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and was elected to the French academy in 1808. city is excessively level, rising gently and with He took an active part in the fall of the empire; great uniformity at the rate of about 5 feet in presented, April 2, 1814, in the senate, the mo- the mile. The Detroit river was visited by the tion of forfeiture against Napoleon; and entered French as early as 1610, but the first permanent the royalist chamber of peers, where he always settlement where the city of Detroit now stands voted with the majority. His Traité de la vo- was made in 1701 by a party under Antoine de lonté et de ses effets appeared in 1815. He la Motte Cadillac. It fell into the hands of the also wrote an Essai sur le génie et les ouvrages British in 1760, and was ceded with the counde Montesquieu, followed by a Commentaire sur try to the United States by the treaty of peace l'Esprit des lois. A disciple of Locke, Condil- of 1783. Nearly the whole town was būrned lac, and Hobbes, he belongs to the sensational or in 1805, after which its plot was changed under materialist school of philosophy. His theory of an act of congress in 1806. A portion of the language is considered a masterpiece of analysis. city is regularly laid out, the streets running

DETMOLD, the capital of the little sovereign parallel with the river, and crossing each other principality of Lippe-Detmold, in Germany, on at right angles thereto, though there are numerthe river Werra and on the E. slope of the ous irregularities. The streets and avenues vary Teutoburg mountains; pop. 4,716. În the vi- in width from 50 to 200 feet, the most of them cinity was fought the celebrated battle in which being either 60 or 66 feet, but some are 80, some Arminius destroyed the army of Varus, A. D. 100, some 120, and a few avenues 200 feet in 9, and also a battle between Charlemagne and width. The inhabitants are supplied with water the Saxons, in 783.

taken from the river opposite the upper part of DETROIT, the chief city of Michigan, ond the city, and raised by means of a hydraulic escapital of Wayne co., situated on the N. W. side tablishment and steam forcing pumps into a large of the Detroit river or strait, extending along reservoir about half a mile back from the river, the river nearly 4 m., of which over 2 m. pre- sufficiently elevated to carry it in iron pipes to sents a city-like appearance. The centre of all parts of the city. Buildings are in course the city is about 7 m. from Lake St. Clair and of erection (1859) for a court house, custom 18 m. from Lake Erie, 80 m. E. S. E. of Lan- house, and post office. The Michigan insurance sing, 302 m. W. of Buffalo, and 526 m. from company bank is a fine building of shell limeWashington; lat. 42° 20' N., long. 82° 58' W. stone, which presents on its surface many beauThe river runs from Lake St. Clair to a point tiful petrifactions. The firemen's hall, odd feljust below the city, in a direction about 30° lows' hall, and some of the public school houses $. of W., and from thence it runs nearly S. to are also fine buildings. There are about 30 Lake Erie, a distance of 15 m. The original churches, of which several are large and splenbed of the river, before it was narrowed by did ; many spacious and beautiful stores; some docking out, was from 48 to 52 chains in width; large and elegant dwelling houses, and several but from the docks of the central portion of the extensive hotels. There are various charitable city to the opposite docks of Windsor, in Cana- institutions, and in 1857 there were 35 public da, it is only about half a mile. The depth, in and 22 private schools. There are 3 daily newsJune, 1841, varied from 12 to 48 feet, averag- papers, each of which publishes a semi-weekly ing about 32 feet. The descent from Lake St. and weekly edition; there are also 5 other weekly Clair to Lake Erie is about 6 feet, or 3 inches to newspapers, a monthly medical journal, a monththe mile. The velocity of the current in the ly journal devoted to education, and 2 semichannel opposite the city is about 24 m. per monthly“ bank-note detectors." The following hour. It rises and falls with the surfaces of table shows the increase of the population: the great lakes of which it is a connecting link, the average annual variation being only about 2 feet, and the extreme variation, from

1,442 1854.

