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The worst is worldly loss, thou canst unfold. Let's choose executors, and talk of wills : Say, is my kingdom lost ? why, 'twas my care ! And yet not so,--for what can we bequeath, And what loss is it, to be rid of care ?
Save our deposed bodies to the ground ? S:rives Bolingbroke to be as great as we ? Our lands, our lives, and all are Bolingbroke's, Greater he shall not be; if he serve God,
And nothing can we call our own, but death; We'll serve him too, and be his fellow so: And that small model of the barren earth, Revolt our subjects ? that we cannot mend; Which serves as paste and cover to our bones. They break their faith to God, as well as us: For heaven's sake, let us sit upon the ground, Cry woe, destruction, ruin, loss, decay:
And tell sad stories of the death of kings :'The worst is-death, and death will have his day. How some have been depos’d, some slain in war; Scroop. Glad am I, that your highness is so Some haunted by the ghosts they have depos'd; arm'd
Some poison'd by their wives, some sleeping kill'd; To bear the tidings of calamity
All murder'd:-For within the hollow crown, Like an unseasonable stormy day,
That rounds the mortal temples of a king, Which makes the silver rivers drown their shores, Keeps death his court: and there the antick sits, As if the world were all dissolv'd to tearse Scotting his state, and grinning at his pomp ; So high above his limits swells the rage
Allowing him a breath, a little scene Of Bolingbroke, covering your fearful land To monarchise, be fear'd, and kill with looks ; With hard bright steel, and hearts harder than steel. Infusing him with self and vain conceit,White-beards have arm’d their thin and hairless As if this flesh, which walls about our life, scalps
Were brass impregnable; and humour'd thus, Against the majesty; and boys, with women's Comes at the last, and with a little pin voices,
Bores through his castle wall, and-farewell, king! Strive to speak big, and clap their female joints Cover your heads, and mock not flesh and blood In stiff unwieldy arms against thy crown:
With solemn reverence ; throw away respect, The very beadsmen learn to bend their bows Tradition, form, and ceremonious duty, Of double-fatal yewl against thy state ;
For you have but mistook me all this while : Yea, distaff-women manage rusty bills
I live with bread like you, feel want, taste grief, Against thy seat: both young and old rebel, Need friends :-Subjected thus, And all goes worse than I have power to tell. How can you say to me-I am a king? K. Rich. Too well, too well, thou tell’st a tale Car. My lord, wise men ne'er wail their present so ill :
woes, Where is the earl of Wiltshire ? where is Bagot ?? But presently prevent the ways to wail. What is become of Bushy? where is Green? To fear the foe, since fear oppresseth strength, That they have let the dangerous enemy
Gives, in your weakness, strength unto your foe, Measure our confines with such peaceful steps ? And so your follies fight against yourself. If we prevail, their heads shall pay for it.
Fear, and be slain ; no worse can come, to fight: I warrant, they have made peace with Bolingbruke. And fight and die, is death destroying death;' Scroop. Peace have they made with him, indeed, Where fearing dying, pays death servile breath.
Aum. My father hath a power, inquire of himn ; K. Rich. O villains, vipers, damnd without re- And learn to make a body of a limb. demption !
K. Rich. Thou chid'st me well :-Proud Bolingo Dogs, easily won to fawn on any man!
broke, I come Snakes, in my heart-blood warm’d, that sting my To change blows with thee for our day of doom. heart !
This ague-fit of fear is over-blown; Three Judases, each one thrice worse than Judas! An easy task it is, to win our own.Would they make peace? terrible hell make war Say, Séroop, where lies our uncle with his power! Upon their spotted souls for this offence !
Speak sweetly, man, although thy looks be sour. Scroop. Sweet love, I see, changing his property, Scroop. Men judge by the complexion of the sky Turns to the sourest and most deadly hate ;
The state and inclination of the day :
I play the torturer, by small and small,
And all your southern gentlemen in arms Scroop. Yea, all of them at Bristol lost their Upon his party. heads.
Thou hast said enough. Aum. Where is the duke, my father, with his Beshrew thee, cousin, which didst lead me forth power ?
