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expression haloed with the most exquisite feeling! The words are but the symbols of this feeling, and their effect in this case depends entirely on the correct application of the tremulous semitonic movement, in conformity to the senti mental dictates of nature.


Scene from the Tragedy of King John.



Arthur. O, save me, Hubert, save me! my eyes are out,
Even with the fierce looks of the bloody men.

Hubert. Give me the iron, I say, and bind him here.
Arth. Alas! what need you be so boisterous rough?
I will not struggle, I will stand stone-still.
For Heaven's sake, Hubert, let me not be bound!
Nay, hear me, Hubert! Drive these men away,
And I will sit as quiet as a lamb;

I will not stir, nor wince, nor speak a word,

Nor look upon the irons angerly.

Thrust but these men away, and I'll forgive you,
Whatever torment you do put me to.

Hub. Go, stand within; let me alone with him.

1 Attendant. I am best pleased to be from such a deed.

Arth. Alas! I then have chid away my friend.
He hath a stern look, but a gentle heart.
Let him come back, that his compassion may
Give life to yours.

Come, boy, prepare yourself.

Arth. Is there no remedy?

Hub. None, but to lose your eyes.

Arth. O Heaven! that there were but a mote in yours,

A grain, a dust, a gnat, a wandering hair,

Any annoyance in that precious sense!

Then, feeling what small things are boisterous there,
Your vile intent must needs seem horrible.

Hub. Is this your promise? Go to, hold your tongue
Arth. Hubert, the utterance of a brace of tongues
Must needs want pleading for a pair of eyes.

Let me not hold my tongue; let me not, Hubert!
Or, Hubert, if you will, cut out my tongue,
So I may keep mine eyes. O, spare mine eyes,
Though to no use, but still to look on you!

102. In the earnest inquiry, "Is there no remedy?" and in the supplication, "O, spare mine eyes!" tremor, added to the semitonic movement, will give a high degree of impressiveness to the force of the sentiment.

103. The effect of blending tremor and the semitone may be most beautifully exemplified in the expression, "Now don't take it so sorely. to heart;" as may be seen in the fol lowing extract:

104. "I approached the grave. The coffin was placed on the ground. The poor mother been assisted to kneel down at the head of it. Her withered hands were clasped as if in prayer; but I could perceive by a feeble rocking of the body, and a convulsive motion of the lips, that she was gazing on the last relics of her son with the yearnings of a mother's heart. Preparations were made to deposit the coffin in the earth. The movement around seemed to awaken the mother from a wretched reverie. She raised her glazed eyes, and looked about with a faint wildness. As the men approached with cords to lower the coffin into the grave, she wrung her hands, and broke into an agony of grief. The poor woman who attended her, took her by the arm, endeavoring to raise her from the earth, and to whisper something like consolation. Nay, now " nay, nowdon't take it so sorely to heart.' She could only shake her head and wring her hands, as one not to be comforted."


105. It has already been shown, that inflection, stress, pause, tremor, circumflex, pitch, monotone, quantity, movement, and semitone, do, by their separate and mingled influences, give brilliancy and intensity to the force of expression.

106. Aspiration, the function now to be considered, will

afford additional means for diversifying the effects of these elementary agents. This quality of the voice, which is man ifested, and may be illustrated, under the form of a whisper, may be conjoined with loudness, and united with the most forcible exertion of the vocal organs..

107. It may properly enough be termed the signature of excitement. When words are vociferated with the greatest vocal violence, they must, of necessity, become aspirated; consequently aspiration will always show itself, when the feelings are so powerful as to throw out a greater quantity of breath than can be vocalized by the enunciative organs. The words will then be thrown out, as it were, enveloped in aspiration. In exercising the pupil, let him practise on words and elementary sounds, by bringing the voice down to an intense whispering utterance.

108. Aspiration may be applied to syllables of every variety of time, to all modes of stress, and to all intervals of intonation. Its use is to unite with the other functions of the voice, to give increased intensity to the utterance of the various emotions. It gives words an air of mystery. It expresses what is wonderful, incomprehensible. It also expresses excessive earnestness, sneer, contempt, scorn, violent anger, and excessive rage. When an abatement of the voice is aspirated on the semitone, it gives intensity to the plaintiveness of distress; and when the tremulous movement is superadded to the aspirated semitone, it will mark the deepest shade of sadness and grief within the limits of crying.

109. If the last three lines in the following passage be read with a moderate degree of aspirated intonation, it will illustrate its agency in the expression of what is strange, unaccountable, and mysterious.

110. "When first, with amazement, fair Imogine found

That a stranger was placed by her side;

His air was terrific - he uttered no sound;

He spoke not, he moved not, he looked not around,
But earnestly gazed on his bride.'

111. Let the above be read with the requisite degree of aspiration, and then in the tone of pure vocality only, and the effect will be such, that the hearer would scarcely suppose that in each case the passage was the same.

112. The following extract will serve to illustrate how far aspiration has any agency in expressing wonder and as tonishment:

113. "Hamlet. He was a man, take him for all in all, I shall not look upon his like again.

Horatio. My lord, I think I saw him yesternight,

Ham. SAW! WHO?

Hor. My lord, the king your father.

Ham. The king my father!"


114. The effect of aspiration may be illustrated in the following examples.

115. In the dialogue between Brutus and Cassius, if the last word "fear," which is Italicized, be strongly aspirated, the effect in marking earnestness of sentiment will be very perceptible.

116. "Brutus. What means this shouting? I do fear the people Choose Cæsar for their king.

Cassius. Ay, do you fear it?

Then must I think you would not have it so."

117. Again, in the tent scene, the anger and displeasure of Cassius's feelings are fully manifested in the aspiration of the word "chastisement."

"Brutus. The name of Cassius honors this corruption, And chastisement doth therefore hide its head.



119. If any one wishes to understand the effect of aspira tion, and how far it is entitled to notice as a powerful agent in oratorical expression, let him read the following passage without aspirated force, then let him read it aspirating the

words which are Italicized, and it is presumed that its use in expressing the feelings of scorn, indignation, and contempt, will be sufficiently apparent.

120. "Cassius. Urge me no more; 1 shall forget myself Have mind upon your health: tempt me no further

Brutus. Away, slight man.

Cas. Must I endure all this!

Bru. All this! Ay, more. Fret till your proud heart break.
Go show your slaves how choleric you are,

And make your bondmen tremble. Must I budge?
Must I observe you? Must I stand and crouch
Under your testy humor?"



121. By the term force, in elocution, is meant that degree of energy with which words and phrases are uttered. The modifications of force do so affect the ear by their distinctive peculiarities, as to constitute a style of utterance, and should therefore be classed among the elements of expression. When skilfully applied, according to the varying demands of the sentiment, this element of expression infuses a life into the style, which arrests the attention and sways the feelings. 122. The terms loud, soft, and suppressed, or strong, feeble, and suppressed, are used to signify the variations of this attribute of the voice. Loudness of voice is appropriated to states of mind associated with energy of feeling, triumphant exultation, and violent passion, as may be perceived in the following extracts:

"Now strike the golden lyre again;

A louder yet, and yet a louder strain !
Break his bands of sleep asunder,

And rouse him like a rattling peal of thunder'

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