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I find in a table bearing date of 1904, locking combinations. This is certainly that the Deutsche Bank of Berlin was true in England, France, and Russia; represented by interlocking directorates and “the Dollar Diplomacy” of the United in 240 different industrial, transportation, States, now happily of the past, was based or exploiting companies. The Dresdener on the same fundamental principle. Bank was represented in 191, the Bank of By such means, the foreign policy of Schaaffhäussenscher in 211, the Darm- . each of these “Great Powers” is directed städter Bank in 161, and the Disconto to safeguard the ventures of those great Gesellschaft in 110. These figures may banks which make a specialty of foreign be doubled by this time, and each of these risks. In Europe the governments everybanks has many branches or minor where frankly make open cause with the establishments over which it has entire interests. The foreign offices are therecontrol. Doubtless, too, these and other fore for the most part little more than the banks in Berlin, Paris, London, and firm names under which these interlocking Vienna interlock with one another. They syndicates transact their foreign business. certainly connect with the great armament Whatever the virtues or the evils of the syndicates, so powerful and so profitable, system of interlocking directorates, the of Krupp, Schneider, Armstrong, Vickers- evils at least are greatly accentuated when Maxim, and the rest. Still more important the Government becomes a part of the and more significant is the fact that these system, extending its operations in foreign various establishments, by interlocking lands by means of secret treaties, by arrangements, stand very close to the official guarantees, by threats, and by ruling powers in their respective nations. force of arms. A large percentage of the

In Germany we may fairly regard the international troubles of the world arise Emperor as the centre of a gigantic mutual from this one source, the use of governinvestment organization, with its three mental authority to promote private branches of aristocracy, militarism, and schemes of spoliation. finance, all the powers of the State, military Once rid of the “Sphere of Influence" as well as diplomatic, being placed at the and of the war machinery which upholds service of the combined interests. In so it, and once rid of the war-right of piracy far as other nations are “Powers,” the fact at sea, we could look with confidence is due to the influence of similar inter- toward the dawn of international peace.

MRS. ANDREW, IRONMASTER

AN “IRON WOMAN” IN REAL LIFE WHO TOOK CHARGE OF HER HUSBAND'S FOUNDRY AND WHO MADE IT PAY BY HER BUSINESS SKILL AND BY HER

METHOD OF FRIENDLY PERSONAL RELATIONS WITH HER EMPLOYEES

BY
SARAH COMSTOCK

NE day a molder in an anvil “The boss smashed two of hers, and she

works in Trenton, N. J., dis- stayed on the job,” was his significant
played a crushed finger to a reply.
fellow-molder.

That's exactly what the "boss” does, and "Why don't you go home?” every man in the foundry knows it — the other asked him. “You could get she stays on the job. Fair weather or the day off.”

foul, when extra heavy orders cause a The man wrapped a rag around the panic of haste and overwork, when the finger and took up his rammer once more. plant runs shorthanded, when business crises occur, it is all the same - the "boss” factory on any one of the six work-days is there with the seven o'clock whistle. and see for yourself. You will find it in If there is no other way to get out the the smutty section of the old capital, work, she is ready to seize ladle or molding- where the smoke and soot and dust of spoon, rammer or hammer, and a little many herded factories hang heavy and thing like a smashed finger or so is not the Delaware River lumbers along under worth stopping for. It is rare, therefore,' their pall. If you are not there when the to find a workman who cares to mention whistle blows, you will miss the beginning a similar little inconvenience of his own, of her work-day. since the "boss” is a woman. In short, she She is awake and up at six o'clock on is the Iron Woman in fact, not fiction. the farm where she lives, four miles away.

