Obrázky stránek

the best way for a man to seem to be any thing, is really to be what he would seem to be. Besides, it is often as troublesome to support the pretence of a good quality as to have it; and if a man have it not, it is most likely he will be discovered to want it, and then all his labour to seem to have it is lost. There is something unnatural in painting, which a skilful eye will easily discern from native beauty and complexion.

It is hard to personate and act a part long; for where truth is not at the bottom, nature will always be endeavouring to return, and will betray herself at one time or other. Therefore, if any man think it convenient to seem good, let him be so indeed; and then his goodness will appear to every one's satisfaction; for truth is convincing, and carries its own light and evidence along with it; and will not only commend us to every man's conscience, but, which is much more, to God, who searcheth our hearts. So that, upon all accounts, sincerity is true wisdom. Particularly as to the affairs of this world, integrity hath many advantages over all the artificial modes of dissimulation and deceit. It is much the plainer and easier, much the safer and more secure way of dealing in the world; it hath less of trouble and difficulty, of entanglement and perplexity, of danger and hazard, in it; it is the shortest and nearest way to our end, carrying us thither in a straight line; and will hold out, and last longest. The arts of deceit and cunning continually grow weaker, and less effectual and serviceable to those that practise them; whereas integrity gains strength by use; and the more and longer any man practiseth it, the greater service it does him, by confirming his reputation, and encourag ing those with whom he hath to do to repose the greatest confidence in him, which is an unspeakable advantage in business and the affairs of life.

A dissembler must always be upon his guard, and watch himself carefully that he do not contradict his own pretensions; for he acts an unnatural part, and therefore must put a continual force and restraint upon himself; whereas he that acts sincerely hath the easiest task in the world; because he follows nature, and so is put to no trouble and care about his words and actions; he needs not invent any pretences beforehand, nor make excuses afterwards, for any thing he hath said or done.

But insincerity is very troublesome to manage. A hypocrite hath so many things to attend to as makes his life a very perplexed

and intricate thing. A liar hath need of a good memory, lest he contradict at one time what he said at another. But truth is always consistent with itself, and needs nothing to help it out; it is always near at hand, and sits upon our lips, and is ready to drop out before we are aware; whereas a lie is troublesome, and one trick needs a great many more to make it good.

Add to all this, that sincerity is the most compendious wisdom, and an excellent instrument for the speedy despatch of business. It creates confidence in those we have to deal with, saves the labour of many inquiries, and brings things to an issue in a few words. It is like travelling a plain beaten road, which commonly brings a man sooner to his journey's end than by-ways, in which men often lose themselves. In a word, whatever convenience may be thought to be in falsehood and dissimulation, it is soon over; but the inconvenience of it is perpetual, because it brings a man under an everlasting jealousy and suspicion, so that he is not believed when he speaks truth, nor trusted when perhaps he means honestly. When a man has once forfeited the reputation of his integrity, nothing will then serve his turn, neither truth nor falsehood.

Indeed, if a man were only to deal in the world for a day, and should never have occasion to converse more with mankindnever more need their good opinion or good word, it were then no great matter (as far as respects the affairs of this world) if he spent his reputation all at once, and ventured it at one throw. But if he be to continue in the world, and would have the advantage of reputation whilst he is in it, let him make use of sincerity in all his words and actions; for nothing but this will hold out to the end. All other arts will fail; but truth and integrity will carry a man through, and bear him out to the last.—Tillotson.



RULE.-The Question formed by an interrogative word, called the question direct or definite, takes the high monotone

and falling modulation; that formed by a verb, called the question indirect or indefinite, requires the low monotone and rising modulation. That division of a sentence which precedes an interrogation, requires to be separated from it by a strong rising inflection and considerable pause th -the answer to an interrogation, when of an affirmative character, requires a decided change of tone, and falling inflection, according to Principle First. The Exclamation, when used as the echo of an interrogation, and in all instances where suspension of idea is involved, takes a strong rising modulation.

The interrogative words of the question direct are the pronouns who, whose, whom, which, what; the adverbs why, when, whence, where, wherefore, whither, how; and the conjunction whether. It is useful to remember, that all questions commence with a verb that are not formed by one or other of these interrogatives.

