« PředchozíPokračovat »
in the average company in the United so many millions of dollars to keep New States Army in the Spanish-American War, York harbor from filling up may get an one soldier was wounded in battle, whereas ocular demonstration of the reason by through the ravages of typhoid one man to glancing at a model showing how the solid a company lost his life and fourteen men constituents from the sewage of the city were incapacitated for service.
are constantly filling up the costly chanModels of ill-kept and well-kept farms, nels dredged to the sea. side by side in the same case, are among the The average week-day attendance of most popular exhibits in the hall. Here the American Museum of Natural History is a farm where the open rain barrel breeds is 500, except on Saturdays, when 2,000 mosquitoes; where the exposed manure visitors enter the doors. There are 6,000 heap leads to the begetting of a myriad of flies; where the primitive sanitary arrangements may send typhoid germs into the vegetable garden and into the stream where the family herd is drinking. The other side of the picture portrays thrift and cleanliness. Little signs scattered over the two landscapes tell of the right and the wrong ways of living next to the soil. Another setting shows how house and outbuildings may be guarded against rats.
The evils of the open wooden garbage barrel and of filthy premises are set forth in the exact reproduction of a section of a kitchen in San Francisco, made when the bubonic plague scare was at its height. The model is a replica of one made by the United States Government. It shows how the rats burrow; how they build nests for their young; how they may spread disease in every direction. This revelation of the habits of rats makes plain the dangers of infection.
After the city dweller sees a model representing the gathering of clams in sand into which a broken sewer pipe is discharging, he is not so likely to think lightly of the efforts of a health com- AN APPRECIATED LESSON IN HEALTH missioner to prevent the pollution of oyster beds and of the ocean beaches. And nearby is a realistic representation of driftwood being gathered at the Battery Breakwater, accompanied by the warning visitors on Sundays. Practically everythat the taking of this spoil of the sea into one who makes the grand tour of the instithe home may introduce disease.
tution sees the health exhibit. More The whole scheme of water supply, the than half a million persons go to the peril of epidemics, the methods of purifica- museum every year. Although no seption and of filtration are demonstrated arate count is kept of the attendance in by elaborately worked out exhibits. Germs the Hall of Health, it has been demonof disease, many thousands of times their strated that this division attracts as much actual size, are displayed in wonderful attention as any other section. It is blown glass counterfeits.
situated on the way to the bird groups and Good citizens who wonder why it takes is in the centre of the building.
SCHOOL CHILDREN STUDYING THE MODEL OF THE RAT-INFESTED HOUSE, A LESSON IN SUCH VIVID FORM THAT IT INSTANTLY INTERESTS THOSE WHO SEE IT AND EASILY CONVEYS ITS MESSAGE
The museum's department of health part of the regular course. Students from has now been in existence two years. In the College of the City of New York, that time its exhibits have constantly where especial attention is paid to personal become of greater popular interest. The hygiene, are regular visitors. Pupils from opening of the new hall represents the the private schools of the city, long lines working out of a definite policy of bring- of young misses with a prim chaperone ing the public in touch with the activities at their head, march through the corridor of the institution.
practically every day. A talk on health One of the most successful develop- based on the exhibits in the hall is part ments has been through the high schools. of a course of lectures which last year was The boys of the DeWitt Clinton High attended by 35,000 students of the public School are especially enthusiastic. Several primary and grammar schools. lectures for them were arranged in the Small traveling exhibits are sent by the large auditorium of the museum, and they director to schools, in cases filled with supplemented the lectures with inspections small models and specimens. The museum of the exhibits in the hall. Six hundred has been lately raising flies and moseager and enthusiastic youths at a time quitoes in large quantities. The various have viewed the exhibition and asked stages from the larvæ to the full blown technical questions concerning the various buzzer are arrested by the use of forobjects. Classes from the Bellevue Hos- maldehyde and then preserved in bottles, pital Medical College of the New York which the teachers use to explain to the University are sent to study the models as children how the fly breeds in filth and how some mosquitoes spread malaria. model of the fly “as big as a cat” have The object is to teach that, though killing been received from museums whose direcflies may be all very well, the great end tors would take up health instruction to be reached is the elimination of the by sight; and such
by sight; and such bodies as the Zoofilth which is the means of bringing so logical Society of Ottawa, Purdue Unimany of them into being.
