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always lived in it, she was at last attacked a fecond time, and died.'
Having treated of the appearance and symptoms of this horrid infection, Dr. Mackenzie proceeds to throw out some philofophical reflections on its rise and progress in those countries which are so unhappy as to be very liable to it.
· The Plague, says he, is now more frequent in the Levant, than it was, when I came first into this country, about 30 years ago; for then, they were almost strangers to it in Aleppo and in Tripoli of Syria, and they had it but seldom at Smyrna; whereas now they have it frequently at Aleppo, and summer and winter in Smyrna, though never so violently in the winter; which must be owing to the great communication by commerce over all the Levant, and more extended into the country villages than it used to be. I take the Plague to be an infection communicated by contact from one body to another; that is, to a found body from an infected one, whose poisonous effluvia, subtile miasmata, and volatile steams, enter the cutaneous pores of found persons within their reach, or mix with the air, which they draw in respiration, and so advancing by the vafa inhalantia, mix with the blood and animal fluids, in which, by their noxious and active qualities, they increase their motion and velocity, and in some days produce a fever; so that the nearer and the more frequent the contact is, the greater is the danger, as the noxious particles, exhaling from the infected perfon, must be more numerous, and consequently have greater force and activity in proportion to their distance.
• Some persons are of opinion, that the air muft be infected, and that it is the principal cause of these plagues; whereas I presume, that the ambient air is not otherwise concerned, than as the vehicle, which conveys the venemous particles from one body into another, at least in such plagues as I have seen hitherto at Smyrna and Conftantinople; allowing always, that the different constitution of the air contributes very much to propagate the Plague : for the hot air dilates and renders more volatile and active the venomous steams, whereas cold air contracts and more tifies them. The person having the plague may be said to have a contagious and poisonous air in his room and about him, while at the same time the open air is free from any dangerous exhalations; so that I never was afraid to go into any large house, wherein a plaguy person lived, provided that he was confined to one room.
Dr. Mackenzie goes on to describe the symptoms of the pestilential fever, and to give directions with respect to the method of cure; but as the present inhabitants of this part of the world are providentially so happy as to be never visited with it; we shall confine our extracts to the Doctor's philosophical and hiftorical observations on the subject.
• The Plague breaks out here and at Smyrna fome years, when it is not possible to trace whence it is conveyed; for some houses, which were insected, and not well cleaned after the infected person is removed, lodge fome of the venemous molecula in wool, cotton, hair, leather or skins, &c. all winter long; which, put in motion by the heat in April or May, break out of their nidus, where they resided, and recover so much life and action, as to enter into the cutaneous pores of any person, who comes within their reach, and so infect him; as it happened at the French palace, at Mr. Hubsch's and at Caraja's house, for two or three years running. But Plagues of this kind seldom spread, and are never so fatal as such as come from abroad.
Many are of opinion, that the heat kills the Plague, as they term it, which is owing to a foolish superstition among the Greeks, who pretend, that it must cease the 24th of June, being St. John's day, though they may observe the contrary happen every year; and the itrongest Plague, that was at Smyrna in my time, anno 1736, was hotteft about that time, and cona tinued with great violence till the latter end of September, when it began to abate ; but was not entirely over till the 12th of November, when Te Deum was sung in the Capuchins convent..
< This mistaken notion may be in some measure owing to a wrong senfe put upon Prosper Alpinus, who allows that the Plague at Cairo begins to ceasc in the months of June and July, when the strong northerly winds (called Embats or Etesian winds) begin to blow, which make the country much cooler than in the months of May, April, and March, when the Plaque rages molt; which he very justly imputes to the great fuffocating heats and southerly winds, which reign during those months in that country: and it is then that the ships, which load rice, flax, and other goods and merchandise for Conftantinople receive the infection, and carry it with them hither ; and, upon these goods being delivered to persons in different parts of the city, the plague breaks out at once with great violence among the trading people of the Greeks, Armenians, and Jews; for I have observed, both here and at Smyrna, that the Turks are commonly the last of the four nations, who are infeéted; but when the Plague gets once among them, they suffer moft by it, because they take the least care and precaution, and their families are much more numerous.
• The plagus, as well as all other epidemical diseases, has its rise, progress, ftate, and decicnfion, when it begins to lose its virulence, and many of the fick recover. Some years it is felt sporadically all the winter ; and we hear fome accidents in the Phanar, among the Greeks, among the Jews, Turks, and Armenians; and even among the Franks; for you may remember, that Pera wis not clean all the winter 1762. Some years it
lodges lodges in the villages upon the Bosphorus; but during the winter it is never of any great consequence.' Art. 12. An Account of a remarkable Tide at Bristol. By Dr.
