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be the distance ever so small. Every one, however, cau 100 not afford a carriage, and though I never inquired into cthe

the cause of this concourse of females in Broadway, it is obil

natural to supposc, from the population, that exercise or They

indispensable business forces them abroad. I must supall

pose this, for I never saw more industry, or more general

application to business of every description, than in this ound

cily. Turn which way you will; mechanics, carvers, car. shed

penters, bricklayers, ship-carpenters, carlmen, all is one continual bustle, from morning till ten o'clock at night. I have known young ladics, (those who have no dependence but their industry,) since I have been in the city, sit

up till twelve o'clock at night, to complete a suit of clothes, the proceeds of which was to purchase. a fine cap, or a plume of feathers, to deck herself for church. Hundreds of those females thus maintain themselves in a style of splendor; no ladies in the city dress finer, a ten dollar hai, a thirty dollar shawl, with silk and lace, is

coinmon amongst the poorer class of females. This peo. | cinema and

keeps them employed; industry promotes virtue, and vir.. tue promotes happiness. No wonder New-York out

strips all her rivals! Her Clinton at her head, her Hudwill

son and canals at her back, the Atlantic before her, cová le cive

ered with the wealth of nations, her citizens industriotis, generous and enterprising, her whole system elevated and grand, she must succeed. Whilst others are debat

ing the question of right and wrong, New York is acting. olur.

Meantime, her hospitality holds out a hearty welcome lo

ber M. and

alike to the oppressed,* and 10 the opulent. This is not only the effect of good policy, bat good feeling and good

nature. pole affa.

History. The various cfforts of Europe to discover a

north-west passage to India, led to the discovery of the i lale

place where New York city now stands. Henry Hudhose

son, an experienced scaman, and an Englishman by birth, Pre of having made iwo unsuccessful attempts at this discovery, that

quit the service of England, and went over to Holland, seen

where he was well received by the Dutch East-India Company, who took him into their service. · Nothing is knowa of the birth, education, or early history of Hudson.

la no city in the world, does the distressed struoger meet with that mlief and kindoess which he docs in New-York.

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Ho set sail from Amsterdam, on the 25th of Marck, 1609, in the Half-moon, which was uavigated by twenty Dutchmen ; his object still being that of finding a passage to India. After coasting backwards and forwards, in different directions, he came to anchor in a fine bar. bor, in latilude 40 deg. 30 min.--the present SandyHonk, on the 4th of September. On the 6th, he sent a bout to survey what appeared to be the mouth of a river. This is the strait between Long-Irland and Staten Island. Here was fine depth of water; within was a largo openiny, and a narrow river on the west ; the channel between Bergen-neck and Staten Island.* As the boat WA* returning, it was attacked by some of the Natives, in two canoes. One man (John Coleman) was killed : he was buried on a point of laud, which has since been culled Culcman's point. On the 11th they sailed through the narrows, and found a good harbor, secure from winds.

The next day they turned against a north-west wind, into the mouth of a river, which now bears the name of Hudson, and came to anchor two leagues within il.-Here they wpent two days: during these two days, says the author, we were visited by the Indians, who brought us Judian corn, beans, and other vegetables. They then sniled up the river on high an whero Albany, now stands.

Hudson then returned to Holland, and making a favorable report of the country, the Dutch sont over a company in 1010, for the purpose of trading with the natives. In 1614, the States General having granted a patent to sundry merchants, for an exclusive trade on the Hudson river, they built a fort to protect the company from the natives on the west side of the river, where Albany now stands. The command o! this fort was given to Ilcnry Cristiæns, who was the first permanent settler, not only of Albany, but of the state of New York. The fort was called"Fort Orange. They also built a church. About the same time, a trading-house was established on the south-west point of Manhattan-island, where New York city now stands, and called New-Amsterdam: the whole colony was called New-Netherlands-lhe aborigiues were called Manbattoes.



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Amongst the first settlers of this colony, were the Ten-
broeks, Beekmans, Van Rensselaers, Carterrets, Living-
stons, Delancys; all of whose descendants distinguished
theinselves in the revolution, either as patriots or loyal-
ists. Those gentlemen bore the marks of respectabili-
ty about them, such as family plate, family portraits, &c.
'The first man, however, who settled the spot where the
city now stands, was Van Twiller. The colony built a
fort where the battery now is, whence it took its name.
About this time the Hudson river was settled with nu-
merous and powerful Indians, consisting of wandering
families, but ihe Dutch purchased the land of them for a
trifle., (so says the historian,) being unable to cope with
them in the field. The renowned Five Nations lived on
the Mohawk; they were an ingenious people, and culti-
vated maize and beans.

