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"physiology.” Such practical things as correct defects of the teeth that lead to adequate ventilation, scientific lighting, mal-nutrition, opticalclinics that turn many sanitary privies, organized play, and “dull” pupils into bright pupils, special health inspection have largely replaced classes for backward and deficient childthe old routine gymnastics and the in- ren, and health inspection and visiting struction that did not instruct. Physi- nurses that do an incalculable service cians and dentists and sociologists have toward improving the bodily and mental come to the aid of the schoolmen, and vigor of the young folk. they all are studying together the prob- These helpful activities lend special lems of healthful childhood and coöpera- significance and interest to the fourth ting to put into practise the efficient International Congress on School Hygiene knowledge of science to build a better race. which will gather at Buffalo in August.

Consider such facts as these, which they More than 250 doctors and teachers from have brought to light:

all parts of the United States and Europe Professor Monroe, of Stanford Univer- will gather there to exchange information sity, gathered particulars relating to 10,000 and to compare experiences in this vitally children of the public schools of California important work of human conservation and found that 3 per cent. of the children and uplift. The hopeful advance of were feeble minded and not less than 10 American education - especially of rural per cent. backward and mentally dull, education - is largely bound up in the needing special care and attention. knowledge and the inspiring enthusiasm

During 1909 and 1910, 252,254 children that arise from such gatherings as this. were given thorough physical examinations by the New York Committee on the Wel

PRIVATE PENSIONS FOR fare of School Children. Of this number,

MOTHERS 14,255 were found to be suffering from mal-nutrition, tuberculosis nodes, pul- ENSIONS for mothers are now monary diseases, orthopedic defects, and being tried under state law in defective mentality.

Missouri and elsewhere. Whether In Boston, in 1903, of 23,207 pupils such aid can be administered as a function examined, 6,571 cases of disease were of the State without the abuses that grow detected and of these 5,818, or one quarter, up under other governmental pension were too ill to be in school, and 40 per systems can be known only as time reveals cent. of them had contagious diseases. results. The results of various kinds of Nine months' examination in Philadelphia pensions and state insurance abroad should showed 5,876 cases of diseases, of which lead us at least to go very carefully in 3,446 were contagious.

these things. But private philanthropy, It has been estimated that of the twenty acting under the safeguards of a localized million pupils in the schools of this coun- administration and of close business try, probably 5 per cent. have tuberculosis scrutiny, is trying a similar experiment in of the lungs, more than 5 per cent. have Atlanta, Ga., and thus far with success. defective hearing, 25 per cent. have de- For the last three years, the Hebrew fective vision, 25 per cent. are suffering Orphans' Home, of Atlanta, has “subfrom mal-nutrition, more than 30 per sidized" orphans that were committed to cent. have enlarged tonsils and adenoids its care. Twenty fatherless children now or enlarged glands in the neck, and more are being supported in their own homes than 50 per cent. have defective teeth under their own mothers' care by funds which interfere with their development. contributed by the institution. There is In other words, about fifteen million room for them in the institutional home in children require attention to their health. Atlanta, but the trustees believe that the

To meet these conditions, many cities new method promises better results for the now maintain open-air class rooms and children and that it is more economical, even whole schools in the open air to fight The Atlanta home has originated the printuberculosis, dental clinics to discover and ciple of employing this subsidy as a sub

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stitute for the old method of institutional dence ends; and a minimum of overhead care; but the idea of subsidy is several expense permits a wider use of funds. years old. It has been used by two large Eventually, the managers of this instiJewish homes in New York, and by or- tution intend that it shall be diminished phanages of other denominations in New in scope and quarters to nothing more than England, at intervals during several years a receiving station for new orphans and to past, but usually as a temporary measure a home for the very few children who have when the homes were too crowded to no kin at all and are not attractive enough receive new applicants. The Atlanta to be welcomed in other families. home, on the contrary, expects to prove The loveless routine of most orphanages itself unnecessary, wasteful, and a poor has been called “the curse of institutionmakeshift for the natural plan of leaving alism." This plan of the Hebrew Orphans' the orphans to be cared for in their own or Home, if it continue to succeed, will in adopted homes.