2,222 1855, estimated at. 51,000 Feb. 1819, when it was the lowest, to July,

59,000 1838, when it was the highest ever known, was

70,000 only about 6 feet. The waters of the river and

.13,065 | lakes rise during a succession of wet seasons, In 1858 there were about 12,000 to 16,000 Irish, and fall during a succession of dry ones. The an equal number of Germans, and about 4,000 Detroit river is so deep, and its current so French.—The U. S. government made 5 great strong and uniform, that it keeps itself clear, leading roads (post roads) in Michigan while and its navigation is not affected (as the Ohio, it was a territory, all diverging from Detroit. Mississippi, and most other rivers are) by floods, The Michigan central railroad was finished to droughts, sand bars, trees, sawyers, rocks, or Ypsilanti, 30 m. from Detroit, in 1837; to Ann dams of ice.—Where the principal part of the Arbor, 38 m., in 1839; to Kalamazoo, 145 m., in city is situated, the ground rises gradually from 1845; and to Chicago, 282 m., in 1851. The the river to the height of from 20 to 30 feet, at railroad from Detroit to Toledo (60 m.) was coma distance of 15 to 30 rods from the river bank; pleted in 1857, connecting at Monroe with the it then falls off a little, and again rises gradual- Michigan southern road. The Detroit and Milly to the height of 40 to 50 feet above the river, waukee roa from Detroit to Lake Michigan, which renders the drainage very good. The opposite Milwaukee, was opened for travel in whole country for more than 20 m. back of the 1858; and a road from Detroit to the foot of

Pop. Year.
770 1850.

Pop. 21,019 40,378

Year. 1810. 1820. 1930. 1834 1840. 1845.

4,969 1836..
9,102 1858.

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Lake Huron, opposite Port Sarnia, the termination of the Grand Trunk railway in Canada, will be finished in the course of 1859.-Detroit is the great concentrating point of the produce, commerce, banking, and heavy business of the whole state. There are numerous large warehouses on the river, beside the great freight depot of the Central railroad, which is 800 feet long and 100 feet wide. The retail trade of the city is very large, and the wholesale business has become extensive also. Nearly all the merchants in the upper lake region, as well as in the interior of the state, make many of their purchases in Detroit, and a large proportion of them buy all their goods there. The largest branch of industry is the sawing of lumber. There are on the river within the city limits 9 large steam saw mills, which cut from 3,000,000 to 8,000,000 feet each per annum, making in the whole about 40,000,000 feet annually of pine lumber, the logs being floated down to the mills from Lake Huron and the creeks and streams which fall into the St. Clair river. Ship and boat building has also been a very large and important branch of business. The Michigan central railroad company have an extensive workshop for the manufacture of cars, and for repairing their locomotive engines. The Detroit locomotive works are connected with a large foundery, machine shop, and boiler factory, for the manufacture of locomotive and other engines, and the casting of mill irons and machinery of various kinds. There are many other establishments, large and small, for all kinds of machine work, and brass and iron casting, beside shops for working in wood, making sash, blinds, doors, casings, &c.; 2 steam pail factories, one steam flouring mill, 2 large tanneries, and several breweries. Two miles below the city works have been erected and in operation several years for smelting native copper and copper ore from the shores of Lake Superior; 10 m. below, a blast furnace and rolling mill have been in operation several years. The furnace is employed in smelting ironstone from the upper peninsula. From 10 to 15 m. from the south shore of Lake Superior there are several hills of ironstone, very rich in the finest quality of iron, which will furnish an inexhaustible supply. The following table shows the industrial progress of the city from 1855 to 1857:

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Total number built.
Tonnage of do..
Tonnage of district.


29 6,764 57,707

The assessed valuation for purposes of taxation was, in the latter part of 1858, $16,360,000, with a city debt of about $300,000.


DEUCALION, king of Phthia, in Thessaly, and son of Prometheus and Clymene. According to ancient tradition, being forewarned by his father of an approaching deluge, he built a ship in which he and his wife Pyrrha were saved from an inundation which destroyed all the rest of mankind. When the waters subsided, their vessel rested on Mount Parnassus, and their first care was to consult the oracle of Themis as to how the world should be repeopled. Being advised to throw behind their backs the bones of their great mother, and interpreting mother to mean the earth, they cast stones behind them, from which sprang up men and women.

DEUTERONOMY (the second law; Gr. devrepos, second, voμos, law), the 5th book of the Pentateuch, containing the history of what passed in the wilderness during about 5 weeks (from the beginning of the 11th month to the 7th day of the 12th month), in the 40th year after the departure of the Israelites from Egypt. In it Moses recites to the people the events which had taken place in their history, and explains again the law which had been received at Sinai.

