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such an extent that Renan once said, after looking at the ravages of the incredulity, “Nous ne sommes plus que l'ombre d'une ombre et nous respirons le parfum d'un vase vide." (We have come to be mere shadows of a shadow, and we only breathe the perfume of an empty vase.)

Though a Catholic institution, Laval has always avoided exclusiveness. Distinguished physicians and lawyers of Protestant faith have been professors of law and medicine within its walls, and mention may be made in this connection of Drs. Jackson and Sewell, and Mr. Colston. The late celebrated American scientist, Dr. Sterry Hunt, lectured for many years on chemistry at Laval.

To complete the organization of superior education in Quebec, all the classical colleges were requested to affiliate themselves to Laval University, on certain conditions, which included a sort of competitive examina

tion for the B. A. degrees between the MGR. LAFLAMME, F.R.S.C., PRESENT RECTOR students of these institutions after

their humanities and course of philoso

phy. This competition, which gave a the Laurentides for background, are great stimulus to study, did not prove to be found large lecture-rooms, muse satisfactory to some of the colleges ums, collections of all sorts of scientific which held back from the University. instruments and a very large library. About six years ago a new rule was Mention must also be made of Lavals agreed upon, the leading feature of noted paintings. They are the best which allows every college the privilege to seen in America, most of them of conferring on their pupils the matricufrom the hands of masters of the seven lation to the University either at Quebec teenth and eighteenth centuries. Many or Montreal. It seems to an unprejuof those paintings were brought to diced observer that this change, which Canada at the time of the French Revo was reluctantly conceded by the Laval lution, by priests who had escaped the directors, was not a move in the right guillotine. Several other Quebec in- direction. stitutions have had their share of these The benefit of university education valuable tableaux. It is worth while has been extended to Montreal. It for any one visiting Quebec to spend was found that the young men,

instead an hour or two at the Ursulines Chapel, of going down to Quebec for their the Roman Catholic Cathedral, and at studies, would attend the lectures Laval, to admire these masterpieces of at McGill and Victoria, thus defeating old French art.

the object of the founders of Laval. It is the boast and pride of Laval The extension or Succursale will, of that they uphold the banner of relig- course, greatly hamper the parent instiious teaching in all the branches of tution in Quebec. Loud complaints knowledge, whilst materialism is per are heard every day in the sister promeating teaching in almost all Euro vince about the large and ever-increaspean universities, destroying faith to ing number of lawyers, doctors, and


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notaries. Does it not seem strange The public men of the past, noted for that, with this fact in view, strong their zeal in the cause of self-governefforts have been made to spread the ment, have been pupils of Laval, such evil far and wide by this double tuit- as Bedard, Papineau, Judges Caron ion? It strikes us that one university and Morin (of the Hincks and Morin at Quebec would have been sufficient Administration), received their educato meet the requirements of the coun- tion at the Seminary, as well as Cautry, and that it should have been the chon, an old parliamentarian, several ambition of all concerned in education- times a Minister, Cremazie the poet al matters to build only one strong in- and Mr. Chauveau, the first Premier of stitution, to become the rival of Euro- Quebec under the new regime inaugpean and American universities.

urated in 1867, than whom Laval, in the past, has been the nur- used a more elegant pen in Quebec. sery of very many men of high repute The direction of Laval is now in the in Lower Canada. Bishop Plessis, hands of Monseigneur Laflamme, Felwho was a statesman as well as low of the Royal Society, a young priest, with twelve other high dignitar- priest of profound learning, of great ies of the Catholic Church, including devotion to the cause of education, and Cardinal Taschereau and Mgr. Begin, bent on walking in the footsteps of his his coadjutor, all hailed from Laval. great spiritual ancestor.









