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further resistance, and Black Hawk's "British Band," as it was styled, became demoralized and fled. They reached the Mississippi and were making preparations for crossing when they were checked by the captain of the steamboat "Warrior," who discharged a six-pounder at them, although they had displayed a flag of truce. The next morning Gen. Atkinson arrived with his army, and made an attack, which the Indians were now powerless to resist. Black Hawk escaped, but was taken by some treacherous Winnebagoes, and delivered along with the Prophet, on the 27th of August, to Gen. Street, at Prairie du Chien. Two of Black Hawk's sons, the Prophet and other leaders, were also taken, and by order of the government were conveyed through the principal cities and towns on the seaboard, in order that they might be impressed with the greatness and power of the United States. For some time Black Hawk was held as a captive, and then through the intercession of Keokuk, who had been opposed to the war, and had not participated in the hostilities, he was allowed to return to Rock Island, and permitted to join his people. Treaties were made with the offending tribes by which they agreed to compensate for the expense of the war, by ceding a valuable part of their territory on the west side of the Mississippi, and to immediately remove from the east side. The United States stipulated to pay to the three tribes annually, thirty thousand dollars for twenty-seven years, and also to make other provisions for their improvement. By this treaty the United States acquired the first territory in Iowa which was opened to settlement. It is what is known as the "Black Hawk Purchase," and embraced a strip of territory extending from the northern boundary of Missouri to the mouth of the Upper Iowa river, about fifty miles in width, and embracing an area of about six millions of acres. This treaty was made on the 21st day of September, 1832, at a council held on the west bank of the Mississippi river, where the city of Davenport now stands. Gen. Winfield Scott and Gov. John Reynolds, of Illinois, represented the United States, and on the part of the Indians there were present Keokuk, Pashepaho, and about thirty other chiefs and warriors of the Sac and Fox nation. Within the limits of this purchase was reserved a tract of 400 square miles, situated on Iowa river, and including Keokuk's village. This tract was known as "Keokuk's Reserve," and was occupied by the Indians until 1836. when it was ceded to the United States. This treaty was negotiated by Gov. Henry Dodge, of Wisconsin Territory, and on the part of the Indians Keokuk was the leading spirit. This council was also held on the banks of the Mississippi, near the site of the present city of Davenport. The treaty stipulated for the removal of the Indians to another reservation on the Des Moines river. On this an agency was established, where the present town of Agency City, in Wapello county, is located. Out of the "Black Hawk Purchase was conveyed to Antoine Le Claire, who was interpreter, and whose wife was an Indian, one section of land opposite Rock Island, and another at the head of the first rapids above the Island.
General Joseph M. Street, the agent with the Winnebagoes at Prairie du Chien, was transferred to the Sac and Fox agency on the Des Moines river, and in 1838 took measures for building and making the necessary improvements. In April, of the next year, he removed with his family from Prairie du Chien. His health soon began to fail, and on the 5th of May, 1840, Gen. Street died. Wapello, a prominent chief of the Sac and Fox nation, died in 1842. His remains were interred near those of Gen. Steeet. The stone slabs placed over their graves soon after, are inscribed as follows:
Prairie du Chien, 1787:
Died near the Forks of Skunk,
March 15th, 1842-Sac and Fox Nation.
Wapello had requested that at his death his remains be interred near those of Gen. Street.
After the death of Gen. Street, Maj. John Beach, his son-in-law, received the appointment as agent for the Sacs and Foxes, and filled the position to the satisfaction of the government. Major Beach was born at Gloucester, Massachusetts, Feb. 23d, 1812. After a course of study at Portsmouth Academy, in New Hampshire, he received at the age of sixteen, the appointment of cadet at the West Point Military Academy, graduating in the class of 1832. Receiving his commission as Second Lieutenant by brevet in the First U. S. Infantry, of which Zachary Taylor was then colonel, he was ordered to duty on the frontier, and was alternately stationed at Fort Armstrong, Fort Crawford, Prairie du Chien, and Jefferson Barracks, near St. Louis. His hearing having partially failed, in 1838, he resigned his commission in the army, and was, at the time of his appointment as Indian agent, engaged in the U. S. Land Office at Dubuque. He remained at Agency City, engaged in mercantile and literary pursuits until his death which occurred August 31st, 1874.
At the time of Gen. Street's death, the Indians were occupying their reservation with their permanent, or spring and summer villages, as follows: Upon the banks of the Des Moines, opposite the mouth of Sugar Creek, was the village of Keokuk, and above were those of Wapello and Appanoose. The village of Hardfish, or Wish-e-co-me-que, as it is in the Indian tongue, was located in what is now the heart of Eddyville, where J. P. Eddy was licensed by Maj. Beach, the agent, in the summer of 1840, to establish a trading post. Not far from the "Forks of Skunk" was a small village presided over by Kish-ke-kosh, who, though not a chief, was a man of considerable influence. Poweshiek, a Fox chief of equal rank with Wapello, still had a village on the bank of Iowa river.
