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tion of an inch situated within a foot of our
own noses ; or on the other hand, we may CONTENTS:
occupy some commanding position and from On the Magnitude of the Solar System: WILLIAM
thence, aided by a telescope, we may obHARKNESS.
29 The Baltimore Meeting of the American Society of
tain a comprehensive view of an extensive Naturalists: W. A. SETCHELL, Secretary.
34 region. The first method is that of the The Princeton Meeting of the American Psychological specialist, the second is that of the philos
Association: J. MCKEEN CATTELL, Secretary...42 Current Notes on Anthropology; New Series, I.: D.
opher, but both are necessary for an adeG. Brinton
quate understanding of nature. The one Hygiene :
has brought us knowledge wherewith to deThe New Serum Treatment of Diphtheria ; Oys
ters as a Means of Transmitting Typhoid Fever. . 49 fend ourselves against bacteria and microbes The Evolution of Invention: 0. T. Mason. 50
which are among the most deadly enemies Scientific Literature :
of mankind, and the other has made us Kelvin's Popular Addresses : T. C. Mendenhall. Laws of Temperature Control of the Geographic acquainted with the great laws of matter Distribution of Life. Lamson-Scribner's Grasses
and force upon which rests the whole fabric of Tennessee : N. L. B. Notes :
of science. All nature is one, but for con
55 Physics ; Personal; Zoölogy; New Publications. venience of classification we have divided Societies and Academies.
our knowledge into a number of sciences New Books.
which we usually regard as quite distinct MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended from each other. Along certain lines, or for review should be sent to the responsible editor, Prof. J. McKeen Cattell, Garrison on Hudson, N. Y.
more properly, in certain regions, these Subscriptions (five dollars annually) and advertisements should be sent to the Publisher of SCIENCE, 41 East 49th St., sciences necessarily abut on each other, and New York.
just there lies the weakness of the specialON THE MAGNITUDE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM.*
ist. He is like a wayfarer who always NATURE may be studied in two widely
finds obstacles in crossing the boundaries different ways. On the one hand we may
between two countries, while to the travemploy a powerful microscope which will eler who gazes over them from a commandrender visible the minutest forms and limit ing eminence the case is quite different. If our field of view to an infinitesimal frac
the boundary is an ocean shore there is no
mistaking it ; if a broad river or a chain of *Part of the Address delivered before the American
mountains it is still distinct; but if only a Association for the Advancement of Science at its
line of posts traced over hill and dale, then Brooklyn meeting, August 16, 1894, by the retiring
it becomes lost in the natural features of President, Professor Harkness, and reprinted with his permission.
the landscape, and the essential unity of the whole region is apparent. In that case the that they have generally dealt either with border land is wholly a human conception the recent advances in some broad field of of which nature takes no cognizance, and science, or else with the development of so it is with the scientific border land to some special subject. This evening I prowhich I propose to invite your attention pose to adopt the latter course, and I shall this evening.
invite your attention to the present condiTo the popular mind there are no two tion of our knowledge respecting the magnisciences further apart than astronomy and tude of the solar system, but in so doing it geology. The one treats of the structure will be necessary to introduce some conand mineral constitution of our earth, the siderations derived from laboratory expericauses of its physical features and its his- ments upon the luminiferous ether, others tory, while the other treats of the celestial derived from experiments upon ponderable bodies, their magnitudes, motions, distances, matter, and still others relating both to the periods of revolution, eclipses, order, and of surface phenomena and to the internal the causes of their various phenomena. structure of the earth, and thus we shall And yet many, perhaps I may even say deal largely with the border land where most of the apparent motions of the heavenly astronomy, physics and geology merge into bodies are merely reflections of the motions each other. of the earth, and in studying them we are The relative distances of the various really studying it. Furthermore, preces- bodies which compose the solar system can sion, nutation and the phenomena of the be determined to a considerable degree of tides depend largely upon the internal struc- approximation with very crude instruments ture of the earth, and there astronomy and as soon as the true plan of the system begeology merge into each other. Neverthe- comes known, and that plan was taught by less the methods of the two sciences are Pythagoras more than five hundred years widely different, most astronomical prob- before Christ. It must have been known to lems being discussed quantitatively by the Egyptians and Chaldeans still earlier, if means of rigid mathematical formulæ, while Pythagoras really acquired his knowledge in the vast majority of cases the geological of astronomy from them as is affirmed by ones are discussed only qualitatively, each some of the ancient writers, but on that author contenting himself with a mere state- point there is no certainty. In public Pythament of what he thinks. With precise data goras seemingly accepted the current belief the methods of astronomy lead to very exact of his time, which made the earth the center results, for mathematics is a mill which of the universe, but to his own chosen disgrinds exceeding fine ; but, after all, what ciples he communicated the true doctrine comes out of a mill depends wholly upon that the sun occupies the center of the what is put into it, and if the data are un- solar system, and that the earth is only one certain, as is the case in most cosmological of the planets revolving around it. Like problems, there is little to choose between all the world's greatest sages, he seems to the mathematics of the astronomer and the have taught only orally. A century elapsed guesses of the geologist.
before his doctrines were reduced to writing If we examine the addresses delivered by by Philolaus of Crotona, and it was still former presidents of this Association, and of later before they were taught in public for the sister-perhaps it would be nearer the the first time by Hicetas, or, as he is sometruth to say the parent-Association on the times called, Nicetas, of Syracuse. Then other side of the Atlantic, we shall find the familiar cry of impiety was raised, and