(T. ATMERLE. K. Rich. No matter where; of comfort no man of that sweet way I was in to despair! speak :
What say you now? What comfort have we now ? Let's talk of graves, of worms, and epitaphs ; By heaven, I'll hate him everlastingly, Make dust our paper, and with rainy eyes
That bids me be of comfort any more." Write sorrow on the bosom of the earth.
Go, to Flint Castle ; there I'll pine away; 1 Yeu is called double-fatal, because of the poison.
4 A small model, or module, for they were the same in ous quality of the leaves, and on account of the wood Shakspeare's time, seems to mean in this place a small being used for instruments of death. From some an. portion or quantity. It is a Latinism, from 'modulus, cieni statutes it appears that every Englishman, while the measure or quantity of a thing.' archery was practised, was obliged to keep in his house 5 It is not impossible that Shakspeare borrowed this either a bow of yew or some other wood. It has been idea from that most exquisite emblematic book of enga supposed that yeios were anciently planted in church. vings on wood, the Dance of Death, or Imagines Mortis yards not only to defend the church from the wind, but attributed to Holbein. See the seventh print. on account of their use in making bou8 ; while their 6 Tradition here seems to mean traditional pracepoisonous quality was kept from doing mischief to the ces, i. e. established or customary homage. cattle, in that sacred enclosure.
7 That is, to die fighting is to return the evil that we 2 The mention of Bagot here is a lapse of the poet or suffer, to destroy the destroyers. the king ; but perhaps it may have been intended to 9 This sentiment is drawn from nature. Nothing is mark more strongly the perturbation of the king's mind, more offensive to a mind convinced that its distress is by making him inquire at first for Bagot, whose loyalty, without remedy, and preparing to submit quietly to irre on further recollection, might show him the impropriety sistible calamity, than these petty and coujeatured of the question. 3 i.e. buried. The verb is not peculiar to Shaksbcare. I to administer.
comforts, which unskilsul officiousness thinks ir vitae
A king, woe's slave, shall kingly woe obey. Go, signify as much ; while here we march
(NORTHUMBERLAND advances to the For I have none :-Let no man speak again
Castle, with a Trumpet. To alter this, for counsel is but vain.
Let's march without the noise of threat’ning drum, Aum. My liege, one word.
That from the castle's totter'd' battlements K. Rich.
He does'me double wrong, Our fair appointments may be well perus’d. That wounds me with the flatteries of his tongue. Methinks, King Richard and myself should meet Discharge my followers, let them hence :-Away, With no less terror than the elements From Richard's night, to Bolingbroke's fair day. Of fire and water, when their thund'ring shock
(Eréunt. At meeting tears the cloudy cheeks of heaven. SCENE III. Wales. A Plain before Flint Cas- Be he the fire, I'll be the yielding water :
te. Enter, with Drum and Colours, BOLING- The rage be his, while on the earth I rain BROKE and Forces; York, NortHUMBERLAND, March on, and mark King Richard how he looks.
My waters ; on the earth, and not on him. and others.
Boling. So that by this intelligence we learn, The Welshmen are dispers'd; and Salisbury
A Parley sounded, and answered by another TrumIs gone to meet the king, who lately landed,
pet wiihin. Flourish. Enter on the walls KING
Richard, the Bishop of Carlisle, AUMERLE, With some few private friends, upon this coast. North. The news is very fair and good, my lord;
SCROOP, and SALISBURY. Richard not far from hence, hath hid his head.
York. See, see, King Richard doth himself apYork. It would beseem the lord Northumberland, To say-King Richard :-Alack the heavy day, As doth the blushing discontented sun When such a sacred king should hide his head!
From out the fiery portal of the east; North. Your grace mistakes me ;? only to be When he perceives the envious clouds are bent brief,
To dim his glory, and to stain the track
Of his bright passage to the occident.
Yet looks be like a king; behold, his eye,
As bright as is the eagle's, lightens forth
Controlling inajesty; Alack, alack, for woe, Boling. Mistake not, uncle, further than you K. Rich. We are amaz'd; and thus long havo should.
we stood York. Take not, good cousin, further than you To watch the fearful bending of thy knee,
should, Lest you mis-take: The heavens are o'er your Because we thought ourself thy lawful king:
(TO NORTHUMBERLAND. head,
And if we be, how dare thy joints forget Boling. I know it, uncle ; and oppose not To pay their awful duty to our presence ? Myself against their will.-But who comes here? If we be not, show us the hand of God Enter Percy.
