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and these are considered as the ancestors of the family bearing the name. This name is often archaic. Thus the surname Bu-luh-beh is explained as follows: Bu-luh is said to be an ancient name for the citron, which is now known as sa-lu. The common way of asking a person what his surname is, is to inquire, ‘What is it you do not touch?' and a person of the surname just mentioned would reply, 'We do not touch the sa-lu, or citron.' People cannot eat or touch in any way the plant or animal, or both, which enters into their surname. The plant or animal is not, however, worshipped in any way." The Lolo are a widely extended group of tribes, and those studied by Henry are those of Se-mao and Meng-tse in Yün-nan.
The term “totemism" with reference to the Lolo was then actually employed by Bonifacy, who believed that certain animal legends, traces of exogamy, and certain taboos, might be considered as survivals of a very ancient totemic organization, but that the proofs are lacking. In my opinion, the data offered by the author reveal no survivals allowing of any conclusion as to former totemism. If, for instance, the newly-weds among the Lolo are not allowed to cut bamboo or to eat the young bamboo-sprouts, this is easily explained from the legend of the first couple who performed their marriage under a bamboo that made speech to them. Bonifacy's material on the Lolo, especially as to social and religious life, belongs to the best we have.
In the “Notes ethnographiques sur les tribus de Kouy-tcheou" (Kuei-chou), by A. Schotter, which must be taken with great reserve, we meet a heading "Totémisme chez les He-miao” (Hei Miao), but the notes appearing under this catch-word are disappointing. The author learned that a certain family of the tribe, Pan, abstains from beef, and received as explanation thereof the following story. One of the ancestors of the Pan was much taken by the charms of a young girl of the family Tien of the same tribe, whose hand was refused him nine times. Finally the condition was imposed on him that he should sacrifice an ox, but not partake of its flesh. The Pan family went beyond this request, and all its descendants avoid the meat of any sacrificed ox. Another piece of evidence: the Tien do not eat dog-flesh. A young mother died, leaving a small girl about to die for lack of milk. She was suckled by a bitch, and, out of gratitude to her nurse, never touched canine flesh, cursing those of her descendants who would not imitate her example. It is obvious that these two cases are simple taboos, the legends being invented in order to explain
This word is related to Nyi Lolo č’u-se-ma and Tibetan Is'o-lum-pa (see Toung Pao, 17 (1916) : 45). ? Bull. de l'Ecole française, 8 (1908) : 550.
Anthropos, 6 (1911): 321.
them, and bear no relation to totemism. Finally also N. Matsokin, with reference to Schotter and some other sources, has spoken about totemism among the Lolo and Miao. It is notable that the two men who were best familiar with the life of the Lolo – Vial and Liétard, two Catholic missionaries — have nothing to report that might be interpreted as totemism. At all events, if totemism ever existed among the Lolo, only scant survivals of it have remained. The independent Lolo, who are not yet explored, may offer better guaranties in contributing to this problem.
I now proceed to place before the reader in literal translation some ancient Chinese records that speak for themselves, and that have the advantage of not being biased by any modern totemic theory. The numerous aboriginal tribes inhabiting the territory of southern and southwestern China are designated by the Chinese by the generic term “Man” or “Nan Man” (“southern Man"). The following legend is told in the Han Annals concerning the origin of the Man.:
“In times of old, Kao-sin Shi • suffered from the robberies of the K'üan Jung. The Emperor, being grieved at their raids and outrages, attempted to smite them by open attack, but failed to destroy them. Thereupon he issued a proclamation throughout the empire: “Whoever shall be able to capture the head of General Wu, the commander of the K'üan Jung, will be offered a reward of twenty thousand ounces of gold, a township comprising ten thousand families, and my youngest daughter as wife.' At that time the Emperor had raised a dog whose hair was of five colors (that is, manicolored), and whose name was P'an-hu. After the issue of
1 Materinskaya filiatsiya v vostočnoi i tsentralnoi Asii (The Matriarchate in Eastern and Central Asia), pt. 2 :94-96 (Vladivostok, 1911).
? Several conclusions of this author are inadmissible, owing to his blind faith in Schotter's uncritical data. He accepts from him the statement that "the antique form of the Chinese character for Miao represented a cat's head and signified a cat." Hence in Matsokin's mind the cat becomes a totem of the Miao. This is a sad illusion. The tribal name Miao is a native Miao word, and its significance cannot be interpreted from any arbitrary manner in which the Chinese please to convey this word to their writing. In fact, neither the word nor the Chinese character with which it is written has anything to do with the cat, which is mao, but not miao, in Chinese; and, even if the Chinese should etymologize the name in the sense of "cat," the conclusion as to a cat-totem among the Miao would be an utter failure. Nor is it correct, as asserted by Matsokin, that the eagle is a totem of the Miao.
