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returning fmart anfwers to the fummons, and other addreffes to the garrifon. Newark, after holding out the laft of all the royal fortreffes, was at length, in 1646, by the exprefs command of the King (then a prifoner in the Scots army) furrendered upon terms, which left Cleiveland in poffeffion of his liberty*, but deftitute of all means of fupport, excepting what

he derived from the hofpitality and generosity of his brother loyalifts, among whom he lived up and down fome years, obfcure and unnoticed by the ruling party, till in November, 1655, he was feifed at Norwich, as ❝ a perfon of great abilities," adverse and dangerous to the reigning government+; and being fent to Yarmouth, he was there imprisoned for fome time, till

to punish all offences committed by the foldiers, and to determine all differences between them and the countrymen by martial law.

A particular reason for fixing Cleiveland in the garrison at Newark, has been produced by the ingenious and diligent hiftorian of Hinckley, from a periodical publication of the oppofite party, intitled, "The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer," No. 101, p. 811, for Tuesday, 27 May, 1645. "But to speak fomething of our friend Cleiveland, that grand malignant of Cambridge, we heare that he is now at Newarke, where he hath the title of advocate put upon him. His office and employment is, to gather all the colledge rents within the power of the King's forces in those parts, which he diftributes to fuch as are turned out of their fellowships at Cambridge for their malignancie. If the royal party be thus careful to fupplie their friends, fure it is neceffary to take fome courfe to relieve thofe who are turned out of their houfes and livings for adhering to the parliament." -From a collection of old pamphlets and journals during the great rebellion between 1639 and 1660, and forted by Mr. Carte, in Sir John Hinde Cotton's library at Madingley, near Cambridge.

* On the occafion of this furrender, a late periodical critic has given us a remarkable ftory, which is thus introduced:- "Mr. Granger fays, that Cleaveland never was in holy orders; Lloyd tells us, that he was fellow of St. John's, and that he was turned out of his fellowship. Be that as it will, his famous fatire against the Scotch rendered him extremely obnoxious to that nation, and he happened to be taken prifoner by a party of their troops in the north, commanded by David Lesley, afterwards Lord Newark. Being difcovered by the papers he had about him, the officers who took him gave him an affurance of the gallows, and Cleaveland received the news with that magnanimity and pride which is the concomitant of great felf-confequence; for he confoled himfelf with the thoughts of dying a martyr in the cause of his fovereign, and having his name tranfmitted to pofterity with peculiar encomiums in the annals of loyalty. He was introduced, with fome other prifoners, to Lefley, who could neither read nor write, and who awarded to each his proper fate, by hanging, whipping, or imprifoning. When it came to be Cleaveland's turn, he prefented himself at the bar with a confcious dignity, and his enemies did not fail to aggravate his offences, producing at the fame time a bundle of verfes. Is this all (faid the general) ye have to charge him with? For fhame, for fhame! let the poor fellow go about his bufinefs, and fell his ballads.' This contemptuous flight affected Cleaveland fo much, that he is faid to have drowned the remembrance of it in ftrong liquors, which haftened his death. It appears, however, by Thurloe's papers, that Cleaveland was a perfon of note amongst the royalifts, and that he had a place of fome confequence in their army."

As this article was attributed to a countryman of Lefley's, fhall we fuppofe that he took this method to be revenged on the author of The Rebel Scot?-It is ftrange, however, that quoting Thurloe, he fhould not have obferved that Cleiveland was nine years after the furrender of Newark poffeffed of fo much health and vigour, as to alarm the adverfe government: being at laft cut off by an epidemical disease, after he had a dozen years furvived this pretended fuicide of himself by ftrong liquors.

+We have the following heads of his examination preferved in Thurloe's State Papers, 1742, fol. vol. iv. page 185:

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"Major-General Haynes, &c. to the Prefident of the Council. May it please your Lordship,

"IN obfervance to the orders of his Highnefs and Council, fent unto us, We have this day fent to the garrifon of Yarmouth one John Cleveland, of Norwich, late judge-advocate at Newark, who we have deemed to be comprized within the fecond head.

"The reafons of judgement are:-1. He confeffeth, that about a year fince he came from London to the city of Norwich, and giveth no account of any bufinefs he hath there, only he pretends, that Edward Cooke, Efq. maketh use of him to help him in his ftudies.

"2. Mr. Cleveland confeffeth, that he hath lived in Mr. Cooke's houfe ever fince he came to the faid city; and that he but feldom went into the city, and never but once into the country. Indeed, his privacy has been fuch, that none, or but few, fave Papifts, or Cavileeres, did know that there was any fuch perfon refident in these parts.