It has been remarked above that Keokuk, who was the chief next in authority and influence to Black Hawk, was opposed to the war against the whites, and persistently refused to take part in the hostilities. When Black Hawk's attempt to defy the power of the United States resulted so disastrously to the Indians, and they were obliged to cede still more territory, his influence among his people declined, and that of Keokuk increased. Black Hawk, however, retained a party of adherents, and for some time a
sort of rivalry existed between the two chiefs, and this feeling was shared to some extent by their respective friends in the tribes. An incident is related by Maj. Beach to show how the traders were ready to take advantage of this state of things for their own mercenary purposes.
When Gen. Harrison became President in 1841, John Chambers, an excongressman of Kentucky, was appointed Governor of the Territory, succeeding Gov. Robert Lucas. The governor was ex-officio superintendent over the Indians and their agencies. Gov. Lucas had favored the Black Hawk band, whose chief was Hardfish. Accordingly when the new gov ernor was appointed, both Keokuk and Hardfish felt that it would be something of an object to gain his favor. The latter desired the new governor to pursue the policy of his predecessor, while Keokuk wished at least an impartial course. Keokuk requested the consent of the agent for him and his principal men to visit the governor at Burlington. As it was the policy of the government to discountenance such pilgrimages of the Indians, Maj. Beach suggested that Gov. Chambers might see proper to visit them at the agency. With this expectation Keokuk chose to wait. The Hardfish band, under the influence of some of the traders, were less patient. They hastened to Burlington in a large body, and on their arrival encamped near the town, sending to the governor a written notice of their presence, and a request for supplies. The governor answered, declining to accede to their request, or to hold a council with them. Hardfish and his men returned over their weary journey of seventy miles to the agency, very much disappointed. In the neantime the governor communicated with Major Beach, informing him that he would visit the agency soon, and requesting him to use his influence to prevent the Indians from making incursions through the white settlements. When the governor fixed his time to be present, the bands were all informed, and it was arranged that a grand council should be held. When the day arrived all the Indians, except the Poweshiek band of Foxes, who were so far away on the Iowa river, were encamped within a convenient distance from the agency. Long before the hour fixed for the meeting, the Hardfish party, arrayed in all their toggery, and displaying their richest ornaments, came in grand procession upon the ground. Having dismounted from their ponies, they formed in file on foot and marched into the agency headquarters, where the governor was to receive them. Hardfish and some of his principal men shook hands with the gov
ernor and then sat down.
The reader will remember that at this time the nation was in mourning for the sudden loss of a President by death, and that Gov. Chambers had been one of the warmest and most devoted friends of Gen. Harrison, a fact of which Keokuk was fully advised. Chambers had been aid-de-camp to Gen. Harrison in the war of 1812, and they had ever after been as father and son. Keokuk was shrewd enough to make the most of this.
The appointed hour for the meeting had passed, and the governor began to become impatient for the appearance of Keokuk. At last the sounds of the approaching bands were heard faintly floating upon the breeze. After a time the procession marched with slow and solemn tread into view, not arrayed in gaudy feathers, ribbons and trinkets, like the Hardfish band, but with lances and staves wrapped around with wilted grass. No sound of bells responded to the tramp of their ponies, and instead of being painted in vermillion, their faces presented the sombre hues produced by a kind of clay they were wont to use on occasions of solemnity or mourning. Their
appearace betokened sadness and affliction. Mr. Josiah Smart, the interpreter, informed Gov. Chambers that this was a funeral march, and that some one of their principal men must have died during the night. Even Hardfish and his men were at a loss to account for what they saw, and wondered who could have died. At last Keokuk and his men dismounted and filed slowly and solemnly into the presence of the governor. Keokuk signed to the interpreter, and said:
"Say to our new father, that before I take his hand, I will explain to him what all this means. We were told not long ago that our Great Father was dead. We had heard of him as a great war chief, who had passed much of his life among the red men and knew their wants, and we believed that we would always have friendship and justice at his hands. His death has made us very sad, and as this is our first opportunity, we thought it would be wrong if we did not use it, to show that the hearts of his red children, as well as his white, know how to mourn over their great loss; and we had to keep our father waiting while we performed that part of our mourning that we must always attend to before we leave our lodges with our dead."
At the conclusion of this speech, Keokuk steppped forward and extended his hand. The hearty grasp of the governor showed that the wily chief had touched the proper cord. The result was, that the Hardfish band received no special favors after that, at the expense of the other bands.