DEUX PONTS (Ger. Zweibrücken, two bridges), a canton and town in the circle of the Palatinate, Bavaria; pop. of the canton, about 150,000; of the town, 7,920. The canton was formerly an independent duchy, and in 1795 came by inheritance into the possession of the king of Bavaria. During the wars of the French revolution it passed into the hands of the French, to whom its possession was confirmed by the treaty of Luneville in 1801. In 1814 it was finally restored to Bavaria. Much of the canton is mountainous, but in the valleys and on the lower hills agriculture is carried on to a considerable extent. It has extensive forests, and iron, copper, and freestone are found. Much attention is also paid to the raising of




horses, cattle, and sheep.-The town of Deux ferior devatas, who are ministers to the higher Ponts was the capital of the ancient duchy, and gods, such as the 12 Adityas or forces of the once possessed a handsome ducal palace, which sun; the Maruts or winds, the celestial musiwas partially destroyed by the French, and has cians ; in short, endless motley hosts with varisince been converted into a church. The able attributes. (See BRAHMA.) name of the town, which in Latin is Bipontium, DEVANAGARI. See SANSORIT. was given to it on account of the two bridges DEVAPRAYAGA, a town of Gurhwal, Hinacross the Erlbach, near the old castle of the dostan, situated at the place where the rivers dukes. The Bipont editions of the Greek and Bhagirathi and Alakananda unite and form the Latin classics were commenced here in the lat- Ganges. This portion is considered by the ter part of the 18th century.

Hindoos as the most sacred part of that holy DEV (Sanscrit, div, to play, desire, shine, be river, and is believed by them to have the propmad or proud, tease, &c.; Slavic, div-iti, to erty of washing away sins. The town is not wonder ; derir, wild), the Parsee name of the large, and is inhabited principally by Brahmins, peetiare Ahriman, or evil-breeding principle, who are supported chiefly by the contributions of and of his progeny of night, death, darkness

, pilgrims. It is built on an eminence about 100 drought, dulness, dearth, dirt, negation, and star- feet above the river, and contains a celebrated vation. The devs were the producers of these Hindoo temple, built of large stones joined toand of all other dire and dreadful calamities, as gether withont the use of mortar. well as the seducers of men to all moral evils; DEVENTER, or DEWENTER, a fortified city the prototypes of the devils of Christian history of Holland, province of Overyssel, on the Yssel, For the daßodos (scatterer, confounder) itself 8 m. N. from Zutphen; pop. in 1850, 14,378. It seems to be of recent formation in this sense, has narrow streets, spacious market places, bandhaving been unknown to the ancient Greeks. some public promenades, a large town house, a As Ahriman, though akin to-Ormuzd, both being court house, a prison, a weigh-house, 5 churches, the offspring of Zervane Akerene (Slav. trvanie, a synagogue, various literary and educational duration, a privative, and Slav. kraj, margin), institutions, 6 hospitals, and an orphan asylum. or endless time, was his antagonist, so were the It has an excellent harbor, a prosperous trade, 6 arch-devs opposed to as many Amshaspands and extensive manufactories of Turkey carpets, representing the principles of light, life, love, stockings, iron ware, &c. It exports annually law, right existence, and happiness; both being about 600,000 lbs. of butter. also the prototypes of the 7 choirs of devils DE VERE, MAXIMILIAN SCHELE, professor and of angels. Beside the regular army of evil of modern languages and belles-lettres in the spirits, rushing down from the desert of Gobi university of Virginia, born near Wexio, in upon the south-western people of Ormuzd, com- Sweden, Nov. 1, 1820. He first entered the pelling them to leave their native land, Eeriene military and afterward the diplomatic service Veedjo (Iran, pure), under the guidance of of Prussia. Emigrating finally to the United Jemshid, and to change their settlements 13 States, he was appointed in 1844 professor in times, there were especial devs of falsehood, the university of Virginia, a position which he envy, putridity, and all other evil things, dis- continues to occupy. Prof. De Vere has been tinguished by specific names, such as Eshem, an industrious and extensive writer, as well as a the man-killer; Akuman, the ugliest of all; laborious student and teacher. His contribuEpeosho, the destroyer of waters in the shape tions upon a great variety of subjects, of a hisof a dragon-star (probably a comet), &c. The torical, literary, and scientific character, have Darudjs, a particular sort of devs, opposed to appeared in the British quarterly reviews, the the good Izeds, or secondary good genii, are "Southern Literary Messenger," in "Putnam's" also conspicuous. The ever renewed contest of and "Harper's” magazines, and elsewhere. He the two principles will end with the destruc- has published 2 volumes : the first in 1853,"Outtion of the earth by the comet Gurzsher. The lines of Comparative Philology;" the second cosmogony and theology of the Parsees is con- in 1856, “Stray Leaves from the Book of Natained in the Zend Avesta.