• Hou Han shu, Ch. 116, p. 1. * One of the early legendary emperors of China, alleged to have reigned about 2436 B.C.
5 That is, "Dog Jung.” “Jung" was a generic term for barbarous tribes in the west of China.
o The characters representing this name have the meaning "tray" or "plate" and "gourd." In explanation of this name, the Wei lio, written by Yü Huan in the third century A.D., has this anecdote: “At the time of Kao-sin Shi there was an old woman living in a house belonging to the Emperor. She contracted a disease of the ear, and, when the object causing the complaint was removed, it turned out to be as large as a silkworm
this order, P'an-hu appeared at the gate of the palace, holding a man's head in his jaws. The officials were surprised, and examined the case. In fact, it was the head of General Wu. The Emperor was greatly pleased, but considered that P'an-hu could not be married to a woman or be invested with a dignity. He deliberated, as he was anxious to show his gratitude, but did not know what was fitting to do. The Emperor's daughter heard thereof, and held that the pledge which the Emperor had made by the proclamation of his order should not be broken. She urged him to keep his word; and the Emperor, seeing no other expedient, united the woman with P'an-hu. P'an-hu took her, set her on his back, and ran away into the southern mountains, where he stopped in a stone house situated over a precipice inaccessible to the footsteps of man. Thereupon the woman cast off her royal dress, tied her hair into a p'u-kien knot, and put on tu-li clothes. The Emperor was grieved, and longed for her. He sent messengers out to make a search for his daughter. Suddenly arose wind, rain, thunder, and darkness, so that the messengers were unable to proceed. After the lapse of three years she gave birth to twelve children, — six boys and six girls. After P'an-hu had died, the six boys married the six girls. They used the bark of trees for weaving, and dyed this stuff by means of plant-seeds. They were fond of manicolored clothes, and cut them out in the form of a tail. Their mother subsequently returned home and told the story to her father. The Emperor thereupon sent messengers to bring all the children. Their clothes were striped like orchids, and their speech sounded like chu-li.3 As they were fond of roaming over hills and ravines, but did not care for level country, the Emperor, in conformity with this trend of mind, assigned to them renowned mountains and extensive marshes. Subsequently they increased and ramified, and were called Man Barbarians. Outwardly they appeared like simple folk, but inwardly they were clever.”
cocoon. The woman placed it in a gourd, which she covered with a tray. In a moment it was transformed into a manicolored dog, which hence received the name P'an-hu." Compare also Chavannes, T'oung Pao, 6 (1905): 521. This is etymological play made after the event, and is without relation to the original form of the legend. In all probability, P'an-hu is a word derived from a language of the Man, with a quite different meaning. The ancient pronunciation of the word was *Ban-ku, and ku is a Man word meaning "dog." The term will be treated in detail in a forthcoming study of the writer on the languages of the Man.
1 The Commentary adds the following. This place is identical with what at present is called Mount Wu in the district of Lu-k'i in Ch'en chou (in Hu-nan Province). According to the Wu ling ki, by Huang Min, this mountain is about ten thousand li high (Chinese determine the height of mountains by measuring the length of the road leading from the foot to the summit). Half way on the mountain there is the stone house of P'an-hu, which can hold ten thousand people. Within there is his lair, where his footprints are still left. At present, in front of the caves of Mount Ngan, are to be found ancient remains of stone sheep and other stone animals, which are indeed very curious. Also many rock caves as spacious as a three-roomed house may be seen there. The Yao hold that these stones resemble the shape of a dog. According to The Traditions of the Customs of the Man (Man su hiang chuan), they represent the image of P'an-hu.
· This means that she adopted the hair-dressing and costume of the indigenous Man tribes. The commentary admits that the two terms p'u-kien and tu-li are unexplained; they doubtless represent words derived from a language of the Man.
: The commentator remarks that chu-li is the sound of the speech of the Man barbarians. The meaning is that their speech was crude and uncultivated.
This tradition makes a dog the ancestor of the Man; and his descendants cut their clothes out in the form of a dog's tail, their coat-of-arms. The relationship of the Man to the Chinese is emphasized; their languages, in fact, are closely allied. They are characterized as hunters in the mountains and marshes, where they have fields cultivated by very primitive methods, while the plains are reserved for the agriculture of the colonizing Chinese. The modern Man have preserved this tradition with some variants. Some tribes still abstain from the flesh of the dog. Among the Man Tien, who style themselves "Kim Mien" (Mien = Chinese Man, that is, "man"), they have images representing the creator Pien-Kan seated on a throne and holding a flower in his hand; beneath him is shown a dog being carried on a palanquin by two men. A man-dog appears in their decorative art. The Man Kao-lan still profess to have descended from the ancestor-dog P'an-hu. They state that the lozenges embroidered on the shoulders of their women's dress indicate the spot where the paws of the ancestor rested when he cohabited with the princess. The chiefs of the Yao retained P'an as their name: thus there was a Yao chief P'an Kuei in the beginning of the fifteenth century. They also sacrificed to P'an-hu at New-Year offerings of meat, rice, and wine. There is a peculiar tribe of several hundred families living fifteen miles east of Fu-chou, in Fu-kien, called Sia. They are said to be descendants of a dog-headed ancestor, styled Go Sing Da, whose image is worshipped in the ancestral hall on the fifteenth of the eighth month and on New-Year's Day. After this it is kept locked up, as they are ashamed to let others see it.3
One of the powerful kingdoms of the Southwestern Man at the time of the Later Han dynasty (A.D. 25-220) was called Ye-lang, bordering in the east on Kiao-chi (Tonking). The Chinese have preserved to us the following ancient tradition with reference to the origin of royal power among this people.
