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were composed of brick, covered with a strong coat of fifteen centuries ago, must have presented a beautiful terras, and supported by pillars of brick, each brick appearance. Where the heart of the present city stands, being nine inches square, and two inches in thickness. dimly seen through its canopy of smoke, in that disThe pillars were four feet and a half high, and set tant age the columns of the temples shone white against about fourteen inches asunder, composing a hypocaust, the dark blue of the surrounding hills, and many a or vault, for the purpose of retaining the heat necessary noble-browed pediment seemed to watch majestically for the rooms above. The interior walls of the apart- over the fortunes of the grand people who worshipped ment were set round with tubulated bricks or panels at their shrines. Here, too, in the morning sun, shone about eighteen inches long, with a small orifice opening the beautiful gilt statue of Apollo, or the evening inwards, by which the stream of heat was communi- twilight dwelt upon the calm brow of some imaged cated to the apartments. The fire-place from which Minerva. In those days there was little or no coal the heat was conveyed, was composed of a small smoke to obscure the beautiful details of the classic conical arch at a little distance from the outward wall; city; and the whole stamped itself as sharply and dis. and on each side of it, adjoining to the above-men- tinctly upon the surrounding background of bills as tioned rooms, were two other small sudatories of a did any of the antique towns of Italy herself. circular shape, with several small square baths, and But the sumptuousness and grandeur of Aquæ Solis a variety of apartments which the Romans used pre- served other purposes, according to Tacitus, than merely paratory to their entering either the hot-baths or to minister to the wants and to please the sensuous eye sudatories ; such as the Frigidarium, where the bathers of the Roman colonists, To this city flocked the undressed themselves, which was not heated at all; Britons of the surrounding country, and, by participating the Tepidarium, which was moderately heated ; and in the luxuries of the place, gradually sunk beneath its the Eleothesion, which was a small room, containing sensualities and sacrificed their liberty at the altars of oil, ointments, and perfumes. These rooms had a pleasure. “ By these insidious means," says the biscommunication with each other, and some of them torian, " the people were more effectually subjugated were paved with flag-stones and others were beautifully than by the Roman sword.” tesselated with dies of various colours. A regular set of Aquæ Solis remained a place of great resort during well-wrought channels conveyed the superfluous water the whole period of the Roman occupation; and even from the baths into tlre Avon.” These sumptuous after their departure, which event took place in the year buildings were upwards of 240 feet in length, and 120 | 400, the half-civilized Britons maintained it with a in breadth.

diminished splendour : and it was not until the coming Once these baths must have witnessed a thousand of those rude workers, our Saxon ancestors, — who diversified scenes, as they were the great places of re- destroyed but to sow the germ of a more healthful state sort of the Roman people. The poet here recited his of things, that the glory and beauty of the place were last composition, and the athletes excited the luxurious levelled to the dust. bather with a thousand feats of strength; and the song All that remains of this once splendid city is now and the loud laugh caught the ear of many an old stowed away in the vaults and passages of the Literary warrior as he anointed himself luxuriously with the Institution. As you pass along them to read the precious ointments then in use, and little did the busy • Times' of a morning, or to cut open the wet sheets crowd beneath its portico imagine that a few centuries of Blackwood,' your coat brushes against votive altars, would bury it deep in the earth, and that the conqueror wrought by the hands of this antique people. As you who was to come after them would inter their dead wander along the basement-rooms of the building your over the very spot that once contributed to the vigour eye catches mouldering fragments, which the learned of the living Yet so it was : these baths were found have placed together upon conjecture, as the child full twenty feet below the present level of the soil, and despairingly builds up its puzzle. Upon the tables four feet above them were discovered a number of stone are scattered about fragments of drinking-vessels, out coffins, evidently Saxon, thus denoting that the place of which the soldiers of the twentieth legion was used by our ancestors as a place of sepulture, pledged each other; and by stepping into the lecture

In the immediate neighbourhood of these baths room, you will see upon the mantel-piece, amid a crowd arose the stately porticəs of temples to Minerva and of modern ornaments, the gilt head of the Apollo Apollo and other deities of the Roman worship. Some Medicus—a fragment of the grand statue of the deity of these must have been of a very imposing size, as who watched over the city, and who endued the springs portions of Corinthian pillars, measuring nearly three with all their healing powers. The beautiful face of the feet in diameter, have been exhumed, and are now pre- god once so venerated, now claims no more respect served in the Literary Institution. Large and massive (except as a piece of antiquity) than the bronze letter pieces of pediment have also been rescued from the weigher that stands beside it! depths in which they had been submerged; and in one To return, however, to the history of the city: after instance the pieces have been placed together, until we the departure of the Romans, and during the early part see before us the façade of some highly-sculptured of that bloody struggle which took place between the building.

