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stood alone; he worked for his country; and his fate was most un merited. Deeply did every true friend of Chili deplore it. He haa taught that the civil authority could be made supreme, and he will have one of the most conspicuous places in the history of Chili. He was in the prime of life, about forty-two years of age, unmarried, and at no period were his services more required. His energy, however, seemed to have been imbibed by the whole administration, and no abatement took place in the preparations for war.

Vidaurre and his officers were tried by a court-martial held in Valparaiso, and condemned to be executed. Twelve were shot, the rest were banished. This was the first execution of such a sentence for political offences that had ever occurred in Chili. Some pretended to bode ill from it, but its effects so far have been salutary; and these desperate characters will not be so much inclined to run headlong into revolutionary movements after seeing the fruits of it.

The expedition, composed of three thousand men, finally sailed, and disembarking at Islay, proceeded to Arequipa, the second city of Peru, of which they took possession. Santa Cruz's troops retired to the interior. Lafuente was here proclaimed Supreme Chief, according to prescribed forms in such cases provided, and set about organizing his government, filling offices without a real of revenue, or any source from which he could raise any. No disaffected Peruvians joined them, and their situation became very critical, as Santa Cruz was concentrating his forces, and threatened to cut off the communication with their ships. Thus hemmed in, they would have been obliged to surrender at discretion. These advantages were possessed by Santa Cruz, and the Chilians saw no way of escape. Why Santa Cruz should have lost this opportunity to strike a decided blow, is inconceivable. He did, however, waive it, and proposed to treat. Communications passed for some days. Santa Cruz's army augmenting daily, was now double that of the Chilian general, who seemed to have no alternative but submission. Still he put a brave countenance on the affair, and signed at Paucarpata a treaty with Santa Cruz, having previously held a council of war, which was attended by the minister plenipotentiary which the Chilian government had sent with the expedition. There was no voice raised against the treaty. It was honourable to the Chilians, and saved their whole army. Festivities followed, after which the Chilian forces embarked and returned home. Neither the government nor the people were satisfied. Blanco landed secretly, and was received coldly. The President refused to ratify the treaty. It was considered disgraceful, as the object of the war had not been gained, and singularly enough, the war now became popular

with all parties. The army landed in perfect order. Blanco was deprived of his command, and a court-martial ordered. The troops were again sent to Quillota, and the greatest enthusiasm seemed to prevail. A new and more formidable expedition was determined on; and General Bulnes, the President's nephew, who commanded the troops on the frontiers, and was known as a bold dashing officer, was appointed to the command. Many thought the government mad, foresaw forced loans, and all the attendant evils, great financial difficulties, and, eventually, revolution. Still the government moved steadily on. Six thousand men were soon got together, well officered, well equipped, and with a military chest well filled. It is generally believed that the church made a loan to the government for this war, and it is said that it possesses one-eighth of the landed property of the country. This second expedition sailed, confident of success. No loans were asked for by government, nor any funds other than the ordinary revenue used, yet no account remained unpaid. This was and continues to be the marvel of every one. The greatest regularity was observed in all the dealings of the government agents; no complaints of extortion or abuses were heard. The internal affairs of the country went on as if no war existed. Improvements were not neglected ; lighthouses built ; roads improved; and no interruption took place in the usual operations of government. With this last expedition went General Gamarra, one of the fathers of Peruvian revolution, grown gray in the service. Lafuente went as his adjunct, though he had once made a revolution against him. With these went a host of military leeches, Peruvian exiles, ready to bleed their country to its last gasp. High-sounding words of patriotism, oppressed country, self-devotion, &c., flowed from them in most extravagant terms. From their local information it was expedient for the Chilians to have them, but if considered as a constituent part of the army, they were like fire-brands. Bulnes, a plain blunt soldier, it was thought would use no ceremony with any of them if he found them troublesome, which those who knew their characters thought would be the case.

The remaining part of the operations of the Chilian army in Peru, will be treated of when I give the sketch of the history of that country.

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CHAPTER XII.

CONTENT S.

PORPOISE SAILS-ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS – DIFFICULTIES OF LEAVING THE BAY - REGULATIONS OF PORT BADLY OBSERVED - CONDUCT OF THE CAPTAIN OF HAMBURG VESSEL – DEPARTURE - PART COMPANY WITH PEACOCK AND TENDER

EVENTS ON PASSAGE TO CALLAO-ZODIACAL LIGHTS—MAKE THE COAST OF PERU

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FALMOUTH - CAPTAIN M'KEEVER-HIS KINDNESS-DESERTERS-CONDUCT OF CREW

OF RELIEF- PUNISHMENT - EFFECTUAL SUPPRESSION OF SUCH CONDUCT - -COURT

MARTIAL-JUSTIFICATION-CHANGE OF ANCHORAGE TO CALLAO-HEIGHT OF LIMA

MOLE-CALLAO-VESSELS IN PORT-CASTLE-DESCRIPTION OF HOUSES - - RELIGIOUS

PRACTICES-MARKET-REVIEW OF TROOPS-OLD CALLAO-EFFECTS OF EARTHQUAKE

-VAULTS FOR DEPOSITING THE DEAD-POPULATION OF CALLAO-FOURTH OF JULY -ROAD TO LIMA-DEVASTATIONS_BELLA VISTA-APPROACH TO LIMA-ENTRANCE AND APPEARANCE-ITS PLAN-AMUSEMENTS-SAYA AND MANTA-ITS PRIVILEGES

- DESCRIPTION OF IT-HOUSES - PORTALES OR ARCADES --PALACE - FOUNTAIN

CATHEDRAL - CRYPT – NOVEL HEARSE - MARKET-CONVENT OF SAN FRANCISCOLIBRARY-SIGNATURE OF PIZARRO_FOUNDING OF LIMA-THEATRE-NAVAL SCHOOL

CLASSES OF NATIVES— POPULATION-NEWSPAPERS-HAND-BILLS-FESTIVAL-CORPUS

CHRISTI-MR. MATHEWS_MANUFACTORIES-FESTIVAL OF ST. JOHN'S--AMANCAES— CELEBRATION - EARTHQUAKES- EFFECTS PRODUCED-GATEWAY, NAVAL SCHOOLCLIMATE - RAIN-MEAN TEMPERATURE-HEALTH-RIMAC-IRRIGATION-HARVESTCHILIAN ARMY-STATE OF THE COUNTRY_MANNER OF RECRUITING THE ARMY

TREATMENT OF SLAVES-DEATH OF BENJAMIN HOLDEN-SMALL-POX-PRECAUTIONS

ADOPTED.

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