That hath dismiss'd us from our stewardship; Well,Harry; what, will not this castle yield ?
For well we know, no hand of blood and bone Percy. The casile royally is mann'd, my lord,
Can gripe the sacred handle of our sceptre, Against thy entrance.
Unless he do profane, steal, or usurp. Boling. Royally!
And though you think, that all, as you have done, Why, it contains no king ?
Have torn their souls, by turning them from us, Percy.
Yes, my good lord,
And we are barren, and bereft of friends ;It doth contain a king: King Richard lies
Yet know,—my master, God omnipotent, Within the limits of yon lime and stone :
Is must'ring in his clouds, on our behalf, And with him are the Lord Aumerle, Lord Salis- Armies of pestilence; and they shall strike bury,
Your children yet unborn, and unbegot, Sir Stephen Scroop; besides a clergyman
That lift your vassal hands against my head, Of holy reverence; who, I cannot learn.
And threat the glory of my precious crown. North. Belike, it is the bishop of Carlisle.
Tell Bolingbroke (for yond', methinks, he is,) Boling. Noble lord,
(7' North. That every stride he makes upon my land, Go to the rude ribs of that ancient castle ;
Is dangerous treason: He is come to ope Through brazen trumpet send the breath of parle
The purple testament of bleeding war ; Into his ruin'd ears, and thus deliver :
But ere the crown he looks for live in peace, Harry Bolingbroke
Ten thousand bloody crowns of mothers' sons On both his knees doth kiss King Richard's hand;
Shall ill become the flower of England's face ;* And sends allegiance, and true faith of heart,
Change the complexion of her maid-pale peace To his most royal person : hither come
To scarlet indignation, and bedew Even at his feet to lay my arms and power;
Her pastures' grass with faithful English blood. Provided that, my banishment repeal'd,
North. The king of heaven forbid, our lord the And lands restor'd again, be freely granted :
king If not, I'll use the advantage of my power,
Should so with civil and uncivil arms And lay the summer's dust with showers of blood,
Be rush'd upon! Thy thrice-noble cousin, Rain’d from the wounds of slaughter'd Englishmen: Harry Bolingbroke, doth humbly kiss thy hand : The which, how far off from the mind of Bolingbroke And by the honourable tomb he swears, It is, such crimson tempest should bedrench
That stands upon thy royal grandsire's bones; The fresh green lap of fair King, Richard's land,
And by the royalties of both your bloods, My stooping duty tenderly shall show.
Currents that spring from one most gracious head;
And by the buried hand of warlike Gaunt; i To ear the land is to fill it, to plough it.
And by the worth and honour of himself, 2 The word me, which is wanting in the old copies, was supplied by Hanmer.
6 The six first lines of this speech are erroneously 3 The old copy reads, “Welcome, Harry:' the emen. given to Bolingbroke in the old copies. dation is Haniner's.
7 Shakspeare uses the word testament in its legal 4 Shakspeare frequently, in his addresses to persons, sense. Bolingbroke is come to open the testament of bezins with an hemistich; and sometimes blends short war, that he may peruse what is decreed there in his prosaic sentences with his metrical dialogues.
favour. Purple is an epithet referring to the future á Toller'd, the reading of the two first quartos, is effusion of blood. here probably used for tollering, according to the fre. 8 i. e. England's flowery face, the flowery surface of yuent nusage of our poet. The other copies read tatter'd. I England's soil.
Comprising all that may be sworn or said, Within the earth; and, therein laid, -There lies
Two kinsmen, digg'd their graves with weeping eyes? Than for his lineal royalties, and to beg
Would not this ill do well ?-Well, well, I see
Most mighty prince, my Lord Northumberland,
? His barbed steeds to stables, and his heart
Give Richard leave to live till Richard die To faithful service of your majesty.
You make a leg, and Bolingbroke says_ay. This swears he, as he is a prince, is just;
North. My lord, in the base' court he doth attend And, as I am a gentleman, I credit hím.
