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italics. And I cannot think that any wrenches his English rather fiercely, irreverence could be charged against and yet let it be said that for delicacy, an editor who had the courage to put strength, sincerity, clarity, and all a moist pen through those expressions great graces of style, he is side by side of egotism and naive self-satisfaction with the noblest of our prose writers. and vanity which do occasionally dis- Can it be that a few scattered drops of figure his pages.

vulgarity in emphasis dim such a fire I ask myself if these trifles, for in as this? Does so small a dead fly taint comparison with the sum of Reade's so big a pot of ointment? I will not be genius they are small things indeed, foolish enough to dogmatise on such a can in any reasonable measure account point, and yet I can find no other reafor the neglect which undoubtedly be- sons than those I have already given sets him. In narrative vigour he has why a master craftsman should not but one rival—Dumas père—and he is hold a master craftsman's place. Solofar and away the master of that rival mon has told us what “a little folly in everything but energy. No male can do for “ him who is reputation for writer surpasses him in the knowledge wisdom.” The great mass of the pubof feminine human nature. There is lic can always tell what pleases it, but no love-making in literature to beat it cannot always tell why it is.pleased. the story of the courtship of Julia Dodd And the man who writes for wide and and Alfred Hardy in “Hard Cash.” In lasting fame has to depend, not upon mere descriptive power he ranks with the verdict of the expert and the culthe giants. Witness the mill on fire tured, but on the love of those who in “The Cloister and the Hearth"; the only know they love, and who have no lark in exile in “Never Too Late to power to give the critical why and Mend"; the boat-race in “Hard Cash"; wherefore. The public," the stupid the scene of Kate Peyton at the firelit and ignorant pig of a public," as “Powindow; and Griffith in the snow, in cocurante” called it years ago—is al“Griffith Gaunt." There are a thou- ways being abused, and yet it is only sand bursts of laughter in his pages, the public which, in the end, can tell not mere sniggers, but lung-shaking us if we have done well or ill. We have laughters, and the man who can go by all to consent to be measured by it, and, any one of a hundred pathetic passages in the long run, it estimates our stature without tears is a man to be pitied. with a perfect accuracy. Let it be admitted that at times he

( To be continued. )

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WHAT I wish to present in this not shown the versatility of the Ca

paper is an explanation of how nadians. You could hardly point to it comes about that a certain nation any kind of occupation, business or ality — the Canadian has attained profession in which Canadians are not unusual success abroad, using the word occupying the most enviable and honsuccess in a somewhat common, com ourable positions, and that out of all mercial sense, such as that implied in proportion to their numbers. This could the well-known phrase, “gettingon in not be said of other nationalities. Not the world.”

only in industrial pursuits have they First of all, it is to be observed excelled, but also in the professional that Canadians are abroad in large world, and notably in the field of numbers. Some are in the mother scholarship. In proportion to their country and in countries on the numbers, more Canadians have carried continent, some in the colonies, off scholarships, fellowships and varisuch Australia, and

in ous honours from John Hopkins and other distant parts of the world ; but other leading American post graduate the vast majority are to be found universities than any other nationality. in the United States of America. In And not only in the United States, but 1890, according to the United States in some of the older seats of learning census, Canadians in that country beyond the sea they are doing this. numbered 980,938, which was 1.57 In all spheres of life, in fact, they have per cent. of the entire foreign-born shown themselves equal to the largest element of the United States. In the opportunities ever placed within their principal American cities, in that year, reach. It would not seem necessary there were 307,660 Canadians, or to many readers to make such a state31.36 per cent. of the foreign-born ment, and indeed it would not be, but element living in those cities. In for the uncertain notions about CaBoston, which had the lead then, there nadians which still prevail even among were 39,678 Canadians, or nearly 14 those who ought to have more definite per cent. of the city's whole popula- knowledge. tion. But these figures were compiled Of those Canadians who emigrate to over


years ago, and it is well the United States, many are artisans, known that since that time the emi mechanics, common workmen, etc., gration has gone on at a swiftly ac in the great army of labour who come, celerating pace. It is now estimated, mostly, from Eastern Canada; but the for example, that there are upwards of majority are connected as employees 100,000 Canadians in Chicago alone, with the large American business houses and it is certain that in other Amer and commercial concerns, or ican cities the number has gone up gaged in what, for convenience, may rapidly, even if not so rapidly as in the be called the higher pursuits. It is great western metropolis.

worthy of note that the vast majority of In the next place, it is well known them are young men.