EXAMPLES formed by an interrogative word.—“ Whére àm I? Whát sòrt of a pláce do I inhàbit? Whénce èarth, and these bright òrbs? Whénce these glòrious fórms and boundless flights? Whó bìd brūte matter's réstive lùmp assume such vàrious fórms, and gave it wings to fly?"

EXAMPLES formed by the verb.-"Sháll thìs mán, bòrn to save his country, díe àny where but ín his country? Sháll he nōt, at least, dìe in the service of his country? Will you retain the memórials of his gàllant sóul, and refúse his body a grave in Italy? Will ány pèrson give his vòice for bánishing a man from thìs city, whom évery city on earth would be proud to receive withìn its walls? Happy the country that shall receive him! Ungrateful this if it should bánish him! Wrétched if it should lose him!"

EXAMPLE with an introductory member.-"Suppose a youth to have no prospect of sìtting in párliament, of plèading at the bár, of appearing upon the stage or in the púlpit, does it follow that he needs bestow nó pàins in learning to speak properly his native language?"

EXAMPLE OF QUESTION AND ANSWER." A cértain pàssenger at sea had the curiósity to ask the pilot of the véssel what death his father died of. "What death!' said the pilot; 'why, he pérished at sea, as my grandfather did beforè him.' And are you not afraid of trusting yourself to an element that has proved thùs fátal to your family?' 'Afráid! by no means. Is not your father dead?' 'Yès; but he died in his bed.' And whý, then,' returned the pilot, are yoù not afráid of trùsting yourself to your bēd ?”” There are three very important modifications of the principle of the interrogation :


1st, When the question forms the subject of a discussion, it seems to require the falling modulation, whatever be the commencing word. For example, in proposing as the subject of debate, the justice or expediency of capital punishments, the discussion may be opened in the form of a question, thus:" Is mán jùstified in taking away human life? Can cápital punishment be defénded upon any prínciple of cívil or religious pòlity? Thát is the subject of debate. Can the government of a country be justified in depriving a húman being of life for any crime whatever? Thát is the question of the evening." In these interrogations, though commencing with a verb, the falling modulation is to be preferred; for this reason, that the sentence, although expressed interrogatively, does not involve any direct question. It merely proposes a topic for discussion, calls forth no immediate reply, but is to be disposed of by argument and debate.

2d, When questions follow in antithesis, they take opposite inflections, whatever be the commencing words. In such a case, it seems natural that the former should take the rising, and the latter the falling modulation; but this order may be reversed, according to the sense of the passage. The reader will be guided by his own taste and judgment. Thus "Come ye in peace here, ōr cóme ye in wàr?" "Shall the city be governed by one man? Shall it be by a select

number of the wisest amongst us? Or shall the législative power be in the people?" These interrogations are formed by different commencing verbs; but may, with great propriety, be delivered with the same antithetic modulation, from the circumstance that, as the principal idea is involved in the closing member, it requires the additional force and precision that always accompanies the falling modulation. In the following, however, the judicious reader will conclude with the rising, as eliciting more emphatically the argument of Brutus' Apology—it was for the cause of freedom he had joined the conspiracy against Cæsar :-" Had you rather Cæsar were living and díe all slàves, than that C'æsar were dead to live all fréemen?”

Lastly, The elliptical question takes always the modulation of the supplied reading, although, by the introduction of the elliptical word or phrase, the question may assume a new form. Thus Will you for èver, Athenians, do nōthing but wālk about the streets asking òne another what néws? what news?" or, supplying the ellipsis" Do you ásk what néws? When will you roùse from your indolence, and bethink yourselves of what is to be done? When you are forced to it by sōme fàtal disáster?" or, supplying the elliptical words, "Is it when you are forced to it by some fatal disáster? When irresistible necèssity dríves you? Is it when irresistible necèssity dríves you?" In all such instances, the interrogation takes the inflection of the supplied reading.

The question must have occurred to many,-By what process of reasoning or discovery did our earlier elocutionists arrive at their doctrine of the interrogation? Was it caprice or philosophy that determined them in their choice of inflection in the two forms of the question? What distinctive properties did they discover that led them to assign the falling to the one, and the rising to the other? Why

« PředchozíPokračovat »