To speak with you; may't please you to come down? K. Rich. Northumberland, say,—thus the king K. Rich. Down, down, I come; like glistering returns;
(NORTH. retires to BOLING. Shall be accomplish'd without contradiction : In the base court? Base court, where kings grow With all the gracious utterance thou hast,
base, Speak to his gentle hearing kind commends.- To come at traitors' calls, and do them grace. We do debase ourself, cousin, do we not,
In the base court? Come down ? Down, court!
(TO AUMERLE. down, king! To look so poorly, and to speak so fair ?
For night-owls' shriek, where mounting larks should Shall we call back Northumberland, and send
(Eseunt from shore. Defiance to the traitor, and so die?
Boling. What says his majesty ? Aum. No, good my lord ; let's fight with gentle
Sorrow and grief of heart words,
Makes him speak fondly, like a frantic mas : Till time lend friends, and friends their helpful Yet he is come. swords.
Enter King RICHARD, and his Attendants, belou. K. Rich. O God! O God! that e'er this tongue
Boling. Stand all apart, of mine,
And show fair duty to his majesty:That laid the sentence of dread banishment
My gracious lord,
(Kneeling. On yon proud man, should take it off again K. Rich. Fair cousin, you debase your princely With words of sooth !2 O, that I were as great
knee, As is my grief, or lesser than my name!
To make the base earth proud with kissing it:
Me rather had, my heart might feel your love,
Than my unpleas'd eye see your courtesy. beat, Since foes have scope to beat both thee and me.
Thus high at least (touching his own head, although
your knee be low, Aum. Northumberland comes back from Boling
Boling. My gracious lord, I come but for mine broke. K. Rich. What must the king do now? Must he K. Rich. Your own is yours, and I am yours, submit?
and all. The king shall do it. Must he be depos'd ?
Boling. So far be mine, my most redoubted lord, The king shall be contented : Must he lose
As my true service shall deserve The name of king? o'God's name, let it go ;
K. Rich. Well you deserve :-They well deserve I'll give my jewels, for a set of beads;
to have, My gorgeous palace, for a hermitage
That know the strong'st and surest way to get.My gay apparel," for an alms-man's gown; Uncle, give me your hand : nay, dry your eyes; My figur'd goblets, for a dish of wood;
Tears show their love, but want their remedies, – My sceptre, for a palmer's walking-staff;
Cousin, I am too young to be your father,
Though you are old enough to be my heir
What you will have, I'll give, and willing too;
For do we must, what force will have us do.
Set on towards London :-Cousin, is it so? Some way of common trade,“ where subjects' feet
Boling. Yea, my good lord. May hourly trample on their sovereign's head :
Then I must not say, bo.* For on my heart they tread, now whilst I live; And, buried once, why not upon my head ?
(Flourish. Ezennt. Aumerle, thou weep'st ; My tender-hearted cou- SCENE IV. Langley. Duke of York's Garden sin
Enter the Queen, and two Ladies. We'll make foul weather with despised tears; Queen. What sport shall we devise here in this Our sighs, and they, shall lodge the summer corn,
garden, And make a dearth in this revolting land.
To drive away the heavy thought of care ? Or shall we play the wantons with our woes, 1 Lady. Madam, we'll play at bowls. And make some pretty match with shedding tears ? Queen.
"Twill make me think, As thus :-To drop thiem still upon one place,
The world is full of rubs, and that my fortune Till they have fretied us a pair of graves
Runs 'gainst the bias.!! 1 Commend for commit.
Madam, we will dance. 2 Sooth is sweel, as well as true. In this place 800th being advertised that the duke was coming, even u means sweetness or softness. Thus to soothe still hand, he caused all his gentlemen to wait upon him means to calm and sweeten the mind.
down through the hall into the base court-Edition 3 Richard's expense in regard to dress was very ex. 1925, p. 211. traordinary. 'He had one coate which he caused to be 9 Foolishly. made for him of gold and stone, valued at 3000 marks.' 10 «The duke, with a sharpe high voyce bade bring forth -Holinshed.
the king's horses; and then two little nagges, not worth 4 'Some way of common trade' is some way of fre-forty franks, were brought forth : the king was sel on quent resort, a common course ; as, at present,'' a road one, and the earle of Salisburie on the other; and thus of much traffic,' i. e. frequent resort. 5 A bow.
the duke brought the king from Flint to Chester, where
he was delivered to the duke of Gloucestor's sonne (that 6 It should be remembered that the affirmative parti. loved him but litle, for he had put their father to death, cle ay was formerly written and sounded I, which who led him straight to the castle.–Stowe (p. 521. edit
. rhymed well with die.