versity, in Indiana, and the New York In the foreign quarters of the metrop- State Board of Health have asked for olis, the children are the easiest to teach information about the methods of the hygiene and sanitation. Frequently in museum. the Hall of Health one may see boys and Moving pictures are being used to supgirls tugging their parents among the plement the work and there are dramas exhibits and explaining to them with of the film enacted showing how the cause
WHAT SANITATION MEANS ON THE FARM MODELS OF ILL-KEPT AND WELL-KEPT FARMS THAT SHOW CLEARLY WHY LIFE IS SAFER AS WELL AS MORE COM
FORTABLE ON THE FARM THAT IS PROPERLY MANAGED
voluble speech and flowing gesture the of pure milk prospers, and how the fly, why and the wherefore of the display. greatly magnified, does his evil work. When Italian laborers who have been work- In this work of teaching the public iming on the Jerome Park Reservoir, where portant lessons for their own well-being filter beds may be made for city water, by means of museum display, the deep are guided among the models by their learning of the specialist and the skill of children, the uses of these new methods the sculptor, preparator, and taxidermist of teaching sanitation become convinc- are coördinated for a common cause. ingly evident.
Formerly, nature museums were reposiThe work of the museum has attracted tories for fossils and stuffed animals; now, the notice of other institutions in this they house exhibits that teach mankind country. Requests for replicas of the the proper way to live.
Copyright by Brown Bros., New York MR. LINDLEY M. GARRISON SECRETARY OF WAR, WHO HAS TAKEN A VIGOROUS STAND AGAINST POLITICAL FAVORITISM IN THE ARMY AND WHO HAS REVEALED HIS DEFINITE VISION OF A WIDER USEFULNESS AND OF A NEW EFFICIENCY FOR OUR NATIONAL FIGHTING MACHINE
GARRISON, OF THE WAR DEPARTMENT
A SECRETARY WHO BELIEVES IN PEACE AND A GOOD ARMY. HIS PERSONALITY
AND HIS PLANS
ARTHUR W. PAGE
HE Secretary of War believes public learned that Mr. Garrison was in peace. To his mind, the a judge from New Jersey, it was taken very name of his department is for granted that he was a friend of the an anomaly. He believes that new President. This was hardly true, for
the great nations of the world although they had met formally, both can get together and agree to settle their being officers of the state of New Jersey, differences amicably.
their personal knowledge of each other But until they do so agree he believes really began when the President offered that we need an army. He is very positive Judge Garrison the war portfolio. The that if we need an army at all we need a President had become convinced that this good one,
one, concentrated, trained, and post demanded the services of an able equipped. He does not want a larger lawyer (the five preceding Secretaries were standing army but he does believe in a lawyers: Taft, Root, Wright, Dickinson, reserve and in the better use of the and Stimson) and Mr. Garrison's reputaNational Guard as a supplement to the tion and achievements marked him as such regular forces.
a man. The President offered him the The appointment of Mr. Lindley M. post. Mr. Garrison was disposed to Garrison to be Sec
refuse it. It would retary of War came
interrupt his judicial as a complete sur
career. It meant inprise to the public.
convenience. From It was an equal sur
his own personal prise to the great
point of view he did department over
not want it. The which he now pre
President explained sides. Probably not
that the same objecone of the people
tions would occur if now under him knew
he should ask any that he existed. A
first-class lawyer, piece of "inside in
and said that he did formation” reached
not think it fair to them that a man
the party nor to the named Garretson
country that he was to have the war
should be forced to portfolio. That little
take a second-class they knew, and that
man because the was wrong.
better men already When the an
had work in which nouncement was
they were vitally infinally made and the THE SECRETARY OF WAR