transform the lives of thousands of chilMeanwhile, the Atlanta institution con- dren and mothers. tinues. There are about 100 children in it, gathered from Georgia, North and ANCIENT CUSTOMS IN COLLEGES South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. It represents

HE social life of our colleges, para non-revenue bearing investment of

ticularly the life at Harvard, Yale, about $100,000, and last year more than

and Princeton, has lately been $20,000 was spent upon its maintenance. much in public discussion. Mr. Wilson, The average cost of support of each child when president of Princeton, was the centre in it was $216 for the year. The average of a fine struggle for democracy and cost per child under the orphan-subsidy scholarship. President Lowell, at Harplan has been $150 per year, with far vard, has quietly been making many better results. The difference lies in the changes with the same ends in view. At "overhead" expense of the institution. Yale, the sophomore class precipitated a

Six years ago the Atlanta home first revolt against the oligarchy formed by the applied the orphan-subsidy principle members of the three senior societies. with this new purpose in view. It re- A college course is four years, and a turned a boy to his mother and agreed to practice can become an old and sacred pay her a stipulated sum every month tradition of many generations in less than toward his support. In all instances but a generation of the outside world. The one the method has worked out admirably sanctity of custom is strong to the college and is a permanent solution. No mother- man, particularly in those colleges where less children or parentless children yet undergraduate sentiment looks upon have been cared for, but the home intends criticism of anything that bears the college to extend the subsidy to them. No ex- name as disloyalty. Moreover, a healthy perimenting is done. Every step is taken revolt against ancient absurdities has carefully and after much deliberation, for hardly the time to succeed before the rethe board of trustees is very conservative. volters have passed their four years and are The amount of subsidy varies to accord gone into the world. with the child's circumstances and station. Once in a while, as recently at Yale, an It varies, too, with the number of children insurgent cause will gain confidence enough in a family, being less proportionately for to demand a change, but usually "ancient two than for one. As the family becomes custom” rules supreme. With this situaless dependent, the subsidy is reduced. tion among the students it is necessary for

By this new method, home and family the authorities to give every encourageare not disrupted, for the children are left ment to any initiative and constructive in the care of their natural guardian; imagination that may come up among the children under five years of age are sub- students in the management of their lives sidized, as well as older children;the respon- in college; to encourage every undergradsibility of the institution ends when depen- uate to find out what kind of a place he is

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in and to use his own brains and character and the ballot has been so simplified that in determining his ways, in other words there will be little danger of the voters to encourage him to be a man with some confusing the issue. training in meeting new situations. It is An additional purpose in putting the a very happy sign of the times that such commission government in Los Angeles a tendency is in sight in many parts of the County, which may also be characteristic American college world.

elsewhere, is the desire to get county

"home rule," to free the county from rigid A COUNTY COMMISSION GOVERN- adherence to general state laws that have MENT

been framed at the distant capital.

The operation of the provision for a SHORT ballot and a simple and county road commissioner will be watched responsible government are hope- everywhere with great interest, for the

ful political tendencies. There are method of road construction and maintwo or three cities with managers and tenance, now universal in the Western two or three hundred with commission

states, by supervisorial districts and under form of government. Eleven governors the direction of the several supervisors, is this spring urged the principles of the a clumsy confusion of legislative and adshort ballot in their annual messages, minstrative functions that has had lamentand the Governor of Kansas believes that

able results upon rural highways. "states as well as cities should be ruled

Los Angeles County has entered hopeby commission.”

fully upon a most interesting experiment In the meanwhile in the counties, a most that may very possibly be as important a important but somewhat neglected field contribution to democratic government as of government, the new idea has taken hold.

the commission plan has already proved On June 2nd last, Los Angeles County, itself to be in the cities. Cal., took advantage of a recent amendment to the state constitution that per