HE artistic treatment of roads is a During the past summer I was one

matter in which we have been en day driving through a country district, tirely deficient ; more than this, the and turning a corner, came unexpectbeautiful has been neglected and sacri- edly upon a pathmaster with his men ficed even when it might have been re doing their statute labour. They were tained without additional labour and engaged, but

not very

busily, in with no loss of the useful. Whatever throwing the earth from the ditch beauty the country highways of On into the middle of the road. The tario possess has been bestowed upon grade was already so high and steep them by nature in such a manner, seem that, in turning out to pass a scraper, ingly, as to defy the ever militant hand I had to lean over as far as possible to of the despoiler. For an explanation preserve the equilibrium of my buggy. it is only necessary to remember that They stopped their work as I drove by. the construction of roads in the Pro “Why don't you use some of the vince has scarcely yet passed out of the dirt to level the sides of the road?” I hands of those who hewed the first asked. waggon tracks through the wilderness, My ignorance of roadmaking appaland who were constantly engaged in a led them. With one accord they looked stern struggle for the bare necessities east, west, north, south. Then a look of life. It is no cause for surprise of determination entered the face of that, choosing between the useful and one, a sturdy Scot. the beautiful, the former has invariably Losh, mon !” he exclaimed. “Dy’e gained the ascendancy.

think yer in th' ceety?"



There is a very prevalent idea that highway. To make this unqualianything that savours in the least de fied statement causes civil gree of the ornamental in roadmaking gineer to feel some tremors of conbelongs only to the “ ceety.”

science, accustomed as he is in this To what extent the treatment of a utilitarian age to study only the ecoroadside should be conventional must nomic side of construction. Trees are, depend on circumstances. With what as a rule, anything but a benefit to a pleasure the most of us can recall some roadway. Masses of foliage and shade, roadway leading through a thinly set so grateful to the traveller, keep the tled, swampy lowland, and closely bor driveway constantly damp--the bane dered with woods! There are very few of good roads. If, however, beauty who would wish to so vandalize the is desired at the expense of utility, works of nature as to go with a scythe highways can scarcely be too much among the golden rod and asters, the shaded by over-arching boughs. The flags and the grasses that fill the angles happy medium will suffice in the majorof the moss-grown rail fence. Nority of cases, and the evil effect of an would we hew away the ivy-grown avenue of trees will be more than stumps, nor replace the picturesque made up by the additional pleasure obsnake-fence with one that is “ neater." tained. Trees, however, need not be Passing, however, from the region of planted very close to the carriage-way, log-houses, with their little forest-en but may be within the private property, circled clearings, to the location where or, if on the road allowance, as close handsome stone and brick country villas predominate, where the woods have been almost obliterated and the fields have been brought to a condition of perfect cultivation, we must give the Queen's highway a corresponding degree of attention to bring it into harmony with its surroundings.

A century ago the first highways of any importance were laid out in the Province. The forest was then the enemy alike to agriculture and roads, and the pioneer settler quickly learned, too, that it was the foe to his own means of sustenance. Pat's motto at Donnybrook Fair, When you see a head, hit it," was transposed and applied to the trees. To-day we may, in many localities, pass farm after farm without seeing any of the original trees remaining or any new ones planted for ornamental purposes.

Trees a necessary adjunct to beautiful







less adapted to particular requirements and circumstances.

The matter of fences is a very puzzling one. We have not yet found a shrub that will enable us to copy the hedgerows of England; and to stretch a few strands of wire is easier than to construct a stone wall. Masonry is very common in England and in the New England States. Only occasionally may it be seen here ; and when overgrown with Virginia creeper or other vines the effect is all that can be desired. The seductive wire fence appears

to suit the present stage of AMATEUR PHOTO. BY W. O. LOTT, TRENTON, ONT.

road improvement; and in A PRETTY ROAD IN HASTINGS COUNTY.

sections of the Province

where snow is apt to drift to the fence as practicable. The during a small part of the year there branches should be trimmed so as not is seemingly no alternative. Where to materially interfere with the paved wire is used, however, a very trim carriage-way.

appearance may be maintained, and if The varieties of trees suitable for the the fences are made so as to be as inornamentation of highways in this conspicuous as possible, and a generclimate are almost infinite. Maples ous use is made of trees and shrubs, are most commonly used in Canada, the result will not be at all disastrous. and so universal have they become Our system of surveys, which lays that many

trees having equal or greater claims for beauty are looked.

The elm, with its graceful y arching branches and delicate, lacelike foliage, is unsurpassed. The oak, renowned in England, is rarely used here. And so we might enumerate walnut, butternut, hickory, beech, chestnut, poplar, pine, ranging from the most delicate to the most sombre and rugged, each more or






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