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sissippi and come up to Keokuk by boat, thence up the Des Moines to Bellefontaine, Red Rock or Coalport, for at that time, as you all know, the Des Moines was navigable. I was not too young to have often heard the boats whistle along this river, and too have ridden upon her bosom in steamboats myself.

"As emigration pours in some locate in one part of the county and some in another. At last you are permanently settled down to the new life, you are attached to your rude cabin, your truck patch is coming up and the vines are climbing up over your cottage door and window. Claims are made for future improvements and you are thriving and happy even among difficulties; you manage to live and get along somehow. The first corn is ground by breaking it in mortars. The first stove is a fire-place or a set of forked sticks with a cross piece. The first wheat bread is 'corn dodgers. The first coffee is corn coffee. The first rice is hog hominy. The first beef is generally pork. The first fruits that laden your tables consist of crabapples and wild gooseberries. The first buggy rides you take are in twohorse wagons or behind ox carts over rough roads. The first merchandise is hauled in two-horse wagons from Burlington or Keokuk. The first music you enjoy aside from the music of your own voices is the whistling wind or the howling wolf along your streams. Among your first visitors were the Indians, bedecked with feathers and gleaming with war paint, manufactured from the keel of Red Rock. If tradition is correct, when these red-skinned fellows used to appear at our house your humble servant used to disappear under the bed.

"In those days you did not have willow cradles or hammocks for your children, such as children have to-day. From my own recollection there were no such institutions. My parents were fortunate enough however to make me very comfortable in an old trunk lid.

"The young folks had their hardships in these early days as well as the old folks. I recollect one season there was not a green apple to be had in the country and we had to resort to dried apples. I went into my father's store on one occasion, filled myself with dried apples then filled my pockets and ate them all down, then I went to the town pump and commenced drinking water, I continued this for half an hour; abont this time the apples began to swell and there was a strange sensation came over my heart, and oh, Lord! nobody knows the trouble and hardships I passed through! You have heard of persons growing gray in a single night; well, I did not grow gray in a single night but I grew very large. This little expedition resulted in bringing about frequent visits from our family physician and giving me an eternal prejudice against dried apples.

"Every improvement and addition to the county was hailed with joy. Many of you recollect when the first circular saw-mill was put up in the vicinity of Knoxville. The inhabitants came very near going wild, it even created more exeitement than balloon ascensions or circuses of a later date. "Since those days many improvements and great additions have been made to the county. Times have changed wonderfully. The red man has gone farther west. The howl of the wolf can be heard no more. Instead of log cabins for dwellings, church and school-houses, you have respectable frame and brick edifices. Instead of ox-carts for traveling you have good vehicles, carriages and railroads. Instead of crab-apples and gooseberries, you have orchards yielding abundance of fruit of every variety, while the surplus of your bountiful crops, your coal, hogs, cattle, sheep and pro

duce, after your own wants are generally suppled go into the markets of the world and return in the shape of the choicest luxuries the earth affords. Yes: times have changed! Scanty settlements have increased till the popalation of your county outnumbers any of its neighbors.

"The manner in which Marion county has been settled illustrates the manner in which the whole State has been peopled. A few years ago I stood on the banks of the Mississippi River, not a great ways from Burlington, at a place were Black Hawk used to rally his warriors for battle. At this place there is a natural semi-circle formed on the river shore giving it the appearance of a large amphitheatre. I imagined I could see the Indians assembled here arrayed in all the paraphernalia of savage life. I imagined I could see the old chief step forth and sway the tribe with his eloquence. I could hear the war-whoop ringing up and down the Father of Waters. I could see the wigwams here and there over the country, and the smoke of smouldering camp-fires curling up to the sky. I could see tiny birch ca noes tied up along the river shores or silently gliding over the waters. I looked out over Iowa in my imagination, and everything was a wild, desolate waste. There was not a white man to be seen, nor a dwelling-house, nor an artificial grove, nor a church, nor a school-house, nor a cultivated section of land to relieve the dull monotony of the scene. It was no pleasure to me to look upon this weird sight even in imagination, and to dispel the gloom of so terrible a solitude, I looked out upon the reality of the present. I could see spires and domes glistening in the sun. Instead of wigwams I could see comfortable dwellings, school-houses and churches. Instead of the smoke of smouldering camp-fires I could see the smoke belching forth from hundreds of chimneys, furnaces and engines. Instead of birch canoes I could see mighty steamers plowing up and down the Father of Waters. Instead of the shrill Indian war-whoop I could hear the whistling of numerous manufacturing establishments all over the State, and of the iron horse passing and repassing carrying on a mighty cominerce. As I looked out over Iowa, instead of a wild desolate waste frequented only by buffaloes, Indians and wild beasts, I could see a civilized land, a great State, a commonwealth second to none in the world.