ture.” The former is a very full and compreDEVA (Lat. deus, divus), among the Aryans hensive treatise, now in use as a text book at in general

, an epithet of divine persons and the university of Virginia; the latter a graceful things; hence often opposed to the dev of the and pleasing series of papers, dealing with a Parsees. It is commonly applied to the goddess number of curious and interesting subjects, Durgă, the wife of Siva, of terrific form and chiefly in the department of the minute naturalirascible temper. Devakātmajā is the mother ist. The miscellaneous articles contributed by of Krishna, who is also named Devāki. Deva- Professor De Vere to the periodicals mentiontarū is the holy fig-tree, belonging to Sverga ed above have been valuable and interesting; or paradise. Devati denotes a deity; Deva- among them we refer especially to a series of datta, the younger brother of Buddha, who is papers in the “Southern Literary Messenger," called Devadattárraja (Deodatus senior). Deva- entitled “Glimpses of Europe in 1848,” which deva is a name of Brahma; Devapati is Indra, are remarkable for political insight and vivid the god of the sky; Devayajna is the Homa coloring. He has made himself master of Eng or burnt sacrifice; Devarishi, a celestial saint. lish, and writes it with much perspicuity, force, There are a great many classes or choirs of in- and elegance.


DEVEREUX, ROBERT, 1st earl of Essex, born about 1540, died in Dublin, Sept. 22, 1576. He succeeded his grandfather early in the title of Viscount Hereford, and recommended himself to Queen Elizabeth by his bravery and good conduct in suppressing the rebellion of the earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland, in 1569. For his service in driving them into Scotland he received the garter and the earldom of Essex. Afterward, in 1573, he was persuaded to undertake an expedition against Ireland, in company with other noblemen and gentlemen. In consideration of his contract to furnish half the expense of the enterprise, he was to have one-half of the colony as soon as it was established. The expedition was directed against the Irish province of Ulster, but in its prosecution Essex was subjected to many trials and disappointments, to the desertion of his friends, and inability to carry out his plans. He was obliged to make peace with O'Neal, when, by continuing the war, he had the fairest prospects of driving him out of the country. Harassed with his difficulties, he retired to England, but was again induced to return, with the title of earl marshal of Ireland and the promise of support and assistance. As these promises were but poorly kept, he was overcome with grief, and the agitation of his mind threw him into fatal dysentery. There was suspicion of poison, which was not diminished by the marriage, soon after, of his countess to the earl of Leicester.

DEVEREUX, ROBERT, son of the preceding, 2d earl of Essex, born at Netherwood, in Herefordshire, Nov. 10, 1567, executed in the court of the tower, Feb. 25, 1601. He succeeded to his title in his 10th year, and in 1578 was sent by his guardian Lord Burleigh to Trinity college, Cambridge, where after 4 years he took the degree of master of arts. He retired to his seat at Lampsie, in South Wales, but appeared at court in his 17th year, and his youth, address, and spirit soon captivated Elizabeth. In 1585 he accompanied the earl of Leicester to Holland, and displayed his personal courage in the battle of Zutphen, in which Sir Philip Sidney fell mortally wounded. In 1587 he was appointed to the honorable post of master of the horse, and in the following year the queen ostentatiously showed her favor for him while reviewing the army at Tilbury, created him captain-general of the cavalry, and conferred on him the honor of the garter. He succeeded Leicester as prime favorite, and his attendance was constantly required at court. In 1589, when an expedition against Portugal was undertaken by Drake and Norris, Essex suddenly disappeared from court, followed the armament, and joined it on the coast of Portugal, where he was a leader in taking the castle of Peniche and in advancing upon Lisbon. Though he had departed without the permission of the queen, he was quickly reconciled with her after his return, and at once assumed a superiority over Sir Walter Raleigh and Sir Charles Blount, the rival competitors for royal favor. He was challenged by Blount and