66 3. For that the place of the faid Mr. Cleveland his abode, viz. the faid Mr. Cooke's, is a family of notorious diforder, and where Papifts, delinquents, and other difaffected perfons of the late King's party do often refort, more than to any family in the faid city or county of Norfolk, as is commonly reported.

4. Mr.

no remarks upon the prince and princefs: their remarks on every thing elfe were admirable. As they fat in the drawing-room after dinner, cne of them called to Mr. Secker, I wish you aumld give me a glass of fack. The Bithop of Oxford came in, and one of them broke out very abruptly, But we beard every word of the fermon where we fat; and a very good fermon it was, added fhe, with a decifive nod. The Bishop of Gloucefter gave them tickets to go to the play, and one of them took great pains to repeat to him till he heard it, I would not rob you, but I know you are very rich, and can afford it; for I ben't covetous; indeed I an't covetous. Poor girls! their father will have them out of town to-morrow: and they begged very hard that we would all join in entreating him to let them flay as long as their younger fifters had done, but all our entreaties were in vain, and to-morrow the poor lions return to their den in the ftagecoach. Indeed, in his birth-day tiewig, he looked like the father in the farce. Mrs. Secker was fo diverted with them, that I wifhed a thoufand times for the invention of Scapin, and I would have made no fcruple of affuming the character, and infpiring my


YOU are heartily welcome, my dear little coufin, into an unquiet world. Long may you continue in it in all the happiness it can give, and beftow enough on all your friends to anfwer fully the impatience with which you have been expected: may you grow up to have every accomplishment that your good friend the Bishop of Derry can imagine in you; and in the mean time may you have a nurse with a tunable voice, that may talk an immoderate deal of nonfenfe to you.

friends with the laudable spirit of re-
bellion. I have picked out fome of
the dulleft of their traits to tell you.
They preffed us extremely to come and
break faft with them at their lodgings,
four inches fquare, in Chapel-ftreet,
at eight o'clock in the morning, and
bring a ftay-maker and the Bishop of
Gloucester with us. We put off the en-
gagement till eleven; fent the stay-
maker to measure them at nine, and
Mrs. Secker and I went and found our
ladies quite undreffed; fo that, instead
of taking them to Kenfington-Gar-
dens, as we promifed, we were forced,
for want of time, to content ourselves
with carrying them round Grofvenor-
fquare into the Ring, where, for want
of better amufement, they were fain
to fall
upon a basket of dirty fweet-
meats and cakes, that an old woman is
always teazing you with there, which
they had nearly difpatched in a couple
of rounds-

-O! it were needless to tell you all that has inexpreffibly diverted me, in their behaviour and converfation. I have yet told you no thing, and yet I have, in telling that nothing, wafted all the time that my heart ought to have employed in faying a thoufand things to you that it is more deeply interested in, &c.

TO MISS T, AN INFANT. fectly ignorant of party diftinctions, and look with a perfect indifference on all human fplendour. The vanities of drefs you have no abfolute dislike to, and are likely for many months to obferve the Bishop of Bristol's firft rule of converfation, filence, though tempted to tranfgrefs it by the novelty and frangenefs of all the objects around you. As you advance farther in life, this philofophical temper will wear off by degrees. The first object of your admiration will probably be a candle, and thence, as we all of us do, you will contract a tafte for the gaudy and glaring, without making one moral reflection upon the danger of such falfe admiration as leads perhaps many a time to burn your fingers. You will then begin to have great partiality for fome very good aunts, that will contribute all they can towards fpoiling

You are at prefent, my dear, of a very philofophical difpofition: the gaieties and follies of life have no attraction for you. Its forrows you kindly commiferate, but, however, do not much fuffer them to disturb your flumbers, and find charms in nothing but harmony and repofe. You have as yet contracted no partialities; are per


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it has occafioned abundance, that we girls, however people give themselves airs of being disappointed at us, are by no means to be defpifed. Let the men unenvied fhine in public; it is we that must make their homes delightful to them; and, if they pro voke us, as miferably uncomfortable.

you. But you will be equally fond of
an excellent mother, who will teach
you by her example all fort of good
qualities: only let me warn you of
one thing, my dear; and that is, do
not learn of her to have fuch an im-
moderate love of home as is quite
contrary to all the privileges of this
polished age, and give up fo entirely
all thofe pretty graces of whim and
affectation that fo many charitable
poets have declared to be the preroga-
tive of our sex. Ah! my little coutin,
to what purpose will you boaft this
prerogative, when your nurse tells you
(with a pious care to fow the feeds of
jealoufy and emulation as early as pof-
fible) that you have a fine little bro-
ther come to put your nofe out of
joint? There will be nothing to be
done then, I believe, but to be mighty
good, and to prove what, believe me,
admits of very little difpute, though Nov. 1742.