Britons, and the Saxons whom they had invited over to The Bath, (or Aqua Solis, as it was then called,) of their assistance, Aquæ Solis remained in comparative


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peace. In the year 493, however, the city was besieged retrieve the day, with the loss of their gallant comby a Saxon army, under Ella and his three sons, when mander, however, who was slain in their impetuous there doubted King Arthur came to its assistance, and charge. To commemorate his loss, a monument was defeated the invaders with terrible slaughter. Again, erected to his memory, in 1720, by the Honourable in the year 520, this legendary hero evinced his prowess George Granville, Lord Lansdowne, on the very spot by defeating Cedric and his powerful army on the scene upon which he fell. This monument is handsomely of his former victories, killing with his own hand, it is built of freestone, and on its north tablet is the following said, no less than four hundred and forty Saxons ! inscription, written by Cartwright, in the laudatory After such sharp work as this, his famous brand, Ex- style of his day : calibar, must have deserved a thorough grind. As “When now th' incensed rebels proudly came King Arthur without doubt carried his round table Down like a torrent without bank or dam, among his baggage, who shall say that he did not set When undeserved success urged on their force, it up in the rescued city, and that the voices of Laun

That thunder must come down to stop their course, celot du Lake and of the other redoubted knights, did

Or Granville must step in; then Granville stood, not make ring again its ancient walls ?

And with himself opposed and checked the flood. The Saxors, in the year 577, became masters of the

Conquest or death was all his thought; so fire

Either o'ercomes, or doth itself expire. city and the neighbouring country, and the Latin name

His courage work'd like flames, cast heat about, of Aqua Solis, or City of the Sun, was changed to

Here, there, on this, on that side, none gave out; the homely, but more appropriate, Hat Bathun, or Not any pike in that renowned stand Hot Baths. During the Saxon period there can be But took new force from his inspiring hand : no doubt that the hot springs were carefully attended Soldier encouraged soldier, man urged man, to; as the tepid bath was considered by our ancestors And he urged all; so far example can. as an absolute necessary of life. The succeeding his- Hurt upon hurt, wound upon wound did fall, tory of the city, up to the beginning of the eighteenth

He was the butt, the mark, the aim of all:

His soul, the while, retired from cell to cell, century, might be turned over without disadvantage.

At last flew up from all, and then he fell ! A place of no military strength, scarcely any event of

But the devoted stand, enraged the more importance occurred in it during the wars of succession

From that his fate, plied hotter than before, of our early English kings; and during the great Re- And proud to fall with him, swore not to yield, bellion it made but a sorry figure, the Royalist com- Each sought an honour'd grave, and gain’d the field. mandant giving up the place to the Parliamentarians Thus he being fallen, his actions fought anew, in the most ignominious manner. He, according to

And the dead conquer'd whilst the living flew.” the famous Prynne's representations in Parliament, During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Bath, “ upon the approach only of two dragooners to one of in common with Bristol, and many other places in the the city gates, discharging their dragoons and setting west of England, was the seat of an extensive woollen some straw on fire before the gate, and the sight of trade; but during the Stuart period these manufactures twenty men brandishing their swords upon Beechen declined, and the city became by degrees a place of Cliff, presently sent out for a parley, and making con- resort for health-seekers. ditions only for himself and his officers to march away Pepys visited the city in 1668, and leaves us the with their bag and baggage, and live quietly at their following account of it in his Diary :-"Having dined own houses without molestation, valiantly quitted the very well, 10s., we came before night to the Bath; when city without the least assault.

The I presently stepped out with my landlord, and saw the captain then leaping over the wall for haste, and run- Baths with people in them. They are not so large as ning away into Wales for shelter, before any other I expected, but yet pleasant ; and the town most of forces appeared to summon this strong fortified city, stone, and clean, though the streets generally narrow. leaves all the common souldiers and citizens to their I home, and being weary, went to bed without supper ; enemies' mercy, who were thereupon imprisoned, pil- the rest supping.” Pepys, however, only saw the fair laged, or fined."

outside of things. Wood, the famous architect, takes If much prowess was not shown by the commandant us behind the scenes, and shows us domestic Bath up of the city, however, the neighbouring hill of Lansdowne to the beginning of the eighteenth century. " The has found a place in history from the bloody battle that boards of the dining-rooms," he tells us, "and most was fought upon it on the 5th of July, 1643, between other floors, in the houses of Bath, were made of a the forces of Sir William Waller and those of the brown colour with soot and small beer, to hide the dirt Prince Maurice and the Earl of Carnarvon, in which as well as their own imperfections; and if the walls both parties claimed the victory.

