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and out of it. He filled with acceptance the offices of Speaker, AttorneyGeneral and Treasurer. Without claiming any pretensions to oratory, he was a forcible speaker and a good debater. In his reign the taxes were increased to meet the heavy debt of the Province, which, in the previous administration had been greatly augmented. The retirement of Mr. Taillon gave to Sir Adolphe Chapleau, the Lieutenant-Governor, the opportunity of offering the command to the Hon. E. J. Flynn, who, as far back as 1879, had been Commissioner of Crown Lands in his own Government.

Mr. Flynn lost very little HON. E. J. FLYNN, 9.C., LL.D.

time in forming his minis

try and meeting the House. utter rout of the Liberal-Nationalists. He made a few changes, but most of

Mr. de Boucherville, however, did his old colleagues remained with him. not hold office long, and was in He has already made up his mind to turn succeeded by the Hon. L. O. grapple seriously with the question of Taillon, who remained at the head education. His policy is to reduce of a strong Government until 1896, taxes, and to push as far as possible when he resigned and became Post the growing interests of his province. master-General in Sir Charles Tupper's He is a convincing speaker, a sound Administration. He was defeated at lawyer, and a thoroughly well-informthe polls on the 23rd of June, and is ed man, while as an executive offi. now in private life. Mr. Taillon was cer he has few equals in Canadian pubpopular with all classes, in Parliament lic life.

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BRITISH COLUMBIA does not make lege of every Britisher; and like mercy

the strength of her present showing in gives, and is as good for the railway West Kootenay. She did that in the as it is soothing to that railway's fifties and early sixties, and though patrons. If the Canadian Pacific Railthe world forgets very easily, the world way would only wake up and give Koohas not yet forgotten the days of the tenay's smelters the Crow's Nest coal, Fraser River excitement, Golden Car which they so much need, we would iboo, or those fifty odd millions of dol- forget all our minor grievances, and lars which British Columbia has con would be more ready to remember that, tributed to the sum total of man's thanks to the Company and its leading gold-store.

officials, Cariboo is again to the fore, To-day is the day of a revival, not and that some of the old ground which of a first appearance. In the early we skimmed in 1858 is now producing days when there were no railways, its thousands in response to the efforts when British Columbia was practically of the hydraulic miner. The day of the as remote as Kamchatka, only the poor man has passed, but the day of hardiest of men could be tempted to the rich man and his machinery has visit a country where the most primi come. tive forms of placer-mining were re Here no one believes that the great warded by such prizes as fifty pounds Cariboo Company is on its legs yet, of gold taken from one claim in a that it has began to show us what its single day, and, naturally enough, the gravel is really worth ; and yet is it cream was soon skimmed.

After that, such a small thing that on its first the difficulties and cost of transporta- clean-up this year it produced between tion made mining with machinery al $81,000 and $82,000? It is probably together impossible, or, at any rate, true that this Company has expended extremely unremunerative.

some $400,000 in development, but To-day all that is changed. The even so, $81,000 for a first wash-up in much (and, perhaps, deservedly) abused the year is a reasonably good return. Canadian Pacific Railway has brought And this is but one of many companBritish Columbia into touch with the ies in Cariboo, which itself is not the rest of the world. We forget too often only centre of hydraulic mining in how much this railway has done for British Columbia. A good group of us, though we have a very keen eye claims has recently been sold on the for its peccadilloes. But that is no Similkameen, to an English Company, evil. Kicking is the inalienable privi while at Alberni, on Vancouver Island,


there are hydraulic properties now in known as the Blue Bell mine. This operation of which the owners have great mine (now the mainstay of the every reason to expect great things. Pilot Bay Smelting Company), for But there is no space in such an article many years provided lead for a few as this to deal fully with these. The trappers' bullets, and that was all. Tomining development of to-day is essen day the Blue Bell is supposed to have tially one of rock-mining-quartz min an average daily output of from 150 ing, as it is generally called, though in to 200 tons. The next step in the demany of the mines quartz is not the velopment of West Kootenay was the leading feature.

discovery of what are now known as That ledges, which under certain the Hall Mines, upon Toad Mountain, 'circumstances would pay to mine, ex at the back of Nelson, in the early isted in British Columbia is no eighties, by a party of prospectors from discovery. Ledges (still unworked) ) Colville. In the week ending June 6th, were known long ago in Cariboo, but 1896, these Hall mines had a smelter men could not afford to take machinery return of 928 tons of ore, producing 88 to them, and, besides, the public had tons of matte, and their shares were then no inclination to mine. Texada sold in London at a premium of 200 Island produced, it is said, our first

per cent.