lo a few years the tranquility of the colony was dis-
turbed by the English of Massachusetts Bay, who laid
claim to the colony, and finally the disputes between
them and the Dutch assumed a serious appearance. The
Dew and old England combining, the New-Netherlands
were invaded by an armed force, and threatened with an
attack if they did not immediately surrender. The
Dutch therefore capitulated, and upon very favourable
terms; every thing was to remain as it was, only they ac-
knowledging the British sovereignty. Fort Amsterdam
(where the battery now is) and Fort Orange were deliv-

to the British; the first took the name of " New-
York," after the Duke of York, and the latter that of
"Albany," another of his titles.* This change of mas-
ters took place in 1664, old style. Albany, before this,
was called “ Oranienburgh,” (rather a hard name.) At
this time, New-York consisted of several small streets,
which bad, been laid out in 1656, and was not inconside-
rable for the number of houses. To this day the Dutch
hate the British, and are the truest whigs I have met with
yet, the Tennesseeans not excepted.

Richard Nichols, a man of great prudence and mode. ration, now took the government upon himself, ander the

* Smith's History of New York.

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style of “Deputy-governor, under his royal highness the Duke of York, of all his territories in America. The first object of Gov. Nichols's attention, was the gradual introduction of the English language, and in 1665, on the 12th day of June, be incorporated the inhabitants of New York under the care of a mayor, five aldermen, and a sheriff. Till this time, the city of New-York was gov. erned by scout, burgo-masters and chepens.

When Smith wrote his history of New York, the city (he says) contained about 2,500 buildings, was a milc in length, and half a mile in breadth. How many inhabi. tants the city contained at that period, Sinith does not say; but the population of the whole colony, consisting of ten counties, (including the city,) only amolinted to 100,000. These were usscsscd at £10,000,000, and taxed at £45,000. The city of New York alone at this time greatly exceeds this nuniber. The sinall state of Connecticui, at the time just referred to, contained 133,000 inhabitants. This great increase of New York, is to be ascribed not only to its natural advantages, which exceed all calculation, but to the character of its citizens.

Literary Men. It is well known that New-York has produced her share of literary men; my business, how. ever, is simply to notice those who are at present es. teemed men of letters. Of these perhaps Washington Irving is the first-next, Paulding, Cooper, Dr. Mitchill

, and Dr. Hosack; of these, Paulding has cver been my favourite. Very little time, therefore, was lost, after my arrival in the city, before I paid my respects to this cele. brated man.

If I admired him as a writer, I was charm. ed with his appearance and manners, which perfectly correspond with the idea we are led to form of him from his writings. Mr. P. is in height about five foet ten inches, his figure is light, and he moves with casc and grace, being spare, but well formed. His complexion is dark, his hair the deepest black, his eyes what is usually terined black, of the middling shade, and uncommonly brilliant. His face is oval, his features delicate, but reg. ular, and what may be called handsome; bis raven locks fall over his neck and forehead in ringlets of ineffable -beauty. His countenance comprises all that can be con

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ceived of benignity and diffidence, a little dashed with the facetious. His language is simple, his voice soft and harmonious. In his manners he is frank, generous, and gentle as the dove. He is a man of quick discernment, and is said to be humane to a fault. Mr. P. lives in princely style, and his house is the abode of hospitality. ile is said to appertain to the same family of the highminded soldier of that name, who captured Major Andre. He appears to be upwards of 40 years of age.

Dr. S. L. Mitchill, the distinguished philosopher, is celebrated throughout the world, as a man of great natural and acquired abilities. His mind enriched with science and experimental philosophy, he is at the head of every literary and scientific institution in New York, as well as honorary member of many in other countries.Dr. M. appears to be somewhere about sixty years of age, about the common height, a good figure, and heavy make; his complexion is fair and ruddy, his face oval, with a high forehead, and small blue eye, which is almost closed when he laughs or biniles. His hair is while, but whether from age or not, I could not distinguish; but his countenance, for benevolence and good vatnre, is une. qualled. I should take him to be one of the best tempered men in the world, and no man's temper, perhaps, is put to a greater trial; his house is constantly filied with strangers who honour him with calls; it is a perfect levee, each taking his turn to be admitted. In his man. ners he is familiar and condescending, without any parade of learning. In short, he is one of the most agrecable and pleasant men I ever met; his conversation is narked with that unconscious simplicity common to children. He has a little daughter, about four years of age, already treading in the steps of her father; she had a nunher of fossils and shells ranged before her, and scened eagerly engaged in the study of natural philosphy; he has one more daughter, and no son.

Dr. Hosack is quite a young man, compared with Dr. M. He is in the prime of life, a gentleman of immense wealth, and one of the greatest botanists of the age; to his labour and indefatigable industry may be ascribed the success of that study ia New-York. He is also a man of

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