Her name is Mrs. Harriet White Fisher She motors in to the plant, and now she Andrew, and from the plant which she is lining up with all the clean-limbed owns and operates in Trenton go forth young machinists and the giant-shouldered anvils and vises to every part of the old blacksmiths who form her corps. globe. There is not a job in the works, The whistle gives a final scream and is from the primitive, muscular task of silent; from the molding room to the charging the cupola to the skilled nicety machine shop every man is in his place, of running the pneumatic chipper, which and the Iron Woman is putting on her she does not know as much about as any overall. of the half a hundred men in her employ. She wore a neat tailored suit over; She lives, she moves, she has her being now she is shrouding it in the closealways in the midst of iron creation; she fitting garment of heavy blue stuff which knows iron, iron only, from whistle to reaches from neck to heels and affords no whistle; inevitably, then, the name “Iron opportunity for fluttering skirts to make Woman” has fixed itself to her.

trouble in the midst of much machinery. When the sternly masculine National "What brought me to this,” she told me, Manufacturers' Association took her into briskly buttoning herself into the overall, its membership, it practically announced, “was a little accident that once happened “Here is a manufacturer of such achieve- in the engine room. I was standing with ment that we've got to forgive and forget my back to the belt, and all of a sudden her sex.”

I felt my skirt going. The belt had When the Efficiency Society held its grabbed it. So I just took hold of the convention in 1912, gathering employers door casing, like this, and let the skirt go and experts in the science of efficiency instead of traveling with it.” from every quarter, it sent for Mrs. Andrew She is ready now for the day's work to address these ranks of men, because in her build, in her every alert, definite here was a woman who had made such a movement, she suggests power. She is success of a big work that it was worth not a very large woman; but she will while for even experts to hear what she invite you to feel her biceps with the had to say

delight of a small boy, and you will snatch When the United States Government out your fingers gingerly before that arm ordered her anvils, not only for many of snaps shut upon them. Every time she its posts and shipyards all over the coun- steps or moves a hand there is a quick try, but above all for the great Panama spring in the movement. She is middlework, it was because the Government knew aged, gray, healthily ruddy, and steel-eyed. her anvil, and respectfully acknowledged But she radiates good cheer and huthat she knew her business.

manness. Following her through the shop, Her plant is not particularly large. It I saw faces light up when she approached. employs only about fifty men. But on There was an old blacksmith at the forge this small scale, as modern industry goes, — with shoulders that were like those of a Mrs. Andrew has worked out certain buffalo, but bent. methods that are worth observing by “Smith, how's your wife?" asked Mrs. many larger employers. Drop in at the Andrew.

Smith slowly raised his shoulders and twenty-five years. And they weren't faced her. “Aw, my vife, she very bad,” locked in, either.” he began, and there followed a consultation If you visit that factory you will see for on Mrs. Smith's lameness which revealed yourself that it is true. You can feel a that Mrs. Andrew had been to see her, spirit of friendliness hanging in the air would go again, and would see what could everywhere like the fine dust of the be done to get a change of air. When we foundry. “With a bigger

bigger corps you left, old Smith's anvil was resounding to couldn't know every wife, child, and dog," blows that had taken on new vigor. "I I naturally argued. “At least I'd like suppose you get acquainted with those to tackle the job,” she replied. who have worked for you a good while," Her secretary is all but stone deaf; I remarked, as we walked on.

that Mrs. Andrew rescued him from the “There isn't a man in my employ that ranks of the down-and-out when his

[graphic]

MRS. HARRIET WHITE FISHER ANDREW WHO HAS OWNED AND MANAGED AN IRON FOUNDRY AT TRENTON, N. J., FOR NINE YEARS, AND HAS QUADRUPLED

THE BUSINESS THAT SHE INHERITED

I don't know and whose family I don't deafness had driven him there is an interknow — wife, children, and dog,” she said. esting sidelight upon the woman. While “When employers get to the point where she dictated her morning's correspondence they realize that this means something to him, I had time to observe all the vital, both to the employee and to their certificates of award which this famous own interests, we'll see the personal old anvil has won during the seventy relation developed as it ought to be. years since Mark Fisher, her first husband's When men know that the boss is tickled father, started the making of it. The old over their good luck, and has a helping black walnut furniture is scarred, the hand for the bad luck, you won't find so walls are dingy, dust has gathered on the many discontented workers. Do you want

Do you want framed certificates. Over in one corner is to know how long old Smith has been a feeble little attempt at femininity, a here? Thirty-nine years. And a third small looking-glass. It strikes you a bit of my men have been here more than queer, somehow, when the Iron Woman winds up her letters and puts on the close and took up the work here, and the plant felt bonnet which protects her hair from has been turning out dead anvils ever smoke and sparks, that she steps over to since. We are making them in these that glass to adjust the bonnet.