"But this State has not only been redeemed from a wilderness and rescued from a savage race, the very soil upon which you now stand once belonged to France. Happily for you and for mankind it fell into better hands. In 1803 Napoleon Bonaparte and Thomas Jefferson vied with each other in statesmanship; the result annexed to the United States that famous Louisiana Purchase,' of which this great State of Iowa "the garden of the world' is a part. Thus we see that through the struggles and the wisdom of our fathers we have inherited not only republican institutions, but a land that has no equal beneath the starry canopy of heaven. Behold the country of which your State is a part! Behold the land that has been reserved through the ages for free government and a matchless civilization to have a home-triumph and live on, blossoming through, all time! Until this continent was discovered and peopled despotism had always been in the ascendency. No such strides of civilization were ever made in the Old World, in a few years, as you have made here. In the days before this new world was peopled every effort in the line of advancement was always crushed in the bud. Every free government that existed previous to ours was either hopelessly crippled or completely wiped out.

"The struggle for liberty and a higher civilization commenced away back


in remote antiquity in the shiving Orient, but despotism and superstition soon attained supremacy.

At a later time Greece contends for these same principles and makes a stride in the line of advancement and the upbuilding of free institutions such as the world never before knew, but the broken column and shattered temples of Greece attest the over-reaching power of despotism. Still later there is a similar contest at Rome; for a time the Republic flourishes, but after a while a single will plans and executes universal empire, Rome is brought under the yoke and Cæsar rules the world. Still later there is a contest made for these same principles in the Italian cities. Genoa, Florence, Milan and Pisa thrive, while laws and systems of municipal government are given to the world, ever to be admired and studied, but surrounded by monarchs and conspiring princes. At length these noble cities are brought to ruin. Liberty and her twin sister, Progress, being driven from the Italian cities, take refuge in the nountains of Switzerland; here they live on despite every storm that blows, but they cannot revolutionize the world and carry civilization to its goal while confined to the fastnesses of the mountains. The United Netherlands next make a long and desperate effort for civil, commercial and religious freedom. Under the leadership of one of the greatest men in history, William the Silent, there is hope in the world for the realization of a higher civilization, but an assassin takes the life of William the Silent, and after prospering under a republic for a few years this gallant little nation submits to the fate that rules Europe. Liberty and progress next filee from the oppression of England to the solitudes of the New World. Here an paralleled career of advancement is commenced. Before the colonies arrive at importance the Old World is indifferent. But when the wilderness begins to blosson with rich harvests then an attempt is made to whip the people of the New World back into the traces of arbitrary government. A mighty contest ensnes. It is a renewal of the saine old struggle that has been going on since the dawn of society-between despotism and retrogression on the one hand, and liberty and progression on the other, and for the first time in the history of the world, liberty and progression gain a footing from which they can never be dislodged and free government is placed in a condition to dety the combined force of arbitrary power, despotism and superstition while the world stands. The struggle and wisdom of the early patriots not only secured to posterity republican institutions and the thir. teen colonies, but as I said before, their wisdom at length secured us, the

which you now stand and upon which you have been living these thirty years and more. All honor then to our forefathers for this land and governinent. All honor to the first inhabitants of this great land and this State, and especially to the old settlers of Marion county, for the civilization that has been achieved. The government bequeathed to posterity by the early patriots shall never fall. The improvements and progress commenced by you old settlers shall never cease. The workmen may fall but the work shall go on.' The old settlers of Marion county may all pass away, but the spirit of progress infused by your pluck and your energy shall continue with your free institutions as long as the rivers run into the sea; as long as the clouds circle around the convexed top of the mountains; as long as the heavens hold up the star3, and the cycle of time continues to roll."


very soil


There is now being prepared a list of old settlers under the auspices of the association. One hundred and three names have already been enrolled; of these 25 are from Ohio, 17 from Pennsylvania, 16 from Indiana, 8 from Kentucky, 6 from Holland, 4 from New York, 3 from Virginia.



The Soul of John Brown--Sudden Death--Assassination of Josiah M. Woodruff-Two Persons Drowned-Fatal Runaway-Treasury Robbery-Death by Drowning-Fatal Accident-Murder and Suicide-Two Victims of Passion--Second Treasury Robbery-Another Murder at Red Rock-Drowned-Fratricide--Two Men Shot-Burned To Death-Early Crimes.