of any of the rooms were covered with wainscot, it was In this action Sir Arthur Hazelrig's Regiment of such as was mean, and never painted. The chimneyLobsters, as they were called from being encased in pieces, hearths, and slabs, were all of freestone ; and iron plates, were first brought into service, and com- these were daily cleaned with a particular kind of whitepletely routed the king's horse, who fled through amaze-wash, which, by paying tribute to everything that inent at such a terrible-looking foe. The Cornish | touched it, soon rendered the brown floors like the musqueteers, under Sir Beville Granville, managed to starry firmament. ... With Kidderminster stuff, or

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at best with chene, the woollen furniture of the prin- which he would have never reached by the study of cipal rooms was made ; and such as were of linen con- ‘Coke upon Littleton.' sisted only of corded dimity or coarse fustian ; the The condition of the city upon the advent of the matrons of the city, their daughters, and their maids, Beau, which took place about 1703, was peculiarly flowering the latter with worsted during the intervals favourable to the development of his particular talent. between the seasons, to give the beds a gaudy look. Its accommodations were most contemptible: its houses Add to this, also, the houses of the richest inhabitants and public places lacked those elegances and amuseof the city were, for the most part, of the meanest ments which are calculated to attract those who seek architecture, and only two of them could show the for passing pleasure, or are mainly desirous to kill modern comforts of sash-windows." The city seems ennui. The only place where the amusement of the to have stood still at this point for a century at least; dance could be enjoyed was upon the bowling-green, for between the years 1592 and 1692, it had only where a fiddle and a hautboy formed the whole band : increased by seventeen houses !

the only promenade was a grove of sycamore trees. Of the varied appliances of the gaming-table Bath

was then innocent; but the chairmen were so rude, MODERN Bath.

that no respectable female durst pass along the street From such an ahject condition as we have described, unprotected, in the evening.

The Pump-house was the city was destined to be raised to the highest degree without a director ; " and,” says Goldsmith, in his of magnificence, and to be made the resort of the

he Life of Nash,? “* to add to all this

, one of the greatest quality' of the land by the genius of two men — Beau physicians of his age (we believe it was Dr. Radcliffe) Nash and Wood. Those individuals might be said to conceived a design of ruining the city, by writing have supplied the very soul and body of modern Bath : against the efficacy of its waters. It was from a resentthe former by the elegant social life he infused into it; ment of some affront he had received there that he and the latter, by his superb reconstruction of its took this resolution ; and accordingly published a buildings.

pamphlet, by which, he said, he would cast a toad in To Richard Nash, however, Bath must mainly attri- the spring." bute the rapidity with which it sprang from an insigni- Nash, at this auspicious moment for his fortune, ficant place, into the focus of fashionable life, and the arrived at Bath, and made a hit at once by assuring the most ' pleasurable' city in the kingdom. His genius people that he would charm away the poison, as the for trifles, his taste, and his shrewdness, serving him venom of the tarantula was charmed-by music. He better than more profound abilities would have done only asked for a band of performers, to make the in erecting a kingdom of his own, and in governing it Doctor's toad perfectly harmless. His proposition was in so absolute a manner as he did. Nash commenced at once agreed to, and the Pump-room immediately life in the army, but speedily becoming tired of the received the benefit, by attracting a full and fashionable profession he turned to the law,—that is, he entered company; and the spirit of the man so gained their his name on the books at the Temple, and spent his goodwill, that he was speedily voted Master of the time as a man about town; and his genius for gay life, Ceremonies-or King of Bathi. and his love of intrigue, soon led him into the society Nash commenced his reign by repairing the roads of of the young bloods of the day. It was a mystery to the city,—a strange duty for a master of the ceremonies all his acquaintances, however, how he managed to to discharge, but one which speaks volumes as to the support the various extravagances he was led into, as condition of the thoroughfares at the beginning of the he was known to be without fortune. In these days last century. The company, which had hitherto been we should look for the secret sources of income of such obliged to assemble in a booth to drink tea and chocoa person in the columns of the broad sheet, or in the late, or to game, were, under his direction, accommopoetical epistles of a puffing tailor; but Nash seems dated with a handsome Assembly-room--the first ever to have been suspected of a much more direct method erected in the city. He now set about composing a of replenishing his exhausted purse. His friends, code of laws for his new subjects; and the conditions indeed, charged him with procuring money by robbery he drew up for the observance of a polite society were on the highway! We might guess the state of society doubtless intended to smack of wit; but we must conwhen such an accusation could even suggest itself. fess that, viewed in this light, they fully justified his Nash, full of indignation, replied to the charge, and own admission, that the pen was his torpedo, --whencleared his honour (!) by handing round to his accusers ever he grasped it, it benumbed his faculties. This a billet doux he had just received, enclosing a large composition, which was hung up in a conspicuous place sum of money. Having, for some reason or other, in the Pump-room, strongly savours of the Beau's idiogot sick of the law, as he had done of his Majesty's syncrasies. service; not, we apprehend, because he “found his mind superior to both,” as Dr. Oliver, one of his ful.