A SURVEY OF OUR ERA mits counties to try the simplified form of government. It leaves only three officers HE Rt. Hon. James Bryce, late besides the supervisors to be elected: the

ambassador to the United States, sheriff, the district attorney, and the asses

world-traveler and historian, resor. The supervisors appoint the other cently wrote a brief survey of our era that eight county officers from the eligible civil you will find it hard to match in cosmic service list. The supervisors can, also, grasp of world forces and in graphic power have as many or as few deputies, clerks, of phrase. It was a few paragraphs of janitors, and the like as the county's his written address, read (in his absence) business requires, instead of a number before the International Congress of Hisfixed by the legislature, as had been the torical Studies, in London: case formerly.

What is it that the traveler sees to-day in The whole machinery that carries on the

India, in Africa, in the two Americas, in Auscounty affairs is not only given a chance to

tralasia, and the isles of the Pacific? He sees be pliable and elastic but it is at the same the smaller, weaker, and more backward races time greatly reduced and simplified. For changing or vanishing under the impact of example, formerly the sheriff and the con- civilized man; their languages disappearing; stables were independent of each other, and their religious beliefs withering; their tribal as their duties overlapped they were in organizations dissolving; their customs fading constant conflict. Now the constables are

slowly away, first from use and then from ex officio deputy sheriffs.

memory.

From the blending of others with immigrants All the authority is in the hands of the supervisors and all the responsibility is

streaming in, a hybrid race is growing up, in

which, as in the case of the mixture of Chinese upon them. The people can tell whom

with the natives of Tahiti and Hawaii, the to praise and whom to blame, whom to stronger and more civilized element seems defeat at the polls and whom to reëlect; fated to predominate. In other cases, people

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too large and powerful to lose their individuality World history is tending to become one hisare nevertheless beginning to be so affected by tory, the history no longer of many different European influences as to find themselves races of mankind occasionally affecting one anpassing into a new circle of ideas and a new other's fortunes, but the history of mankind as a set of institutions. Change is everywhere, whole, the fortunes of each branch henceforth and the process of change is so rapid that the bound up with those of the others. In these conpast will soon be forgotten. It is a past the ditions, the historian of the future will need an like of which can never recur. Ethnologists, amplitude of conception and a power of groupphilologists, and students of folklore are at ing his figures like that of Tintoretto or Michael work recording those expiring forms of speech Angelo, if he is to handle so vast a canvas. and embodiments in custom of primitive human thought; and not a moment should be

A LESSON IN INVESTMENTS lost in saving the precious relics. There is one other aspect of the present age

ALF a dozen industrial securities of the world that has a profound and novel

that were floated during the last meaning for the historian. The world is be

few years have dwindled in price coming one in an altogether new sense. More

from 25 to 75 per cent., and there has than four centuries ago the discovery of America marked the first step in the process by which

been a great deal of uneasiness and disthe European races have now gained dominion

trust in Wall Street as a result of this over nearly the whole of the earth. The last spectacular decline. great step in that process was the partition of Ten years ago, the same thing hapAfrica between three European Powers a little pened, but on a much bigger scale. At more than twenty years ago.

that time, for example, the stock of the Now, almost every part of the earth's sur- United States Steel Corporation dropped face, except the territories of China and Japan, to about $8 a share, cut its dividend, and is either owned or controlled by five or six carried misfortune and distrust to the European races. Eight Great Powers sway

homes of thousands of people who had the political destinies of the globe, and there

bought it as an investment security. The are only two other countries that can be thought of as likely to enter after a while into

present episode is only a smaller repetition the rank of Great Powers. Similarly, a few

of the same phenomenon. But with this

difference: The great holding companies European tongues have overspread all the Continents, except Asia, and even there it of the last decade were floated in the midst seems probable that those few European of a widespread financial enthusiasm, and tongues will before long be learned and used by their stocks were carried away by the the educated classes in such wise as to bring

to bring general public and treasured as investment those classes into touch with European ideas. securities until the collapse taught again It is likely that by 2000 A. D. more than nine the old grim lesson that water will run tenths of the human race will be speaking less downhill. In this more recent episode than twenty languages. Already there are practically only four great

the public temper was more critical. Inreligions in the world. Within a century the

vestors had to be coaxed into buying the minor religions may be gone; and possibly

modern industrial stocks, and evidence is only three great faiths will remain, with such

still lacking that any large part of the accelerated swiftness does change now move.