I do not expect you to anfwer this.
letter yet awhile, my dear, but as I
dare fay you have the greatest interest
with your papa, will beg you to pre-
vail upon him that we may know by
a line (before his time is engroffed by
another fecret committee) that you
and your mama
are well. In the
mean time, I will only affure you
that all here rejoice in your exiftence
extremely, and that I am, my very
young correfpondent,

Moft affectionately your's,
C. T-








ING Pepin of France, who flourifhed in the year 750, was furnamed the Short, from his low ftature, which fome courtiers ufed to make a fubject of ridicule. These freedoms reaching his ears, he determined to establish his authority by fome extraordinary feat; and an opportunity foon prefented itself. In an entertainment which he gave of a fight between bull and a lion, the latter had antagonist under, when Pepin, turning towards his nobility, faid, "Which you dare go, and part or kill thofe furious beafts?" The bare propofal fet them a fhuddering; nobody made anfwer. "Then I'll be the man,' replied the monarch; and drawing his fabre, leaped down into the arena, makes up to the lion, kills him, and without delay difcharges fuch a ftroke on the bull, as left his head hanging by the upper part of his neck. The court was equally amazed at fuch courage and ftrength; and the king, with an heroic loftinefs, faid to them, "David was little, yet he laid low

the infolent giant who had dared to defpife him.'


This paffage fhews that fights of wild beafts had been a common diverfion under our former kings; and they not only entertained the people with fuch fights, but often had them privately within their palaces.

Another amufement was the Cours plenieres; the name given to thofe famous affemblies, at which, on an invitation from the King, all the lords were obliged to be prefent. They were held twice a year; at Chriftinas and Eafter. The occafion was ufually a marriage, or fome great rejoicings, and they lafted a week. Sometimes they were kept at the prince's palace, fometimes at one of the chief cities, and fometimes in an open field; but always at a place large enough conveniently to lodge all the nobility of the kingdom. The ceremony was opened with a folema mafs, at the beginning of which the ecclefiaftic who officiated put the crown on the King's head, where it remained till he retired at



night. During the whole time of the
feftival, the King's meals were always
in public, the bishops and moft diftin-
guished dukes fitting at table with him.
There was
a fecond for the abbots,
the counts, and other nobles; and on
both more profufion than delicacy.
Each courfe was carried away with
fiutes and hautboys playing before it.
On ferving the deffert, twenty heralds
at arms, each holding a rich goblet,
called out three times, Largefs from
the most potent of Kings;" and threw
about gold and filver money, which
was accompanied with the fhouts of
the people tumultuously gathering it
up, and the flourishes of trumpets.


The afternoon's diverfions were fishing, hunting, plays, rope-dancing, buffoons, jugglers, and pantomimes. The laft, amidft other excellencies in their art, had a wonderful talent at instructing dogs, bears, and monkies, training them up to imitate gestures, actions, and poitures of all kinds, fo as even to act a part of their dramas. Thefe fhows, which were always very expenfive to the prince, made one of the favourite exhibitions of thofe affemblies, that without them the feftival would not have been relifhed; fuch was the taste of that


The reign of the Carlovingians may be faid to have been that of the Cours plenieres. The height of their magnificence was under Charles the Great; the dukes and counts reforting thither from all the vaft extent of his dominions, and many attended by a brilliant court, and rivalling kings themselves in expence.

After Charles the Simple, this magnificence continually declined. Lewis

his fon, and his grandfon, were not able, from the fcantinefs of their income, to give thefe fumptuous entertainments. Hugh Capet revived them; Robert continued them, and St. Lewis, in other refpects fo infenfible to grandeur, and fo averfe from revelry, carried them to some excefs.