modern days for trade schools and loco She is off for her everyday inspection motive works and shipyards and every now. Never a day, except during her kind of work that needs an anvil. We are summer vacation, does she miss it; never still sending them everywhere — China a man is hired or fired, never a debated has them, and Argentine, and Constanpoint settled, never a happening of any tinople, and that big eight-hundredimportance occurs about the plant, but pounder you saw being cast just now is she attends to it herself. She'll stop going to Russia. We are proud — haven't every few minutes — to investigate why we a right to be? We sometimes say that that pattern isn't finished, or how that the proudest thing of all is the fact that sand came to be too moist, or who left the tools that built the Panama Canal a sheet of paper where the sparks might were hammered on our anvils." fall on it.

“And who is we?” you may inquire “The place is just as it was built seventy - as I did. years ago," she proudly informed me. “Well,” Mrs. Andrew admits, "I guess “You see, there's no anvil in America as we is — 1." old as ours. Mark Fisher worked out his Years ago Harriet White, product of a own process of welding the steel face on young ladies' classical seminary and of a to iron so it would make a dead anvil, finishing course abroad, married Clark and when he died his son, Clark Fisher Fisher. In 1899, he was stricken desper– that was my husband — left the navy ately sick; word went around that he

[graphic]

ON HER DAILY TOUR OF INSPECTION MRS. ANDREW HAS NEVER HAD A STRIKE AND SHE ATTRIBUTES THIS GOOD FORTUNE TO HER PERSONAL INTEREST

IN THE WELFARE OF HER EMPLOYEES

men

would not be able to resume supervision her one of the trucks used for trundling of the factory. The work was apparently heavy tools. Harriet White Fisher had about to collapse.

always been a remarkably muscular young Next day his wife went down to the woman, and the courage of desperation plant. She had always been interested was in her eye and her arm. She glanced in it, as a spectator, and had spent much over a row of anvils standing before her; time there. “Where are the men?" she “That one ought to be carried out for demanded.

finishing," she remarked casually, indicat“They went — home — they thought ing a two-hundred-and-fifty-pound one. the plant – wouldn't run ” stammered The Polish workmen stood, wondering. the foreman. I

She rolled the truck didn't go!" put in

straight up to the the voice of the ship

anvil she had ping clerk.

selected, and, with Mrs. Fisher looked

well-feigned ease, them over. “So you

lifted it unconcernboys are the only

edly upon the truck ones that stood on

and trundled it off. the burning deck!”

Mrs. Fisher was to she observed. “Then

have little trouble your job will be to

from that day. She get the rest back

had said that the here as quick as their

plant would run and legs can bring them."

that she would run When the

it, and the men's were all gathered she

sneers faded

very stood up before

rapidly as they them. She was

watched her make young, she was inex

good her boast. perienced, she was

She admits herself not, in those days,

that there was conthe Iron Woman.

siderable bluff about Titters went around.

those first days. She “This plant is

knew less about the going right on," she

various operations announced. “And,

than she appeared since my husband

to. But she did not can't, I'll run it."

ask questions of the The titters came

work men. She as near being guffaws

watched them. Back as they dared, and

home at night, she MASTERING A PROCESS there was nudging

questioned her husand whispering. The

band about the puzBUSINESS, BY LEARNING TO DO IT HERSELF young woman flushed

zling details of the purple, but she said not another word, day. One by one she tried every step in except, “Take your places."

the making of vises and anvils herself, until She had only a superficial knowledge she mastered it. To-day she can take the of any part of the work, but she made up place of any man who may be absent. her mind in that instant to give a demon- Here is another of the big secrets of her stration which should take instantaneous successful leadership; she can and will do effect. She knew that the whole future anything that she ever asks one of the men hung on the drastic measure of the present. under her to do. If one complains of not Straightforward, then, Mrs. Fisher being able to accomplish in an hour what marched, caught up and pushed ahead of she demands of him, she picks up his

[graphic]

AS

SHE

HAS

MASTERED

EVERY

DETAIL

OF THE

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