It has been that Canadians as a class have been said that they are the cream of Canasuccessful abroad. It would, of course, dian manhood and, no doubt, there is be hazardous to state that any people some truth in that contention. They had amassed wealth as quickly as the are those, as a rule, whose chances for German Jews ; but then that is the worldly success in the Dominion are Jews' specialty. The latter, however, not commensurate with their ambition. are not necessarily on that account It is not the unemployed alone, or prinsuccessful. Furthermore, they have cipally, who strike out into the great

are en


republic. It is frequently those who ing secured their education at consideralready are assured of a comfortable able public expense, turn their steps to livelihood, but who see plainly the the United States, instead of lending height to which they are privileged to the fruits of their educational training climb, which often is of a far from to the country at whose expense it has dizzy altitude; while in looking to the been acquired. The greater portion of United States they are fascinated with the Canadian people resident in the the uncertain prospect, a prospect that United States has come from the Provlures them on with its possibility of ince of Ontario, where, as informed wonderful personal achievement. Their educators know, a system of education strong ambition and resolve, then, which obtains which is theoretically the most in the first place lead them to leave the perfect in the world. Is it any wonder, country, need to be reckoned in, as im then, that from a state where education portant elements in their success. is widely diffused and where a well-nigh

Another reason, which is a most ob perfect system is in vogue, the young vious one, is their physical vigour. The men should go forth able to compete climate they live in is, for the most most successfully with those who have part, cold and rugged in winter and been less carefully prepared for the connot too extremely hot in summer. It flict of daily life? is eminently favourable to the building One of the old classic writers tells us up and maintenance of robust physical of the Roman soldiers, that they were constitutions. The Canadians, as remarkable for their coolness and delibrace, are large men and women, with eration (i. e., slowness), and for their good health and athletic forms. Their subdued strength. These are characpowers of endurance are certainly not teristics that belong, I think, peculiarly excelled by any other civilized race. to Canadians, One will occasionally During what is known as the North hear it remarked in the United States, West Rebellion of 1885, the men who that Canadians are slow, and the rewent to the front from Ontario were, mark, of course, is always intended as without past training, subjected to phy a most uncomplimentary one. sical tests which for severity have never be a partially just criticism in the sense been surpassed, such asfording streams, in which the word is there used, but, at making long forced marches, and en any rate, it is a pefectly just one in the camping on the bleak prairies in the sense in which our author applied it to midst of the bitter cold of the Canadian the Romans. Where the Canadian North-West winter. It hardly needs makes a great gain is in the fact that saying that physical vigour is the only he has coolness and steadiness of substantial basis of mental vigour, and nerve, added to his splendid physical the two combined, as they are in the endowment. This desirable resource, average Canadian, is manifestly an im which is an invaluable addition to his portant element in his success, either power to succeed, is lacking in all other at home or abroad.

races but those of Anglo-Saxon origin, Another element that needs only to be and in a marked degree is lacking even mentioned to be recognized as a most in one of the latter, because its national effective force is that of education. It nerve system has become shattered may not be widely known that the through the continued strain put upon youth of Canada are more generally it by efforts to become rich. educated than those of other countries. One other reason, which will be more In proportion to the population, more evident as such further on, is that the of them receive a college education than Canadian has his own particular notion any other nationality. In fact, the cry of success, which is an improvement on has not infrequently been raised in Ca the general. His love is not for moneynada that its excellent educational in getting like the American's, not for acstitutions are its own worst enemies, quiring real-estate and gold like the inasmuch as the young men, after hav Englishman’s, not for wooing gaiety

It may

like the Frenchman's, but for a combi verified in a comparison of Americans nation of things. The latter includes and Englishmen. The Americans are, it a desire for mental culture and recrea is true, so nearly allied to the English tion, for moral and spiritual growth, that, while they cannot be said to befor a better home life, for a higher ideal long to another stock, yet they may be of citizenship and stateship, and especi- said to be a distinct variety, which is so ally, perhaps, for physical recreation different from the original plant as to and improvement. True, other na actually render the two as unlike as tionalities place a value on some of are some nationalities who speak difthese ; not, however, on all of them. · ferent languages. This is not at all The Canadian's notion of success is a equivalent to saying that American diversified one. If it were not, if he blood is not as good as English. The were a national specialist of some sort, species or variety added to a grafted an abnormal specimen, he might make, tree brings forth as good fruit as the say, a better shekel-gatherer, or a big- original tree, sometimes better. ger landlord, or a more skilled artist, or There is likewise another variety, an a greater something else, to be sure, offshoot from the English stock--the but then he would not be so generally Canadian--which is different both from successful as he now is,-in fact, he the original stock and the American would not be a Canadian.

variety. It can hardly be maintained So far, I have endeavoured to give that these differences are sufficient to only a few of the more effective ele- justify a conclusion that any one of ments that are at once the most direct these three peoples is superior to the ly and most obviously connected with others. Any statement of that kind the Canadian's success abroad. Other would prove as invidious as it probimportant elements exist which have ably would prove inaccurate and misnot been mentioned, such as thrift, in leading: dustry, sobriety, etc., which qualities, But there is one important point in however, are by no means peculiar to which Canadians and Englishmen have him.