“In the beginning, a woman was bathing in the T'un River, when a large bamboo consisting of three joints came floating along and entered between the woman's legs. She pushed it, but it did not move. She heard an infant's voice inside, took the bamboo up, and, returning home, split it. She found in it a male child, and reared him till he had grown up. He developed warlike abilities and established himself as Marquis of Ye-lang, assuming the family name Chu (that is, Bamboo).” 1
The foundation of the kingdom of Nan-chao in Yün-nan, the
1 E. Lunet de Lajonquière, Ethnographie du Tonkin septentrional, pp. 210, 252, 253. 272, 280.
2 G. Devéria, La Frontière sino-annamite, p. 90.
• Hou Han shu (Annals of the Later Han Dynasty), Ch. 116, p. 6 b; Hua yang kuo chi, Ch. 4, p. i b.
populace of which belonged to the T'ai family, is thus narrated in the Han Annals:1 —
"The ancestor of the Ngai (or Ai-) Lao barbarians was a woman, Sha-yi by name, who dwelt on the Lao mountain. Once when she was engaged in catching fish, she came in contact with a drifting piece of wood, which caused her a feeling as if she had conceived. Accordingly she became pregnant, and, after the lapse of ten months, gave birth to ten sons. Subsequently the drifting log was transformed into a dragon, who appeared on the surface of the water. All of a sudden Sha-yi heard the dragon speak thus: “Those sons begotten by me, where are they now?' Nine of the sons became frightened at sight of the dragon and filed. Solely the youngest child, who was unable to run away, set himself on the back of the dragon, so that the dragon could lick him. In the mother's native (literally, 'bird'] language, ‘back’ is termed kiu,'to sit' is called lung:8 hence the name 'Kiu Lung' was conferred on the child. When he had grown up, his elder brothers inferred from Kiu Lung's strength that he had been licked by his father, and, on account of his cleverness, proceeded to elect him king. Afterwards there was a couple living at the foot of Mount Lao. Ten daughters were born to them. These were taken as wives by Kiu Lung and his brothers. At a later time, when they had gradually increased in number, all the tribesmen cut and painted [that is, tattooed) their bodies with designs representing a dragon, and wore coats with tails. After Kiu Lung's death, several generations succeeded to him. Eventually the tribe was divided under the rule of petty kings, and habitually dwelt in places scattered in the ravines and valleys far beyond the boundaries of China. While, intercepted by mountains and rivers, the populace strongly increased, it had never held any intercourse with China."
The term “Dragon-Tails” (lung wei) was still applied to the later dynasty Nan-chao. The dragon-tail is an analogon to the dog-tail of the Nan Man.
In 1635 a Chinese, Kuang Lu, who had been in the service of a female chieftain of the Miao, published a small book under the title “Ch'i ya," which belongs to the most interesting and instructive documents that we have on the Miao. This author (Ch. 1, p. 17 b) mentions a tribe under the name “Tan," who lived on river-boats, subsisting on fish, without engaging in agriculture and intermarrying with other people. They called themselves "dragon-tribe" (lung chung) or "men of the dragon-god" (lung shen jen). They painted a
1 Hou Han shu, Ch. 116, p. 7 b.
? A native tradition is more explicit on the origin of Sha-yi. She was the wife of Mong Kia Tu, who was the fifth son of Ti Mong Tsü, son of Piao Tsü Ti, who is identified with King Acoka of Magadha. One day when Mong Kia Tu was fishing in Lake Vi-lo, south of the city of Yung-ch'ang, he was drowned, whereupon Sha-yi came to this place to weep (see E. Rocher, T'oung Pao, 10 (1899] : 12; Devéria, La Frontière sino-annamite, p. 118; C. Sainson, Histoire du Nan-tchao, p. 25).
• Modern Chinese kiu was in Old Chinese *gu, and gu is a typical Indo-Chinese word for “back" (see T'oung Pao, 17 (1916) : 52). Lang or lung in Siamese means "to sit." The compound signifies "sitting on the back" (namely, of the dragon).