, and of his early start in life that he entered or a farmers' union; in another, a women's the world of finance. He might conclub; in another, the Young Men's Christian ceivably have been a man of action in Association; in another, a preacher, or a some other field of large endeavor in which