Tucker. The phenomenon of this tide was its rising suddenly, soon after it began to flow, almost to high-water mark, where it continued near half an hour : when it sunk almost instantaneoufly, three feet perpendicular: after which, it began to flow in again, and kept Aowing on, till it rose to the height it was expected to do. By the circumstances attending this extraordinary agitation, it seems the caufe of it (most probably some fubterraneous eruption) could not be very diftant. Art. 13. A Letter. containing fome Experiments in Electricity. By
Mr. Bergman of Upsal, in Sweden. Notwithstanding the many and great advantages, which the progress of science hath reaped from the extensive communications of modern commerce; we sometimes find one nation almost half a century behind-hand with respect to the scientific discoveries of another. This does not appear, indeed, to be altogether the case with the learned in Sweden ; Mr. Bergman, however, after recapitulating the circumftances of some experiments, well known in France and England, closes his letter with the following questions and remark : “ Ullusne, in Anglia,
fulminis ictus, virgis ferreis erectis, avertere conatus eft? et quo fucceffu ? In Pensylvania tentari mihi narratum est. Certe si prodenter inftituatur, nulla hinc mala metuenda video.'--If our experimentalists cannot make a satisfactory antwer to the above quertions, they must admit that they are as far behind those of New England and Pensylvania, as the philosophers of Sweden are to thole of Great Britain. Art. 14. An Account of a Fish from Batavia, called Jaculator. By
Dr. Schlosser. Our good friend, Dr. Schloster of Amsterdam, hath, it seems, presented the Royal Society with a very uncommon fish ; of which this article contains the drawing and description. The moft extraordinary circumstance relating to it, is the manner of its obtaining food; which is pretey singular ; indeed so fingular, that, if a personal acquaintance with this ingenious gentleman did not give us sufficient reason to think, that he could not mean to impose on others, nor is liable to be easily imposed on himself, we should hardly have been foon induced to give it credit. - The Doctor having received from Mr. Hommel, governor of the hospital at Batavia, many uncommon fishes, well preserved, amongst them was this, called the Faculator, or Shooting-fish; of which the governor gave him the following account:
" It frequents the shores and fides of the sea and rivers, in search of food. When it spies a fly fitting on the plants, that grow in shallow water, it swims on to the distance of four, five, or fix feet, and then, with a furprising dexterity, it ejects out of its tubular-mouth a single drop of water, which never fails striking the fly into the fea, where it soon becomes its prey.
· The relation of this uncommon action of this cunning fish raised the governor's curiosity; though it came well attested, yet he was determined, if poffible, to be convinced of the truth, by ocular demonftration.
For that purpose, he ordered a large wide tun to be filled with sea-water; then had some of these fish caught, and put into it, which was changed every other day. In a while, they seemed reconciled to their confinement; then he determined to try the experiment.
'« A flender stick, with a fly pinned on at its end, was placed in such a direction, on the side of the vessel, as the fith could ftrike it.
• It was with inexpressible delight, that he daily saw these fifh exercising their skill in shooting at the fly, with an amazing velocity, and never missed the mark.' Art. 15. An Account of the Polish Cochineal. By Dr. Wolfe of
Warsaw. On this fubje& here are two papers, the one in Latin and the other in English. They contain the description of an insect, - which Dr. Wolfe supposes may be found in England as well as in Poland. The naturalists may look for it in the month of June about the roots of the potentilla, fragaria, and polygonum minus. Art. 21. An Account of the Degree of Cold cbserved in Bedfordshire.
By John Howard, Esq;
Jented by the Company of Apothecaries, for the Year 1763.
rica. 'By Prorelli Winthrop.
Art. 36. An Account of the Effeets of Lightening at South Weald in
Efex. By Dri Heberden. A relation of the damage done to the church of South-Weald, a village in Effex, on June 18, 1764, much about the time of the like misfortune happening to St. Bride's steeple, and in Eflexftreet, London. Dr. Heberden closes his account with observe ing, that the whole appearance of the damage done to this church very much favours the conjecture of that fagacious observer of nature Dr. Franklin, who thinks it probable, that, by means of metallic rods or wires reaching from the roofs to the ground, any buildings may be secured from the terrible effcets of lightening Art. 40. Observations upon the Effects of Lightening, with an Ac
count of the Apparatus proposed to prevent its Mischiefs to Buildings, more particularly to Powder Magazines
. By Dr. Watson.
Church, Fleetstreet, on the 18th of June 1764.. By Edward
The ingenious author of this paper hath been very accurate
the Effects of Lightening in Effex-Street, on the 18th of June, 1764.
This accident hath been before mentioned, and differs little in circumstances from other accidents of the like kind. Art. 44. A Letter to the Marquiss of Rockingham, with fome Ob
fervations on the Effects of Light:ring.
Fluids. By John Canton, M. A. F. R. S.