wounded in the knee, and the queen is said to have expressed her gratification that some one had taken him in hand, as otherwise there would be no ruling him. In 1590 he married the daughter of Sir Francis Walsingham, the widow of Sir Philip Sidney, and in the following year had command of a fruitless expedition in Brittany against the Spaniards, who were attempting its conquest. When, in 1596, alarm was excited by the hostile preparations in the Spanish harbors, he was joined with Lord Admiral Howard in command of the expedition against Cadiz, and entered the city by land soon after the engagement in the harbor, in which 13 Spanish ships of war were taken or destroyed. The intrigues of the Cecils, who had regarded Essex with jealousy from his first introduction at court, caused him to be coolly received on his return; but he quickly recovered favor, the queen preferring him as an accomplished courtier and Sir Robert Cecil as a man of business. Two subsequent expeditions which he conducted against Spanish shipping, in one of which Lord Thomas Howard and Sir Walter Raleigh were his seconds, met with little success. The queen received him with frowns and reproaches, and he retired to Wanstead; nor would he be pacified by her acknowledgment that the charges against him were unfounded, but after a long negotia tion he accepted the office of hereditary earl marshal as indemnity for the promotion that had been given to his rivals. In 1598 he quarrelled with the queen about the appointment of deputy in Ireland, and when she boxed him on the ear, and bade him "go and be hanged," for turning his back to her in presence of her ministers, be swore that he would not endure such an affront even from Henry VIII. himself, and withdrew from court. Only a formal reconciliation was ever effected. In 1599 the province of Ulster was in rebellion, and Essex, invested with unusual powers, accepted the lord-lieutenantcy of Ireland. His campaign resulted only in a temporary armistice, and completed his ruin. He returned in haste, retired from his first audience with a cheerful countenance, but was imme diately ordered to consider himself a prisoner in his own house, and was for a time delivered to the lord keeper to be kept in "free custody." After months of hesitation, both on his own part and that of Elizabeth, he at length conceived the plan of forcibly banishing his enemies from her majesty's council. At the bead of a force of 80 knights or gentlemen, and about 200 other persons attached to him by friendship or fear, he made his way into the city, but was disappointed in expecting the people to rise in his favor; he completely failed in his design, and took refuge in Essex house, where he was besieged and forced to surrender. He was committed to the tower, tried for treason, condemned, and executed, the queen reluctantly and irresolutely signing the warrant. He was an accomplished scholar, a patron of literature, and the most frank and impetuous of the politicians of his time. He erected a monument to Spen



ser, gave an estate to Bacon, and was the friend of Wotton and other men of learning.

DEVEREUX, ROBERT, son of the preceding, 3d earl of Essex, born in London in 1592, died in the same city, Sept. 14, 1646. He was educated at Eton and at Merton college, Oxford. He succeeded to his title in 1603, and in his 15th year was married to Lady Frances Howard, who was a year younger than himself. He proceeded to the university and thence to the continent, while his wife remained at court, and numbered Prince Henry and Rochester (afterward earl of Somerset) among her admirers. A divorce ensued between her and the earl of Essex, on the plea of his natural incapacity, and she was soon after married to Rochester. Essex led a solitary life in his country house, till in 1620 he raised a troop and served under the elector palatine in the wars of the Netherlands. He was engaged in several campaigns abroad, and as vice-admiral commanded a fruitless expedition sent by England against Spain. His second marriage resulted unhappily and in a divorce. At the outbreak of the civil war he was appointed lord general by the parliament, laid siege to Portsmouth, and was proclaimed a traitor by Charles. He fought against the king at Edgehill (1642), captured Reading (1643), advanced into Cornwall, and, after refusing to negotiate with the royalists, met with a succession of disasters which forced his army to capitulate, he himself escaping in a boat to Plymouth. He repaired to London, where a parliamentary deputation waited on him in honor of his faithful services. He again raised a corps, but ill health soon obliged him to quit his command. As early as 1644 he suspected Cromwell of a design to obtain the supreme command. of the army, abolish the house of lords, and erect a new government according to his own principles. He therefore urged his impeachment before the house of lords, and Cromwell took revenge by proposing the "self-denying ordinance," by which members of both houses were excluded from all offices, whether civil or military. This measure having passed, Essex ceased to be a parliamentary general, but for his services £10,000 per annum was voted to him out of the sequestered estates of the loyalists. He died in the next year, and was interred in Westminster abbey, the houses of parliament expressing their respect for his memory by attending his funeral.