Charles the Seventh fuppreffed them, pleading his wars against the English, but the true reafon was their being extremely burthenfome to the ftate. The nobility frequently ruined themfelves there by gaming, and the monarch drained his treafury. He was obliged every time to give new clothing to his officers, and thofe of the Queen and the princes. From thence came the word livery, thofe clothes being livres, or delivered out at the King's expence. This charge, and that of the table and equipages, together with the donations and prefents which he was under a kind of neceffity of making to the people and the great men, rofe to immenfe fums. If there was any veffel on his beaufet particularly coftly, or any very curious jewel in his crown, he could not well avoid making a prefent of them to fomebody, as it would have been a trefpafs against cuftom. A wife economy at length abolished these ruinous affemblies, as indeed they were rather oftentatious than neceffary, or even of any good confequence. The court, however, has not been without its entertainments, and indeed conducted with more gallantry, more politeness and tafte, but very little of that grandeur, that fplendour, and that majesty which fhone in the ancient Cours pleHISTORICUS.




HE ceremony of expofing the facred ftandard of the prophet Mahomet, by carrying it in grand proceffion through the principal ftreets of Conftantinople, previous to its being tranfported to the camp, is a folemnity held in the higheft veneration by

the Turks, and fo facred, that they will not permit any perfons, of any rank or religion whatever, except Muf fulmen, to behold it: for which reafon, three days before the day of the proceffion, heralds are fent to proclaim in every ftreet of Conftantinople, that


on fuch a day the ftandard of the prophet will be carried through the city, on its way to the army, and that no perfons, not of the Mahometan religion, are to be in the ftreets through which it paffes, or looking out into them from any houfes, under the pain of death, in cafe of difobedience. Notwithstanding this abfolute prohibition, the Imperial minifter, unmindful of his public character, which fhould have made him more delicate than a private perfon upon fuch an occafion, was perfuaded to gratify the curiofity of his wife and his two daughters, who were determined to fee this grand proceffion. For this purpofe, he agreed for a chamber in the houfe of a Moulah, fituated in one of the ftreets through which it was to pafs; the price was fixed at fifty piaftres; but, two days before the folemnity was to take place, the minifter found out a more convenient apartment at an inferior price, which he immediately took, and relinquished the firft. The Moulah in vain reprefented that Europeans generally keep their words, but more especially public minifters; he was refufed every kind of fatisfaction, and was difmiffed with taunts, the minister well knowing that no tribunal would dare to proceed against him, and that though the order of the Moulahs have the most powerful intereit with the government, yet their dread of offending his royal mafter was fuperior to every other confideration. The Moulah fubmitted, in appearance, without murmuring at his hard lot, but he fecretly meditated vengeance, and only waited a proper opportunity to gratify this darling paffion in the breaft of a Turk.

In the very moment, then, that the holy ftandard was paffing through the ftreet in which the ambaffador, his lady, and two daughters, had taken a chamber, and as it approached the house, from a window of which, half opened, they were looking at the fplendid fhow, the Moulah fet up a loud cry, that the holy ftandard was profaned by the eyes of infidels, who were regarding it through the latticed window of fuch a houfe. The mulLOND. MAG. Jan. 1785,

titude, which was immenfe, as all the orders of the people attend the folemnity, inftantly took the alarm, and a party, confifting of near three hundred enraged Janiffaries, detached themfelves from the proceffion, and broke open the door of the house, determined to facrifice to the prophet thofe daring infidels, who had profaned his holy ftandard. The imprudent minifter in vain represented to them that he was the Imperial ambaffador, he was inftantly knocked down, and the inner doors being forced, they found the ambaffadrefs, whom they ftripped of her jewels and clothes, and nothing but her age protected her from further infults. As for the young ladies, they had fallen fenfelefs upon the floor in a fwoon, from which they were only recovered by the extreme torture of having their ear-rings torn from them with fuch violence, that part of their ears went with them. They were likewife ftripped almoft naked. Nor did the janiffaries retire, till they had plundered them. In the evening this deplorable family were fecretly conveyed to Galata.

As foon as the Grand Vizir received information of the horrid outrage committed on the perfon of the ambaffador and the ladies, he communicated it to the Grand Signor, who condefcended, though the ambassador was fo much in the wrong, to fend him compliments of condolance and excufe in his own name, accompanied with a rich pelice, which is a diftinguifhing token of peace in Turkey; and as his Sublime Highnefs knew that the minifter loved money, a very handsome fum was fent to him privately, and feparate purfes to the ladies, befides jewels far fuperior to thofe the Janiffaries had taken from them. Having received fuch ample indemnification, the whole family feemed perfectly fatisfied, and the young ladies being recovered from their fright, related the adventure to their Chriftian friends, in a manner that did no great honour to their modefty.

Had the piece finished with this act, all would have been well; but, unfor tunately, the Divan thought fomeE


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