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ADEQUATE DEFENSE IN A DEMOCRACY – THE SWISS ARMY

SWITZERLAND'S NATIONAL DEFENSE IS A NATIONAL COMPULSORY SERVICE SYSTEM. EVERY MAN, WITH A FEW MINOR EXCEPTIONS, IS LIABLE FOR SERVICE BETWEEN THE AGES OF 17 AND 48. AT THE AGE OF 20 THE RECRUIT IS TRAINED FOR FROM 60 TO 90 DAYS, DEPENDING ON THE BRANCH OF THE SERVICE HE CHOOSES TO ENTER. THEN HE IS ENROLLED IN THE “AUSZUG," OR "ELITE," IN WHICH HE HAS TO TRAIN ELEVEN DAYS A YEAR FOR SEVEN OF THE YEARS UP TO THE AGE OF 32. FROM 32 TO 40 HE IS A MEMBER OF THE “LANDWEHR" AND TRAINS ONCE EVERY FOUR YEARS, AFTER WHICH HE IS RETIRED INTO THE LAST LINE RESERVES, WHERE HE STAYS UNTIL HE REACHES THE AGE OF 48

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ARMY OFFICERS IN THE SWISS MOUNTAINS SWITZERLAND IS EXTREMELY WELL FORTIFIED BY NATURE, FOR GREAT MOUNTAIN BARRIERS RISE ALONG THE WHOLE FRONTIER. THE MOUNTAIN PASSES THROUGH THESE BARRIERS ARE DEFENDED BY AN ELABORATE SYSTEM OF MODERN FORTIFICATIONS. IN 48 HOURS AFTER THE ORDER WAS GIVEN IN AUGUST, 1914, THE SWISS ARMY WAS COMPLETELY MOBILIZED AND READY FOR ACTION—SINCE WHICH TIME IT HAS REMAINED MOBILIZED AT A COST OF ABOUT $9,000,000 A YEAR. THE ACTIVE FIGHTING STRENGTH OF THE FIRST LINE OF THE ARMY IS 134,000 MEN, WITH A RESERVE OF 66,268 MEN. IN ADDITION TO THESE IS A LAST LINE, THE

LANDSTURM,” OF ABOUT 60,000 MEN

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SWISS ARMY MANEUVRES UPPER PICTURE: SWISS ARTILLERY CROSSING A MILITARY BRIDGE. LOWER PICTURE: A SWISS SANITARY AND MEDICAL TRAIN. THE SWISS SYSTEM SHOWS THE POSSIBILITY OF CREATING A TRAINED FORCE IN A REPUBLIC WITHOUT MILITARISM OR UNDUE ECONOMIC BURDEN, AND THOUGH OUR CONDITIONS, BEING DIFFERENT FROM CONDITIONS IN SWITZERLAND, CALL FOR DIFFERENT TREATMENT OF THE MILITARY PROBLEM, AN AMERICAN SYSTEM OUGHT TO PROVIDE US WITH AN ADEQUATE FORCE AS THE SWISS SYSTEM PROVIDES ONE IN SWITZERLAND SWISS RECRUITS WRESTLING AND THROWING THE LANCE EDUCATION IS COMPULSORY IN SWITZERLAND, AND PHYSICAL TRAINING IS BEGUN AT AN EARLY AGE IN THE SCHOOLS. LATER THE STUDENTS ARE FORMED INTO CADET CORPS, IN WHICH THE BOYS LEARN THE MANUAL OF ARMS AND DRILL, USING A MINIATURE WORKING MODEL OF THE REGULAR ARMY RIFLE, WHICH IS SUPPLIED BY THE GOVERNMENT. THE SWISS MILITARY SYSTEM DOVETAILS INTO THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CITIZEN

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THE SWISS OFFICER, A WELL TRAINED SOLDIER UPPER PICTURE: A SWISS RAILROAD CARRIAGE USED AS A MILITARY OFFICE. LOWER PICTURE: SWISS OFFICERS WATCHING MANŒUVRES. THE OFFICERS IN THE SWISS ARMY ARE PROMOTED BY THE CANTONS, OR DISTRICTS, UP TO THE RANK OF CAPTAIN. ABOVE THAT RANK THEY BECOME MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL STAFF AND ARE UNDER THE DIRECT CONTROL OF THE CONFEDERATION. THE LINE OFFICERS ARE TRAINED AT THE MILITARY COLLEGE AT THUN OR THE POLYTECHNIC SCHOOL AT ZÜRICH. THE STAFF OFFICERS ATTEND THE STAFF COLLEGE, AT BERN. THE OFFICERS REMAIN IN ACTIVE SERVICE LONGER THAN THE ENLISTED MEN, NOT BEING COMPLETELY RETIRED TILL THEY REACH THE AGE OF 54

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