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WHEN the Dominion of Canada was he began the making of a new Quebec,

created in July, 1867, the Hon. no support of value or consequence Joseph Cauchon, then at the head of was denied him. He probably loved affairs at Quebec, found himself unable literature better than politics, but he to form a government. The

task was a man who never shrank from perfell upon the

forming a shoulders of

public duty. the Hon.

In his youth Pierre J. 0.

he was deChauveau,

stined for the who in Au

Church, but gust suc

the law tempceeded in

ted him, and forming one

the bar of the strong

claimed him. est adminis

While not trations that

altogether a the province

forcible writhas ever had.

in the Those were

newspapers, the days of

he. was dual repre

exceedingly sentation. In

graceful Mr. Chau

poet, and his veau were

articles in the united the

press and rearts of states

views were manship and

admirable letters. He

and scholarpossessed

ly. Once he great tact

published a and suavity

no vel of manner. THE HON. P. J. O. CHAUVEAU, LL.D., F.R.S.C.

“Charles He was nev

Guérin" er aggressive or daring. Sometimes which gives a good picture of Frenchhe was timid. Small matters wor Canadian life and character; but ried his kindly, sensitive nature, but romance not being his forte, he his colleagues always regarded him added nothing further to the fiction as a safe leader, and accordingly, when of his native province. His tastes lay




in 1856 Le Journal de l'Instruction Publique. He made a study of the systems of education of Europe, Great Britain and the United States, and visited those countries to see the plans in operation. Some of these he subsequently adopted for his department. When the Union took place he re-entered public life and became the first Prime Minister of Quebec, as we have seen. A difference with his col. leagues arose in 1873. He resigned from the Cabinet, was defeated at the polls, but a short time afterwards was called to the Senate as Speaker of that body. When the Hon. Alexander Mackenzie came to power Mr. Chauveau re

tired from the UpperHouse. HON. GEDEON QUIMET, LL.D.

Three years later he was

appointed sheriff of Montin the direction of education, and the real, which office he held until his present school system of Quebec is death in 1890. His contributions to largely due to his guiding hand. Не French-Canadian letters have been represented Quebec County at the numerous.

He was an orator in both time of Confederation in both the languages, and his services at the inHouse of Commons and the Assembly auguration of corner-stones and monuof Quebec. Born at the Ancient Capi ments were in frequent requisition. tal in 1820, he became Premier and These speeches were characterized by Provincial Secretary of Quebec at the grace, dignity and eloquence. When age of 47.1: He was only 24 when he the Royal Society of Canada defeated the Hon. John Neilson by a founded by Lord Lorne, Mr. Chauveau majority of over 1,000 votes.


became one of its first Fellows, and a supporter of Lafontaine, but left him succeeded Sir William Dawson as its in pique, and joined the forces of Papi second president, the first French-Caneau. He identified himself with the nadian to occupy that distinguished claims of his compatriots, espoused the position. The universities of McGill cause of the Bermuda exiles, spoke and Laval granted him the degree of warmly in favour of the Rebellion Losses LL.D., while many important scienBill, and obtained a committee of the tific and literary corporations in various House to enquire into the causes of parts of the world recognized his abilemigration of French-Canadians to the ities by admitting him to honourary United States. He became Solicitor membership On two occasions he General and Provincial Secretary in the arose to his country's call for aid, formHincks-Morin Ministry, and in 1855 ing a company of Chasseurs Canadiens he retired from politics to succeed the at the time of the Trent affair, and late Dr. Meilleur as Chief Superintend- commanding as Lieut-Colonel a batent of Public Instruction. He edited talion of Home Guards during the first

He was


Fenian invasion. In 1840 he married pleasing alike the

the Protestant and Miss Marie Louise Masse.