1605,) from a manuscript account written by a person
who was present. 8 That is the lower court of the castle ; basse cour, Fr. Thus in Cavendish's Life of Wolsey :- My lord bowl, which gave it a particular inclination in bowling
11 The bias was a weight inserted in one side of a
Queen. My legs can keep no measure in delight, 1 Serv. What, think you then, the king shall be When my poor heart no measure keeps in grief;
depos'd ? Therefore, no dancing, girl; some other sport. Gard. Depress'd he is already; and depos'd, I Lady. Madam, we'll tell tales.
"Tis doubt, he will be : Letters came last night Queen.
Of sorrow, or of joy ? To a dear friend of the good duke of York's,
That tell black tidings.
O, I am press'd to death, For if of joy, being altogether wanting,
Through want of speaking !--Thou, old Adam's It doth remember me the more of sorrow;
likeness, (Coming from her concealment. Or if of grief, being altogether had,
Set to dress this garden, how dares It adds more sorrow to my want of joy:
Thy harsh rude tongue sound this unpleasing news? For what I have, I need not to repeat;
What Eve, what serpent hath suggested thee And what I want, it boots’ not to complain. To make a second fall of cursed man? 1 Lady. Madam, I'll sing.
Why dost thou say, King Richard is depos'd ? Queen. ''Tis well, that thou hast cause ; Dar'st thou, thou little better thing than earth, But thou should'st please me better, would'st thou Divine his downfal ? Say, where, when, and how, weep.
Cam'st thou by these ill tidings ? speak, thou wretch. 1 Lady. I could weep, madam, would it do you Gard. Pardon me, madam: little joy have I, good.
To breathe this news; yet, what I say is true. Queen. And I could weep, 4 would weeping do me King Richard, he is in the mighty hold good,
of Bolingbroke : their fortumes both are weigh'd : And never borrow any tear of thee.
In your lord's scale is nothing but himself, But stay, here come the gardeners :
And some few vanities that make him light;
But in the balance of great Bolingbroke,
Besides himself, are all the English peers,
And with that odds he weighs King Richard down. They'll talk of state ; for every one doth so
Post you to London, and you'll find it so;
I speak no more than every one doth know. Against a change: Woe is forerun with woe.5 (Queen and Ladies retire.
Queen. Nimble mischance, that art so light of foot, Gard. Go, bind thou up yon' dangling apricocks, And am I last that knows it? O, thou think'st
Doth not thy embassage belong to me,
To serve me last, that I may longest keep
Thy sorrow in my breast.—Come, ladies, go, Go thou, and, like an executioner,
To meet at London London's king in woe. Cut off the heads of too fast growing sprays,
What, was I born to this! That my sad look That look ton lofty in our commonwealth :
Should grace the triumph of great Bolingbroke ? All must be even in our government.
Gardener, for telling me this news of woe, You thus employ'd, I will go root away
I would, the plants thou graft'st, may never grow. The noisome weeds, that without proht suck
(Exeunt Queen and Ladies.
Gard. Poor queen! so that thy state might be no The snil's fertility from wholesome flowers. 1 Serv. Why should we, in the compass of a pale, I would, my skill were subject to thy curse.
worse, Keep law, and form, and due proportion, Showing, as in a model, our firm estate?
Here did she drop' a lear; here, in this place, When our sea-walled garden, the whole land,
I'll set a bank of rue, sour herb of grace : Is full of weeds ; her fairest flowers chok'd up,
Rue, even for ruth, here shortly shall be seen, Her fruit-trees all unprun’d, her hedges ruin'd,
In the remembrance of a weeping queen. (Exeunt Her knots disorder'd, and her wholesome herbs Swarming with caterpillars?
ACT IV. Gard.
