« PředchozíPokračovat »
Article 6. He may lay duties, if they should be necessary for the wants of the service or state.
Article 7. He will have all the executive power which may be necessary for the security, order, and regulation of the state, in every thing that is not reserved by this present decree; notwithstanding, he cannot take the proper rights belonging to the executive power, neither give orders nor resolutions contrary to the existing legislation, nor to the decrees which may be in full force, but to facilitate, make clear, and do away with the difficulties which may impede their execution, and that they may be able to execute the intended reforms and mandates.
Article 8. The Provisional President of South Peru will receive the honours and treatment which are due to a chief having executive power, and the Secretary-General those corresponding to a minister of the cabinet.
My Secretary-General is charged with the execution of the present decree, who will have it printed and circulated. Given in the Protectoral Palace of Puno, 17th September, 1837.
(Signed) ANDRES Santa Cruz. The Secretary-General,
M. De La Cruz MENDEZ.
Another decree followed this, of the same date, appointing General Herrera the Provisional President, and Colonel Don Juan Jose Lavrea Secretary-General.
The results of my inquiries into the commerce and trade of Peru, are by no means satisfactory. The vacillating policy pursued towards the trade has been most extraordinary; and some of those engaged in commercial pursuits have frequently been enabled, through the necessities of the government, to reap many advantages. Much illicit trade was carried on, even before the revolution, under the Spanish rule. The restriction laid by its authority on commerce, kept the prices of imports high, whilst the low value of exports, left to the arbitrary demand of monopolists, prevented or diminished the means of these countries to pay for what they wanted from abroad.
From this state of things resulted the limited trade and enormous profits to a few individuals, under the colonial system. As soon as the ports were opened, an expansion took place, and the trade was entirely overdone. The markets became glutted with all kinds of foreign fabrics, and many ruinous voyages were made from ignorance of the wants of the people, and their means of payment.
For the last ten years the trade has been better understood. The
demand and the means of payment have been more accurately ascertained, and a healthy and increasing commerce has been carried on, as far as the state of the country and the fluctuations, which are inseparable from a distant traffic, would permit. The commerce of Peru will not bear a comparison with that of Chili, and while the former has been diminishing, the latter has been rapidly increasing. A portion of the supplies which were formerly sent to Peru direct, are now obtained in Chili, and sent to their destination in coasting vessels. This change has been brought about by the unwise policy pursued by the various Peruvian rulers, in imposing heavy transit duties. This is also in part to be attributed to the advantageous situation of Valparaiso, where purchasers are always to be found for articles for the leeward coast. There is little doubt in the minds of those who are most competent to judge, that Valparaiso must become the principal mart of foreign commerce on the west coast of America.
The foreign trade of Peru is principally carried on by the English, Americans, and French. Of late years, a good many German and Spanish vessels also have been sent thither; and occasionally some of the Mediterranean flags are seen on the coast.
The annual imports into Peru are combined so much with those of Chili, that it was deemed proper to include them under the one head; those of Peru amount to about two-fifths of the whole. Of these imports, part go to Guayaquil; the Intermedios, or South Peru and Bolivia, take about one million from Chili and Lima. The returns made from Peru are as follows:
It will be perceived, that both in Peru and Chili, the imports and exports are nearly the same in amount; and the question naturally arises, whence the profits on the trade? It is readily answered that, as has been already said, large quantities of goods are annually sold in Chili and Peru for Central America, the proceeds of which are shipped thence direct to Europe and the United States, and do not appear in the above note of exports. .
These countries offer a large market for our domestic cottons; and if the prices can be maintained, the United States will supply the most of the coarser kinds used there. I have it from the best authority, that the consumption of these goods is now double what it was five years ago, and it is still increasing.
The article of four, however, has greatly fallen off: previous to 1830, there were nearly thirty thousand barrels exported to Peru from the United States; in the last three years, only six thousand; and in 1841, but one thousand; in consequence of Peru being abundantly supplied from Chili.
CHAPTER X V.
STORE-SHIP RELIEF-EDWIN BARTLETT, ESQ.-EDWARD MCALL, ESQ.-DEPARTURECAPTAIN M'KEEVER — PERUVIAN BRIG - SMALL-POX - GENERAL ORDER - PROPOSED ROUTE-CURRENTS—EXPERIMENTS_TEMPERATURE-ALEXANDER OGLE-CLERMONT DE TONNERRE-APPEARANCE OF IT-SURVEY-NATIVES — JOHN SAC – DIFFICULTIES
WITH THE NATIVES-LANDING-SERLE ISLAND-HONDEN-SURVEYS-CORAL ISLANDS
-VEGETATION-BIRDS, ETC.-DISAPPOINTMENT ISLANDS-INHABITANTS—WYTOOHEE
-OTOOHO - TAIARA-RARAKA-LANDING-ONE-HANDED CHIEF--HIS VISIT TO THE
SHIP-INHABITANTS-CATCHING FISH – LEAVE-TAKING–GALE-NARROW ESCAPE OF PEACOCK PORPOISE DESPATCHED VINCENNES ISLAND - CRITICAL POSITION OF TENDER-LANDING-ARATICA ISLAND-COMMUNICATION WITH ITS INHABITANTS
LANDING VILLAGE - - DESCRIPTION OF ISLAND – FRESH WATER - FOOD – TENDER
DESPATCHED TO KING GEORGE'S GROUP - VINCENNES AND PEACOCK DISCOVER
MANHII AND AHII ISLANDS_SURVEY-LANDING-OBSERVATIONS – NATIVES-DESER
CER-ECLIPSE-PEACOCK DESPATCHED TO RURICK ISLAND-VINCENNES PASSES TO
NAIRSA-INHABITANTS-KRUSENSTERN'S ISLAND_METIA ISLAND-ITS APPEARANCE -SURVEY-LANDING-NATIVES—MISSIONARIES' KINDNESS-COSTUMES-ASCEND THE
IBLAND-VEGETATION – APPEARANCE OF THE ISLAND-DEPARTURE-ARRIVAL AT TAHITI-ANCHOR IN MATAVAI BAY-OBSERVATIONS ON POINT VENUS–PROCEEDINGS OF PORPOISE – PROCEEDINGS OF PEACOCK – ARUTUA-SURVEY-NAIRSA OR DEAN'S ISLAND-CORAL BLOCKS—METIA JSLAND-OBSERVATIONS-TETUAROA-FLYING-FISH
-TIOKEA AND QURA-HISTORY OF PAUMOTU GROUP-CHARACTER OF ITS INHABI.