Roman Catholic populations of QueThe second Premier of Quebec was bec-no light task, as all thinking also a lawyer, and a sound education

may well believe, for in that ist. The Hon. Gédéon Ouimet, At province religious feeling often runs torney-General in M. Chauveau's Gov high. He was not a voluminous writer, ernment, was selected to reorganize the but

among his contributions to the Cabinet, which he did on pretty much literature of Canada, his “ Law on the same lines as those of the previous District Magistrate :s ” may be menone. The new leader was born in St. tioned with approval. He always Rose, Laval County, on the 3rd of spoke well in the House, and there June, 1823, and received his education was a charm and il beauty about his at the Colleges of St. Hyacinthe and little speeches at public gatherings, Montreal. In 1844 he was called to and the like, whiclı stamped at once the Bar, and it was not long before he his standing as a speaker. In 1886 had considerable practice in his profes he went to England as Commissioner sion. At Confederation he received to the Indian and Colonial Exhibition, the Silk, and occupied for a period the and at the Chicago World's Fair, post of Batonnier for the Province. under his auspices, Quebec was well In the old Parliament of Canada he represented in the Education Exhibit. sat in the House of Assembly for He is a D.C.L. of Laval University, Beauharnois from 1857 to 1861, and and the University of Bishops College, from 1867 to 1876 he represented Two Lennoxville, and Officier d'Instruction Mountains in the Quebec Legislature. Publique of France--the latter a decorOn taking the office of Premier he as ation of which literary Frenchmen are sumed the portfolios of Public Instruc deservedly proud, for it is seldom tion and Provincial Secretary, the At- lightly bestowed.

lightly bestowed. A few months ago torney-Generalship going into the able hands of the Hon. George Irvine, Q.C., now Judge of the Vice-Admiralty Court at Quebec. It discovered, however, that Mr. Ouimet could not fill two such heavy positions without serious injury to his health. On the ist of February, 1876, he resolved to retire from public life for a time, and the Superintendency of Education was offered to him. This he accepted, and began the work of reconstruction of his department with his usual energy and zeal. A man of moderate views, high principle, and a disposition which tolerates nothing unfair or unreasonable, he performed his duties for many years with great acceptance,








treme partisan. He had been in the old Legislature the member for Chambly from 1861 until Confederation. When union came he was appointed a member

of the Legislative Council, which position he still holds, as well as a seat in the Senate of Canada, which was granted to him in 1879. From July, 1867, to February, 1873, he was Speaker of the Upper House of Quebec, and when the Ouimet Government resigned in 1874, he added to the post of Premier the offices of Provincial Secretary and Registrar, and Minister of Public Instruction.

In January, 1876, he


ferred to the DepartHON. SIR H. G. JOLY DE LOTBINIERE, K.C.M.G., D.C.L. ment of Agriculture

and Public Works. In Mr. Ouimet retired from his place in December of this year, Lieutenantthe Education Department and be Governor Caron, father of Sir A. P. came a member of the Legislative Caron, and of Mrs. Charles FitzCouncil, where his zeal for the im patrick, the accomplished wife ot provement of Quebec's Educational the present Solicitor-General of CaSystem will have ample scope.

nada, died, and in his room the Hon. It was a strong hand which came to Luc Letellier de St. Just was sent to the front in 1874, and during his Spencerwood by Mr. Mackenzie. Mr. career Quebec made history


Letellier was an ardent Liberal, and a rapidly. A grave Constitutional ques man of sterling honesty of purpose. tion was precipitated, and the powers Of his strong partisanship there can be of Lieutenant-Governors formed the no doubt, and he recognized at once in subject of thousands upon thousands of Mr. de Boucherville, and his Attorneyarticles and pamphlets, which were General, Mr. Angers, two very deterscattered broadcast all over the mined political foes, at whose back country. The new Premier was the great majorities stood in both the Hon. Charles Eugene de Boucherville, houses of legislation. It was not long the descendant of an old historic fam before His Honour and his advisers ily which traced its origin as far back were at cross purposes.

The ministers as 1653. His profession was that of took the ground that the nominal chief medicine. His social position was

of the executive was a mere figurethat of an aristocrat. A stern, un head. His name was introduced into bending man he was to all except his measures that he had never seen, and intimates, and of the latter he could when he asked for information he was count upon

but few. Honest to a referred to the newspapers. Things degree he was also. An extremist in could not go on in this way forever, religious opinions, he was also an ex and the governor, acting upon his un

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