a distinct advantage over Americans, Now I pass to the most potent ele in this matter of nationality. It is that ment of all, most potent because it is, the former have an invaluable mental what may be designated, the basal ele characteristic which the latter are alment, the raison d'etre of all others. most altogether without, and which I What is it? you ask. It is that ele can find no better word to express than ment which is connected with his loyalty. The word loyalty is one of nationality. It is that which concerns peculiar significance to all Englishthe breed, the blood, the stock, or what speaking people, except Americans. ever you may choose to call it, to which The latter, quite naturally, for constihe belongs. It is that element which tutional reasons, have little or no use he has inherited from the English peo for it, in the European sense in which ple, and which the circumstances of his it is usually associated with monarchial residence in North America have con institutions. The main thought imspired to modify and improve. The plied in it, as it is commonly used on question of nationality is not a mere British soil, is as foreign to them as it fanciful one. There is something in is native to Englishmen, Canadians and the blood or the breed that distinctly Australians. The significance of the marks one nation from another, and word to all citizens of the Empire lies which accounts for the greater success in the fact that it carries with it the and advance in civilization of some idea of devotion not alone to English races than of others. It does not take political ideals, but likewise to all the an ethnological expeșt to tell an Eng- cherished traditions of the English race, lishman from a Frenchman, or a French and to all its treasured legacies of mind man from a German. Indeed, the fact and heart. In neither of these senses of racial differentiation can almost be of the word have the Americans loy

alty. And that is precisely why they factors--independence fought for and are Americans. But let no one impugn gained, and the virgin soil-are the their loyalty to American institutions. corner-stones of the American Republic. No nation in the world is more devoted And, as we were saying, it is well, in to its own creations.

some ways, that it is so, well that the I have referred to loyalty as a mental conditions


which the formation of characteristic; and so it is, taking the the nation rests are such as to have word in its British meaning, because it produced a trait of mind that is essenis so nearly akin to, if not identical with, tially one of revolt against the traditions that conservative trend of mind so char- · of the old world. acteristic of the average Englishman. But here is the misfortune of it all. And it is right here where the gist of It is likewise true that this trait of the whole matter lies. Why Canadians mind, born of national conditions, has succeed abroad or at home is, as will operated, at the same time, to tear be presently shown, precisely because down certain moral, religious and eduthey have enough of this saving char- cational principles which it were well acteristic of loyalty or conservatism in to conserve. For example, the Ameria broad sense, which unites so admir- cans have let themselves rush so voraably and efficaciously with the physical ciously into the pursuit of wealth, that circumstances of their national life. such old fogy, notions as paying one's

This conservatism of Britishers, this debts, and keeping one's word and loyalty to the things of the past, is pre- telling the truth, and doing to others eminently an advantage to them as it as one would like to be done by, have would be, in a far lesser degree of been discarded, to no inconsiderable excourse, to Americans. The American tent, as something suitable, perchance, mind is essentially one of revolt. It to the old grannies of the old world, could not be otherwise. Nothing in but not to the up-to-date, free and inthe world changes the heart and mind dependent-spirited men of America. of a people, and changes them so effec- This is not at all to be taken as meantively, as a war of independence. Even ing that these good attributes do not the short history of the American na- exist in the United States. They do, tion is long enough to have cast the only they exist in a far more limited native-born American mind into degree than they would but for the mould from which it cannot escape.

It 'mental characteristic alluded to. is natural, therefore, to the American, President Schurman, of Cornell Unito think somewhat lightly on the con- versity, said, not long ago, in an adventionalities and the legacies of the dress to the graduating class of '96: past, and especially on those of British “ The American people, in a too exorigin. It is well, indeed, in some re- clusive pursuit of external goods, have spects, that this is so. It gives play forfeited their ancient dower of inward to all the advantage there is in culti- happiness. The one efficacious remedy vating a pronounced feeling of national is a return to truer views of life as raself-reliance and individuality. There tional and moral. We need a fresh bafis a wonderful vitality and manliness tism of idealism, a new consecration to accomplished in the very act of strik- spiritual ends, a quickened enthusiasm ing for independence, and, after acquir- for truth, justice and righteousness. ing it, in tilling the fertile fields of The advantage accruing to the Britnative mental resources, without falter- isher, therefore, is that his loyalty ing at every turn to measure methods keeps him in a state of more or less and results with those of other lands. reverence for the things considered to The very soil, too, of a new land has be of good report, and in this way a marvellous effect in reinforcing the saves him from the evils attendant independent spirit and developing the upon an extravagant civilization. mind of revolt, of men who have gained The Canadian occupies a somewhat their liberty in conquest.

These two peculiar relation to the American and


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