DEVIL (Gr. daßolos, scatterer or accuser), in Jewish and Christian theology, the sovereign spirit of evil. The doctrine of the fathers of the church, founded upon certain passages of the Scriptures, makes him the leader of a rebellion in the angelic world, the enemy of God, the author and constant promoter of sin, now suffering chastisement for his crimes, and destined to eternal punishment. Though called the prince of this world, and though all heathendom was the effect of his agency, yet his power was broken by the work of Christ, so that Christians can rise superior to the might


of his inflrence. As sovereign of the demons, he figured prominently in the practice of magic and in many of the poetical legends of the middle ages. In the mysteries he was often represented on the stage, with black complexion, flaming eyes, sulphuric odor, horns, tail, hooked nails, and cloven hoof. Milton in the character of Satan, and Klopstock in that of Abbadonna, have personified the devil as a fallen angel, still bearing traces of his former dignity amid the disfigurements caused by sin. The Mephistopheles of Goethe is a more malignant character, and chuckles in anticipating the ultimate ruin which he is preparing by his arts.-The Yezidis, a singular race found in Koordistan and Armenia, are perhaps the only acknowledged worshippers of the devil. They seem to have once professed Christianity, then Mohammedanism, and now risk their destiny on devilism. Admitting that the mighty angel Satan, the chief of an angelic host, at present has a quarrel with God, they yet believe that a reconciliation will hereafter take place, and that he will be restored to his high estate in the celestial hierarchy. This is the foundation of their hope, and they esteem their chance for heaven a better one than if they trusted to their own merits or to the merits of the leader of any other religion whatsoever. (See DEMONS.)-Among the most complete theological treatises on the subject are those of Mayer, Historia Diaboli (2d ed., Tübingen, 1780); Semler, Versuch einer biblischen Damonologie (Halle, 1785); and Schulz, Untersuchung über die Bedeutung des Worts Teufel und Satan in der Bibel.-The devil, as the ideal of evil, vice, craft, cunning, and knavery, has played a prominent part in literature. The following are examples: Hocker, Wider den Bann-Teufel (Magdeburg, 1564); Musculus, Wider den Ehe-Teufel (Frankfort, 1566); Fabricius, Der heilige, kluge, und gelehrte Teufel (Eislingen, 1567); Luberti, Fast-Nachts-Teufel (Lübeck, 1573); Brandmüller, Der Geiz-Teufel (Basel, 1579); Musäus, Melancholischer Teufel (Tham, 1572), and Speculativischer Teufel (Magdeburg, 1579); the Theatrum Diabolorum (Frankfort, 1565, containing 20 old German writings similar to the preceding); Velez de Guevara, El diabolo coxuelo (Barcelona, 1646); Damerval, Le livre de la diablerie (Paris, 1508); Le diable bossu, Le diable femme, Le diable pendu et dépendu, Le diable d'argent, Le diable babillard (all early in the 18th century); Le diable confondu (the Hague, 1740); Le diable hermite (Amsterdam, 1741); Le Sage, Le diable boiteux (Paris, 1755); Frédéric Soulié, Mémoires du diable (Paris, 1844); the "Parlyament of Deuylles," printed by Wynkin de Worde (1509); the "Wyll of the Deuyll and Last Testament;" the "Devill's White Boyes" (1644); "Devil turned Roundhead" (London, 1642); the "Devill of Mascon" (Oxford, 1658); and Defoe, the "Political History of the Devil, as well Ancient as Modern" (London, 1726).


DEVIL-FISH, a cartilaginous fish of the ray family, and the genus cephaloptera (Duméril).

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