The Hall Mines Company is gold ($20,000 of it, in 1848), and it is an English Company which smelts its alleged that a certain prominent British own ore and some other people's, and Columbian has owned the Van Auda is steadily adding to its smelting mine-upon that island for from ten to capacity. The ore is unlike the Kootfifteen years.

He, of course, sat upon enay's ore, as a rule, being described as it patiently. The patience of a true bornite, tetrahedrite and chalcopyrites, British Columbian is the most path- of which our B. C. Minister of Mines etic thing in the West. Luckily for reports that from ten to fifteen per him and for the country, that irrepres cent. of the general body of the ore sible person, the American mining man, averages when picked 100 oz. of silver came along and disturbed the ancient and fifteen per cent. copper to the ton. settler's repose.

It seemed to the The value of the matte may be estiAmerican not a bad thing to get in mated from the returns for March of and do some work. He, at any rate, this


There were 2,102 tons of not of a contemplative turn of ore smelted, which produced 212 tons mind, and before the original owners of matte, which contained 106 tons of were well awake he had gone through copper and 67,113 oz. of silver. a certain amount of barren rock and After Toad Mountain came Slocan. found some very excellent bornite, of The miners of Montana had found which he has already made several that $20 rock would not pay to work. small shipments. It seems altogether Mines closed down and the men who probable that the Van Auda mine will had made Montana came sweeping in time make the fortunes both of the over into Kootenay. If anyone man who waited and the man who knows anything about silver mining, worked. And this in brief is the true the men of Montana know it. If any story (however unpalatable) of British men are able to push their way through Columbia's recent development. We all natural objects in pursuit of the sat on our treasure, talking occasion- almighty dollar, the American prosally in our dreams of “great possibili- pectors will do it. They are no better ties” until the Yankee tumbled over us than their English or Canadian rivals and woke us up.

in courage or endurance, but prospectSometime at the beginning of this ing is peculiarly their business; therecentury, men, and especially Hudson fore in it they are peculiarly successful. Bay men, knew of the existence of a The writer of this article has been with great deposit of carbonate of lead, ga the men of Kootenay, English, Canalena and copper, upon Kootenay Lake, dian and American, every year since


1890. He has seen the “boys ” shov- and mules' backs, and then by rail and ing their way up the mountain torrents steamer to Helena or Swansea ! where the banks were too steep for a And yet these men did this, and the trail ; he tramped in with the owner of ore of our country paid for its freight the Cliff, cheery old Col. W., before the until it was sufficiently well-known to. Cliff was thought of ; he helped to open draw the railways to its aid. Now we the first saloon at Carpenter Creek, have railways on all sides and cannot and learned what it meant to forget the be bullied even by the C. P. Ry. We glasses and serve whiskey in tin panni- had.(and have) in Kootenay the two kins; he saw the Slocan Star when it great levers with which mountains may had hardly been scratched ; saw Kaslo be moved, Grit and Gold. In spite of cleared, built, burned and rebuilt ; he physical obstacles, in spite of the steephas lived with these prospectors, shot est and roughest of mountains, in spite with them, helped to bring in their of the slump in silver, and the sleepy dead, and is even now twisting their remonstrances of the city sluggards, the tails as Provincial Sanitary Inspector,

boys in the hills kept pegging away. and he is convinced that there is not on They knew what the end would be ifearth a cheerier, hardier set of fellows, they could only demonstrate that they a set who can pull better together, or had galena which averaged 125 dollars who under properly administered laws, to the ton, and plenty of it. Probably such as we have in B. C., are more no country of the same class was ever law-abiding and reasonable citizens.

less or

worse advertised than West Men talk of annexation, and the con- Kootenay. quest of Kootenay by the American Of course we owe something to the miners. Kootenay has been opened up phenomenal activity of our Agents very largely by the miners of America General, and something to papers and and the enterprise of American capita- pamphlets, but no great line placarded lists, and there is a certain amount of London with notices of our new Eldoannexation going on, but it is the an- rado, no great company forwarded the . nexation of American citizens by Ca- interests of our rival to South Africa, nada, seduced from their loyalty to the and it must be confessed that anything Great Republic by the attractions of more contemptible than our little hotchWestern Canada, within whose borders potch collection of minerals at the Imthey find that they can mine securely perial Institute it would be difficult to , and rest confident in the protection of a imagine. The pyramid of empty saljustice which does not miscarry. But

cans overshadows it utterly. this is not mining--though the gradual But though they did not advertise at and kindly fusion of the two peoples all, men like Mr. Byron White were. upon the border line is one result steadily at work developing such mines of it.