issues that have had such spectacular Those things which are already strong are

declines was held by the general public. growing stronger; those already weak grow Instead, the bankers who floated these weaker and are ready to vanish away. Thus, stocks sold them mostly to Wall Street as the earth has been narrowed through the people - little pools of bankers, brokers, new forces science has placed at their disposal,

dealers, and business men — who are and as the larger human groups absorb or

accustomed to take speculative risks. assimilate the smaller, the movements of politics, of economics, and of thought in each

Possibly no great harm has been done, of its regions become more closely interwoven

therefore, and if the ger eral investment with those of every other. Finance, even

public has learned again the lesson not to more than politics, has now made the world play with speculative “pets" in the stock one community, and finance is more closely market, they have bought their knowledge interwoven with politics than ever before. very cheaply indeed.

AN ARCHITECT'S “INVESTMENT”

IN STOCKS

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NE day, about seven years quent reports were made from New York ago, a well-to-do architect of

on the progress of the stock selling camParis found in his mail a paign, and finally a circular was issued, prospectus which gave rise saying that the property had been pur

to an investment experience chased and that before very long actual somewhat out of the ordinary.

construction work would be begun It was a prospectus, written after the Then, suddenly, information ceased to be fashion of such documents, setting forth forthcoming. The architect and his friend the details of the formation of a cold began to worry and, after spending a good storage warehouse concern in New York, deal of time and money in investigating, and offering stock participation in the they discovered they had been duped. enterprise on liberal terms.

Up to this point in the story of the The architect read the description care- architect there is nothing to distinguish fully and critically in the light of his his experience from that of ignorant technical training and became impressed investors everywhere, who persist blindly with the apparent plausibility of the in putting money into enterprises which scheme. The company was to be modestly proper analysis would quickly show to capitalized at less than $2,000,000 — with have little, if any, chance of ever getting $850,000 preferred and about $1,000,000 beyond the prospectus stage. But the common stock, and the preferred could be Frenchman did not consider this incident had at par, with an equal amount of com- closed, as most such incidents are when mon thrown in as a bonus.

the investment is found to have vanished According to the estimates of the pro- into thin air. He told his troubles to his moter a man named Bartlett, who was lawyer, and the lawyer, after making infairly well known in foreign banking circles quiry about the men whose names had - the annual net revenues, when the appeared in the list of directors of the business of the company got under way, "paper" company, advised that there was would amount approximately to $325,000. a good chance of forcing the restitution of Out of this would have to come, the pro- the money paid for the stock. In due moter explained, the interest on a proposed time, action was begun in the New York mortgage for $1,000,000, but there would courts, and only a few weeks ago the highstill remain enough to pay the 6 per cent. est tribunal in the state gave a decision in dividends on the preferred stock, and more favor of both complaining investors, the than 20 per cent. on the common. There architect and his friend. fore, the terms on which the architect At the time of writing this story, it is could get in, if he were quick to take advan- not a matter of record whether the money tage of the opportunity, would give him a has actually been refunded; nor is there 26 per cent. investment.

any evidence to show that the two invesAs every experienced investor knows, tors may not have to content themselves those figures should have served to put merely with their legal “judgment.” But the Frenchman on his guard. But he was that is not the most important point. either credulous or venturesome, and upon After reaching the decision that the receiving additional assurances that he investors had been inveigled into buying stood no chance to lose, he invested the stock by false and fraudulent state$5,000 of his own money, and got a friend ments, contained in the company's proto put in $20,000.

spectus, the court refused to listen to the For a while, things apparently went pleas of the directors that they had had no along to everybody's saiisfaction. Fre- knowledge of such statements, and held

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