Rules to be observed at Bath, some eulogists, absurdly hath it, but most probably, that his inclinations suited neither. In a lucky hour 1. That a visit of ceremony at first coming, and he retired to Bath, and there found a pathway to fame another at going away, are all that are expected or


desired by ladies of quality and fashion-except impertinents.

2. That ladies coming to the ball appoint a time for their footmen coming to wait on them home, to prevent disturbance and inconveniences to themselves and others.

3. That gentlemen of fashion never appearing in a morning before the ladies in gowns and caps, show breeding and respect.

4. That no person take it ill that any one goes to another's play, or breakfast, and not theirs ;-except captious by nature.

5. That no gentleman give his tickets for the balls to any but gentlemen.- N.B. Unless he has none of his acquaintance.

6. That gentlewomen crowding before the ladies at the ball, show ill-manners; and that none do it for the future-except such as respect none but themselves.

7. That no gentleman or lady take it ill that another dances before them ;-except such as have no pretence to dance at all.

8. That the elder ladies and children be content with a second bench at the ball, as being past, or not come to perfection.

9. That the young ladies take notice how many eyes observe them. - N.B. This does not extend to the Have-at-alls.

10. That all whisperers of lies and scandals be taken for their authors.

11. That all repeaters of such lies and scandal be shunned by all company ;-except such as have been guilty of the same crime.

mind a rather keen method of retort. He found the N.B. Several men of no character, old women, and gentlemen, however, not so easily controlled. He tried, young ones of questioned reputation, are great authors of in vain, for a long time, to prevent the wearing of lies in these places, being of the sect of levellers. swords, on the plea that they tore the ladies' dresses;

but, in fact, to put a stop to the numerous duels which Goldsmith says of these rules, rather sneeringly (if arose out of the intrigues of gallants, or disputes at his fine nature might be considered capable of a sneer), the gaming-table. With a deep insight into human “ were we to give laws to a nursery, we should make nature, Nash gave out that he wanted to hinder people them childish laws; his statutes, though stupid, were from doing what they had no mind to.

It was not, addressed to fine gentlemen and ladies, and were pro- however, until an encounter took place, in which one of bably received with sympathetic approbation.”

the combatants was mortally wounded, that he succeeded The public balls, now under his management, were in abolishing the use of the sword in the city of Bath ; conducted with the greatest decorum. They commenced henceforward, whenever he heard of a challenge, he at six, and concluded at eleven : this rule he maintained instantly had both parties placed under arrest.

to him for one dance more after his authoritative finger stand against him. The country squires in those days, had given the signal for the band to withdraw, was who must have been a brutal set,--we have a very refused, with the remark that his laws were like those good type of them, no doubt, in Squire Topehall, of Lycurgus, which would admit of no alteration with with whom Roderick Random had the famous drinking out an utter subversion of all authority. Nash had bout at Bath,—would come to the balls in their heavy some difficulty in regulating the dress to be worn at boots. Nash tried all sorts of stratagems to shame the Assembly; but he went boldly to work, and chid them out of their boorishness, and, among others, he even the most exalted in rank, when they departed wrote a song in which the rhyme is about equal to the from his rules. On one occasion he signified his dis- severity, as the reader will perceive : like of the practice of wearing white aprons at the Frontinella's Invitation to the Assembly. Assembly, by stripping the Duchess of Queensberry of

“ Come one and all, to Hoyden Hall, one valued at five hundred guineas, and throwing it

For there's the assembly this night; at the hinder benches, amongst the ladies' women. The

None but servile fools duchess begged his Majesty's pardon, and made him a

Minil manners and rules; present of the obnoxious article of apparel,--to our

We Hoydens do decency slight.