On the 10th of June, 1856 a public meeting was held in Iowa City for the purpose of firing the public heart on the subject of the Kansas difficulty. Several spirited speeches were made, and after the public meeting, which was held for general purposes, a private meeting was held for the purpose of devising definite measures in aid of those who were making their way to the contested ground in the interests of free soil. At this meeting the following address was prepared and placed in the hands of George D. Woodin, Esq., who was to visit all the counties to the south and west for the purpose of opening up a line of communication:

"To the friends of the Kansas Free State Cause in Iowa-The undersigned have been appointed a committee to act in connection with similar committees appointed in Chicago, and other States, and with committees of like character to be appointed in various counties of the State, and especially in those counties lying west and southwest of us.

"The plan of operations is the establishment of a direct route and speedy communication for eastern emigrants into Kansas. The committee have appointed Messrs. George D. Woodin, Esq., William Sanders and Capt. S. N. Hartwell to visit your place for the purpose of having a committee appointed there to facilitate the general plan of operations and carry out the details. They will explain to you the minutiae of this plan, at greater length than we are able to do in this communication.

"Capt. Hartwell is a member of the State Legislature in Kansas, and is recently from the scene of the ruffian atrocities which have been committed in that embryo State.

"We have here pledged our lives, our fortunes and our sacred honors to make Kansas a free State, and we shall expect our friends from this place westward will give us their hearty co-operation.

"Yours in the cause of freedom,

"Iowa City, June 10, 1856."

"W. P. CLARK, Chairman. "C. W. HOBART, Secretary.

"H. D. DOWNEY, Treasurer.



As before remarked, Mr. Woodin in particular was active and diligent in transacting the business delegated to him. He made a complete tour of the counties lying in the proposed route of the "emigrants" and established committees. He succeeded in enlisting in this enterprise the most active and reliable men in the various town which he visited who were in sympathy with the movement. Most of the men are still living and many of them have since achieved a national reputation. The following are the names of the individuals composing the committees at the various points along the route:

Wassonville-Isaac Farley, Myron Frisbee, N. G. Field.

Sigourney-N. H. Keath, A. T. Page, T. S. Byers, A. C. Price.

Oskaloosa William H. Seevers, A. M. Cassady, James A. Young, Louis Reinhart, S. A. Rice.

Knoxville J. M. Bayley, James Mathews, Hiram W. Curtis, William M. Stone, James Sample, Joseph Brobst.

Indianola-B. S. Noble, George W. Jones, Lewis Todhunter, J. T. Lacy, G. W. Clark, H. W. Maxwell.

Osceola-J. D. Howard, G. W. Thompson, A. F. Sprague, Jno. Butcher, J. G. Miller, G. L. Christie.

Quincy-R. B. Lockwood, T. W. Stanley, H. B. Clark, E. G. Bengen, D. Ritchey.

Winterset-H. J. B. Cummings, W. L. McPherson, D.. F. Arnold, W. W. McKnight, J. J. Hutchins.

Des Moines-A. J. Stevens, T. H. Sypher, W. W. Williamson, B. S. Chrystal.

Newton-H. Welker, William Skiff, William Springer, E. Hammer, H. J. Skiff.

It was necessary to observe great caution and secrecy, as the administration at that time was in sympathy with the pro-slavery party, and United States Marshals were on their way to Kansas from the North. The underground railroad having been put into good running order, Superintendent Woodin and his station agents did quite a business in forwarding "emigrants" during the fall, winter and following spring and summer.

One incident connected with the working of the underground railroad especially deserves mention, it was the first meeting of Gen. Jim Lane and John Brown.

Late in the summer of 1856 the people of Sigourney were considerably interested in an unusually large number of emigrants who came through the town late in the afternoon, and encamped for the night near by. Persons who had no connection with the "Emigration Society" noticed that Dr. Price and other members of the committee soon became very intimate with the leading men among the "emigrants." In fact so intimate were Price and his conferees with the chief emigrants that they held a conference in a back parlor of the Clinton House, then the leading hotel of Sigourney. After the conference had lasted some time the emigrants returned to their camp to look after some business while the committee remained in the room at the hotel awaiting their return. In the meantime there was a knock on the door, which being opened admitted a healthy, robust man, dressed in the garb of a frontiersman, who announced himself as Captain 'Moore, from Kansas, and desiring to see one Jim Lane, whom he expected to find at the place. He was informed by the committee that Jim Lane, for such one of the "emigrants" proved to be, had just retired, but would

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