Hold thy peace :He that hath suffer'd this disorder'd spring, SCENE I. London. Westminster Hall.10 The Hath now himself met with the fall of leaf:
Lords spiritual on the right side of the Throne; the The weeds, that his broad-spreading leaves did Lords temporal on the left; the Commons below. shelter,
Enter BOLING BROKE, AUMERLE, SURREY," That seem'd in eating him to hold him up,
NORTHUMBERLAND, Percy, FITZWATER, anoAre pluck'd up, root and all, by Bolingbroke ; ther Lord, Bishop of Carlisle, Abbot of WestI mean, the earl of Wiltshire, Bushy, Green. minster, and Attendants. Officers behind, with 1 Serv. What, are they dead ?
Boling. Call forth Bagot:-
Who wrought it with the king, and who perform'd Do wound the bark, the skin of our fruit trees;
The bloody office of his timeless!? end. Lest, being over-proud with sap and blood,
Bagot. Then set before my face the Lord Aumerle. With too much riches it confound itself:
Boling. Cousin, stand forth, and look upon that Had he done so to great and growing men, They might have liv'd to bear, and he to taste
Bagot. My Lord Aumerle, I know, your daring Their fruits of duty. All superfluous branches
tongue We lop away, that bearing boughs may live: Had he done so, himself had borne the crown, 8 This uncommon phraseology has already occurred Which waste of idle hours hath quite thrown down in the present play:-.
He is our cousin, cousin; but 'tis doubt 1 All the old copies read of sorrow or of grief.' Pope When time shall call him home,' &c. made the necessary alteration.
9 The quarto of 1597 reads fall. The quarto of 1599 2 Profits.
3 See note on Act i. Sc. 2. and the folio read drop. 4 The old copies read and I could sing.' The emen. 10 The rebuilding of Westminster Hall, which Richard dation is Pope's.
had begun in 1397, being finished in 1399, the first meel. 5 The poet, according to the common doctrine of ing of parliament in the new edifice was for the purpose prognostication, supposes dejection to forerun calamity, of deposing him. and a kingdom to be filled with rumours of sorrow when 11 Thomas Holland, earl of Kent, brother to John any great disaster is impending.
Holland, earl of Exeter, was created duke of Surrey in & Knols are figures planted in box, the lines of which 1597. He was half brother to the king, by his mother frequently intersected each other in the old fashion of Joan, who married Edward the Black Prince after the gardening.
death of her second husband Thomas Lord Holland. * We is not in the old copy. It was added by Malone. 12 i. e. untimely.
Scorns to unsay what once it hath deliver'd. That it shall render vengeance and revenge
In earth as quiet as thy father's scull.
Engage it to the trial, if thou dar'st.
Fitz. How fondly dost thou spur a forward horse ! I heard you say, that you had rather refuse If I dare eat, or drink, or breathe, or live, The offer of a hundred thousand crowns,
I dare meet Surrey in a wilderness, Than Bolingbroke's return to England;
And spit upon him, whilst I say, he lies, Adding withal, how blest this land would be, And lies, and lies: there is my bond of faith, In this your cousin's death.
To tie thee to my strong correction.Aum.
Princes, and noble lords, As I intend to thrive in this new world, What answer shall I make to this base man? Aumerle is guilty of my true appeal: Shall I so much dishonour my fair stars,'
Besides, I heard the banish'a Norfolk say, On equal terms to give him chastisement ?
That thou, Aumerle, didst send two of thy men Either I must, or have mine honour soil'd
To execute the noble duke at Calais, With the attainder of his sland'rous lips.
Aum. Some honest Christian trust me with a There is my gage, the manual seal of death, :
Boling. Bagot, forbear, thou shalt not take it up. And, though mine enemy, restor'd again
I would he were the best To all his land and signories; when he's retura'd, In all this presence, that hath mov'd me so. Against Aumerle we will enforce his trial.