“Come trollops and slatterns,

a few words. I own myself unequal to the task ; for Cock'd hats and white aprons,

even granting it possible to express an inexpressible This best our modesty suits ;

idea, I am the worst person you could have pitched For why should not we

upon for this purpose, who have received so few favours In dress be as free

from the great myself, that I am utterly unacquainted As Ilogs-Norton squires in boots ?”

with what kind of thanks they like best. Whether Finding that his verses told, he followed up his success

the P— most loves poetry or prose, I protest I do by inventing a puppet-show, in which Punch' comes not know ; but this I dare venture to affirm, that you in, booted and spurred, in the character of a country can give him as much satisfaction in either as I can." squire. Upon going to bed with his wife, he is desired (Signed " A. Pope.") Nash, who doubtless took the to pull off his boots. “My boots,” replies Punch, very ambiguous compliment at the conclusion of the "why, Madam, you might as well pull off my legs! letter in its most favourable aspect, still pestered the I never go without boots ; I never ride, I never dance, poet until he got the inscription out of him, and a very without them; and this piece of politeness is quite the ordinary affair it is, as might have been expected, from thing in Bath." At last his wife gets so tired of him the writer's contempt of both Nash and his "R.H.” that she kicks him off the stage. There was some real We cannot help regarding these obelisks as " standpoint in this contrivance of Nash's, and the squires ing advertisements” for the town; and Nash evidently were soon shamed out of their boorishness. Sometimes, used up the two princes in the same manner that Prohowever, a gentleman, through ignorance or haste, fessor Holloway, of Ointment notoriety, does the Earl would appear in the rooms in the forbidden boots; but of Aldborough in the columns of the • Times.' Nash always made up to him, and bowing with much But turn we again to the magnificence of Nash in mock gravity, would tell him that he had forgotten to his day of pride. Behold him going forth upon a probring his horse.

gress to the colony of Tunbridge he has founded, in Beau Nash, like other potentates, had his crown: his post-chariot and six grays, with outriders, footmen, the old German emperors fumed and fretted under and French horns; and at the side of his equipage bis an iron diadem: the king of Bath wore a white hat, famous running footman, Murphy, who thought nothing which he wished to be taken as an emblem of the purity of going a message for his master to London in a day. of his mind! Ile might be considered to have reached Had not Bath reason to be proud of a king who kept the apogee of his reign between the years 1730-40. such sumptuous state ? It might be asked how Nash Within that time, Bath was honoured with the visits managed to support all this extravagance, as he received of two royal personages—the Prince of Orange and no remuneration in consideration of his office as Master the Prince of Wales, both of whom he managed to turn of the Ceremonies. One word will explain all-play to account. Those who have visited Bath have doubt-filled his overflowing purse. less been struck with the prevalence of obelisks in that If, under his auspices, the resources of the city for city, the peculiarly mournful form of which seems to restoring health were fully developed, it cannot be give a character to the place. The stranger who views denied that he fostered the vices that ruined the mind; them would little think that these monuments, which and thousands that came hither to recruit the body did breathe such a solemn spirit, were the handiwork of not leave it until they were morally ruined. such a frivolous specimen of humanity as the Beau : Hazard, lansquenet, and loo, were the milder forms such, however, is the case. The obelisk in the Orange of excitement in which the ladies joined ; and, accordGrove was erected by him, to commemorate the visit ing to Anstey, who lashes the folly of the day in his of the Prince of Orange to the city for the benefit of famous New Bath Guide,' had a pretty way of their his health, in 1734. Nash, who appears to have com- own of cheating : bined a most ecstatic loyalty with a shrewd eye to tlie “ Industrious creatures ! that make it a rule benefit of his little kingdom, was so overcome with the To secure half the fish, while they manage the pool : miraculousness of the Prince's recovery, that he imme- So they win to be sure; yet I very much wonder diately had this building erected, inscribing a seasonable Why they put so much money the candlestick under; puff upon it of the virtues of the Bath waters.

For up comes a man on a sudden slapdash, Again, in 1738, when the Prince of Wales visited

Snuff's the candles, and carries away all the cash;

And as nobody troubles their heads any more, Bath, Nash run up another obelisk in Queen Square,

I'm in very great hopes that it goes to the poor. and in order to make it all the more worthy of the personage it was dedicated to, he asked Pope to write The sterner sex indulged in more desperate games, its inscription. The poet's answer is a master-piece and an incredible deal of money was lost to the sharpers of irony: the monument he was pressed to dignify with who made the city their head-quarters during the dead his composition is not more cutting and severe in its metropolitan season. To such a height was gambling outline, as the reader will perceive.

carried, that at last the Government interfered, and by “Sir,-I have received yours, and thank your par- | Act of Parliament suppressed all the games of chance tiality in my favour. You say words cannot express of the day. Public gaming thus being checked, the the gratitude you feel for the favours of his R. H., and whole source of Nash's income was cut off at once. yet you would have me express what you feel, and in He managed to recover it, however, for a time, but


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