as the Slocan Star, and as a result we About 1,890 men began to talk of the have two lines to-day competing for the abnormally rich fields of argentiferous silver of the Slocan. Between Nov. galena in the Slocan, and the men on ist, 1895, and May ist, 1896, that disthe Coast, as usual, laughed and did trict shipped out of the country nearly their best to throw cold water on any 10,000 tons of ore, and between 1,400 . little enthusiasm which those who had and 1,500 tons of bullion from its own seen Slocan might display. At home smelter at Pilot Bay. in England, even as late as 1893, men Sixteen of Slocan's mines are record-. laughed, too, and told you that when the ed as having earned 1,500,000 dollars mines began to ship ore they would be- (gross) for six months of the current lieve in them. It is such an easy thing, year, and such is the position of other of course, for men without money to properties in this and other sections of develop mines, to build railways Kootenay to-day, that the present writer through a mountain country, or pay for (who has dared to prophesy many times the freight of their ore on men's backs before during the last six years) does



not feel afraid to endorse the prophecy Columbia Mountain (in which they of one of B.C's, most conservative min have been proved in one instance, at ing men, that “In three years Koot least, to a depth of 450 feet), but also enay's output will be ten times what it in what is known as the Southern Belt is to-day." He is possibly short of the and in several camps near Trail and mark. Day by day the Slocan country along the Columbia River. is adding to the number of its produc The Victoria Board of Trade Report ing mines, and day by day men are dis for 1895 says of this ore, that the avercovering fresh prospects, though, not age value of it is about $40 to the ton, all of such magnificent promise as the the values being principally in gold with Galena Farm.

a percentage of silver and copper, but It would almost seem as if a country higher grades are found in the lowest which had provided its people with the levels. Another characteristic of this placer grounds of Cariboo and the sil Trail district is that nearly all the ore ver fields of Slocan had done enough veins so far developed have been found for them. But there is no limit to the to widen with depth. generosity of the West. Just when For the last six months Rossland men had proved beyond all doubt that has been full of experts from England the galena of Slocan was plentiful and and elsewhere. Beginning with a short of very high grade, and also that the boom, which of course brought some world's markets did not want silver at wildcats to the surface, the situation any price, some prospectors found has gradually improved until now the their way up Trail Creek to Rossland, country is full of genuine capitalists as men now call it.

Then it was as who want developed mines or prospects unpretentious as hundred other which they buy to develop, not to sell mountains in our country.

Even in again to men who know nothing about in 1894 (September) there were only them. Amongst these men there are four log shanties there, and to-day plenty of well-known English and Cathere is a big town, with waterworks, nadian as well as American mining men, banks, electric lights, something like and indeed it would almost seem as if 5,000 people, the ceaseless ring of the eventually the Old Country would have builders' hammers on every side, and at least her share of the best of the more life, if not more money, in circu Rossland mines. lation in it than in all the rest of the The best experts tell us that if one towns put together. Of course there. per cent. of our prospects turn into are towns which are older and richer at shipping mines at Rossland, we shall present, but it is very doubtful if in any have one of the biggest camps on earth. of them money is spent as freely and He would be a bold man who would say made as easily as in Rossland. The that one per cent. of those upon which foundation of all this flood of prosperity real development work has been done is a belt of mineral, known as pyrotite, has yet proved a failure. If it be posrunning through the country, and which sible to adapt any of the new leaching carries its values principally in gold processes to the cheap treatment of low and copper. As compared with some grade pyrotite ore (from $9 to $12 per of our recent discoveries of gold quartz ton) the number of our failures will be at Lilloet and elsewhere, and even as peculiarly small, the growth of our compared with the galenas of Slocan, camp fabulous. the Rossland pyrotite is not very high All through the country there is now grade ore, but it occurs in enormous an atmosphere of steady, hard work, bodies, and the latest developments Rossland is as busy as a hive of bees; would seem to indicate that these bodies but she is as quiet and orderly as an of pyrotite, beneath a heavy iron cap English village on Sunday. Long before ping, running apparently in parallel the visitor is wide awake there is an veins, occur not only throughout Red incessant ring of builders' hammers all Mountain, Monte Christo Mountain and around. At regular intervals through

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