Fitz. If that thy valour stand on sympathies, a Car. That honourable day shall ne'er be seen.There is my gage, Aumerle, in gage to thine : Many a time hath banish'd Norfolk fought By that fair sun that shows me where thou stand'st, For Jesu Christ; in glorious Christian beld I heard thee say, and vauntingly
thou spak'st it, Streaming the ensign of the Christian cross, That thou wert cause of noble Gloster's death. Against black pagans, Turks, and Saracens: If thou deny'st it, twenty times thou liest; And, toil'd with works of war, retir'd himself And I will furn thy falsehood to thy heart,
and there, at Venice, gave Where it was forged, with my rapier's point. His body to that pleasant country's earth, Aum. Thou dar’st not, coward, live to see that And his pure
soul unto his captain Christ, day.
Under whose colours he had fought so long. Fitz. Now, by my soul, I would it were this hour. Boling. Why, bishop, is Norfolk dead 7 Aum. Fitzwater, thou art damn'd to hell for this. Car. As sure as I live, my lord.
Percy. Aumerle, thou liest ; his honour is as true, Boling. Sweet peace conduct his sweet soul to In this appeal, as thou art all unjust :
Aum. And if I do not, may my hands rot off,
Enter YORK, attended. Over the glittering helmet of my foe!
York, Great duke of Lancaster, I come to thee Lord. I task the earth to the like, forsworn From plume-pluck'd Richard ; who with willing soul Aumerle ;
Adopts thee heir, and his high sceptre yields And spur thee on with full as many lies
To the possession of thy royal hand: As may be holla'd in thy treacherous ear
Ascend his throne, descending now from him,From sun to sun :' there is my honour's pawn; And long live Henry, of that name the fourth! Engage it to the trial, if thou dar’st.
Boling. In God's name, I'll ascend the regal Aum. Who sets me else ? by heaven, I'll throw
throne. at all :
Car. Marry, God forbid ! I have a thousand spirits in one breast,
Worst in this royal presence, may I speak,
1 To answer twenty thousand such as you.
Yet best beseeming me to speak the truth. Surrey. My Lord Fitzwater, I do remember well 'Would God, that any in this noble presence The very time Aumerle and you did talk.
Were enough noble to be upright judge Fitz. 'Tis very true : you were in presence then; of noble Richard; then true nobless18 would And you can witness with me, this is true.
Learn him forbearance from so foul a wrong. Surrey. As false, by heaven, as heaven itself What subject can give sentence on his king? is true.
And who sits here, that is not Richard's subject ? Fitz. Surrey, thou liest.
Thieves are not judg’d, but they are by to hear, Surrey.
Dishonourable boy! Although apparent guilt be seen in them : That lie shall lie so heavy on my sword,
And shall the figure of God's majesty, 1 The birth is supposed to be influenced by stars ; 6 i. e. in this world, where I have just begun to be as therefore the poet, with his allowed licence, takes stars actor. Surrey has just called him bay. fur birth. We learn from Pliny's Nat. llist that the 7 Holinshed says that on this occasion he threw dong vulgar error assigned the brightest and sairest stars to a hood that he had borrowed. the rich and great : Sidera singulis attributa nobis, et 8 This is not historically true. The duke of Xorfolk's clara divitibus, minora pauperibus,' &c. lib. i. c. viii. death did not take place till after Richani's murder.
2 This is a translated sense much harsher than that of 9 Hume gives the words that Henry actually spoke stars, explained in the preceding note. Fitzwater throws on this occasion, which he copied from Kayghion, and down his gage as a pledge of battle, and tells Aumerle accoinpanies them by a very ingenious commentary.that if he stands upon sympathies, that is upon equality Hist. of Eng. 40 ed. vol. ix. p. 50. of blood, the combat is now offered him by a man ofrank 10 i. e. nobleness; a word now obsolete, but common not inferior to his own. Sympathy is an affection inci. in Shakspeare's time. dent at once to two subjects. This community of affec. tion implies a likeness or equality of nature ; and hence sive terms the doctrine of passive obedience, is fountant
11 This speech, which contains in the most expres. the poet transferred the term to equality of blood. 3 I. e. from sunrise to sunset.
upon Holinshed's account. The sentiments pould not 4 'A thousand hearts are great within my bosom."
in the reign of Elizabeth or James have been regardai
as novel or unconstitutional. It is observable that
King Richard III. 6 I dare meet him where no help can be had by me right as lawful sovereigns ; to dwell upon the sacred.
usurpers are as ready to avail themselves of diren against him
ness of their persons, and the sanctity of their charac.