SKETCHES OF BLACK HAWK AND OTHER CHIEFS.
Black Hawk-Treaty of 1804-Black Hawk's account of the Treaty-Lieut. Pike-Ft. Edwards-Ft. Madison-Black Hawk and the British-Keokuk recognized as Chief-Ft. Armstrong-Sac and Fox Villages-Black Hawk's "British Band"-Black Hawk WarBlack Hawk's old age-His death in Iowa-His remains carried away, but recoveredKeokuk-Appanoose-Wapello-Poweshiek-Pash-e-pa-ho-Wish-e-co-ma-que-Chaschun-ca-Mau-haw-gaw-Ma-has-kah-Si-dom-i-na-do-tah-Henry Lott-A Tragedy in Humboldt County-Ink-pa-du-tah-Spirit Lake Massacre-Expedition from Ft. DodgeDeath of Capt. Johnston and William Burkholder.
THIS renowned chief, the "noblest Roman of them all," was born at the Sac village on Rock river, about the year 1767. His first introduction to the notice of the whites seems to have been in 1804, when William Henry Harrison, then the Governor of Indiana Territory, concluded his treaty with the Sac and Fox nation for the lands bordering on Rock river. Black Hawk was then simply a chief, though not by election or inheritance, of his own band of Sac warriors, but from that time he was the most prominent man in the Sac and Fox nation. He considered the action of the four chiefs who represented the Indians in making this treaty as unjust and refused to consider it binding. The territory ceded embraced over fifty-one millions of acres, extending almost from opposite St. Louis to the Wisconsin river. He claimed that the chiefs or braves who made the treaty had no authority to make it, and that they had been sent to St. Louis, where the treaty was negotiated, for quite a different purpose, namely: to procure the release of one of their people who was held there as a prisoner on charge of killing a white man. The United States regarded this treaty as a bona fide transaction, claiming that the lands were sold by responsible men of the tribes, and that it was further ratified by a part of the tribes with Gov. Edwards and
Auguste Choteau, in September, 1815, and again with the same commissioners in 1816. They claimed that the Indians were only to occupy the lands at the Sac village on Rock river until they were surveyed and sold by the government, when they were to vacate them. The treaty of St. Louis was signed by five chiefs instead of four, although Black Hayk claimed that the latter number only were sent to St. Louis for a different purpose. One of these was Pash-e-pa-ho, a head chief among the Sacs. Black Hawk himself thus describes the return of the chiefs to Rock Island after the treaty: "Quash-qua-me and party remained a long time absent. They at length returned, and encamped a short distance below the village, but did not come up that day, nor did any person approach their camp. They appeared to be dressed in fine coats, and had medals. From these circumstances we were in hopes that they had brought good news. Early the next morning the council lodge was crowded. Quash-qua-me came up and said that on their arrival in St. Louis they met their American father, and explained to him their business, and urged the release of their friend. The American chief told them he wanted land, and that they had agreed to give him some on the west side of the Mississippi, and some on the Illinois side, opposite the Jeffreon; that when the business was all arranged, they expected their friend released to come home with them. But about the time they were ready to start, their friend was let out of prison, who ran a short distance, and was shot dead! This was all myself or nation knew of the treaty of 1804. It has been explained to me since. I find, by that treaty, that all our country east of the Mississippi, and south of the Jeffreon, was ceded to the United States for one thousand dollars a year!"
The treaty was doubtless made in good faith on the part of the commissioners, and with the full conviction that it was by authority of the tribes. From this time forward Black Hawk seems to have entertained a distrust of the Americans.
Although Spain had ceded the country west of the Mississippi to France in 1801, the former power still held possession until its transfer to the United States by France. Black IIawk and his band were at St. Louis at this time, and he was invited to be present at the ceremonies connected with the change of authorities. He refused the invitation; and in giving an account of the transaction, said:
"I found many sad and gloomy faces, because the United States were about to take possession of the town and country. Soon after the Americans came, I took my band and went to take leave of our Spanish father. The Americans came to see him also. Seeing them approach, we passed out of one door as they entered another, and immediately started in our canoes for our village on Rock_river, not liking the change any more than our friends appeared to at St. Louis. On arriving at our village, we gave the news that strange people had arrived at St. Louis, and that we should never see our Spanish father again. The information made all our people sorry."
In August, 1805, Lieut. Zebulon M. Pike ascended the river from St. Louis, for the purpose of holding councils with the Indians, and selecting sites for military posts within the country recently acquired from France. At the mouth of Rock river he had a personal interview with Black Hawk, the latter being favorably impressed with the young lieutenant. Speaking of this interview, Black Hawk himself said:
"A boat came up the river with a young American chief, and a small party of soldiers. We heard of them soon after they passed Salt river.