Obrázky stránek


superiority of that music. In England, a society which took place in the apartments of the socalled the “ Dilettanti Society" was originated ciety in 1846, and which was renewed in the in 1760, by gentlemen who had travelled in following year. Among many tokens in recog. Italy, at first for social purposes; but it after- nition of his labors received by Mr. Dilke, was ward acquired celebrity by devoting its funds his appointment by Prince Albert as a member to the encouragement of the study of classical of the royal commission, in which capacity until art, by sending out travellers, and by publishing his resignation he rendered important service. books on antiquarian subjects.

For this it was desired to bestow upon him some DILKE, CHARLES WENTWORTH, an English special acknowledgment, but as he constantly journalist, born Dec. 8, 1789. He was grad- refused proffers either of honor or emolument, uated at Cambridge, and became employed in the queen forwarded to his wife a bracelet of the navy pay office, where he remained 20 diamonds. In 1853 he was a British commisyears. During this time he had contributed sioner to the industrial exhibition in New York. largely to the “ Westminster Review,” the DILIGENCE, a kind of stage coach drawn by "Retrospective Review," and other periodicals from 3 to 6 horses, which was the principal public of note. In 1830 Mr. Dilke became editor of conveyance in France before the introduction of the “ Athenæum,” which, froin having been railways, and which is still in use in many parts but very partially successful under its original of Europe. The French 4-wheeled diligence is proprietors, Mr. James Silk Buckingham and Mr. composed of 3 compartments. The front diviStirling, speedily rose to the rank it now holds sion (coupé) is the most expensive, and holds 3 in English periodical literature. He not only im- persons. The middle division (intérieur) acproved its quality, but diminished its cost to the commodates 6 persons at a lower rate. Behind public; it had formerly been sold for 18., but the inside is the rotonde, a much less comfortable Mr. Dilke reduced the price to 4d. In 1846, place, which affords the same number of seats having intrusted the editorship of the “ Athe- at a still lower rate. There is also room for 4

to Mr. Thomas Kibble Hervey, Mr. persons including the conductor on the roof over Dilke undertook the editorship of the Daily the coupé (banquette or impériale), which is the News,” a large newspaper which had recently cheapest place. With a full number of persons appeared under the auspices of Mr. Charles the diligence weighs about 5 tons, exclusive of Dickens. With the coöperation of Mr. Dilke, baggage. The Spanish and Italian diligences are and the application by him of the principle of superior to the French. The German diligences reduction in price, the success of the “Daily (Postuagen, Eilwagen) are attached to the post News” was very remarkable. In the second year office; so are those of Switzerland. In Russia of its existence more than 12,000 copies were diligences are built with a succession of coupés, printed. This prosperity speedily and perma- each capable of containing 2 or 3 passengers; nently declined, however, on the surrender of others have 2 or 3 coupés, and then a rotonde the editorship by Mr. Dilke in 1849-a decline holding 4 persons. The conductor's seat is in accelerated also by a mistaken resolution on the front, and beside him sits the yamtchik (post part of the new director to increase the price. boy); the number of horses is generally 4, harThe consequence was a reduction of the issue nessed abreast, but to these 2 leaders are freto 4,000, which it has not since exceeded. quently added, and on the off horse sits another -CHARLES WENTWORTH, son of the preced- post boy. ing, born in London, Feb. 18, 1810. He was DILL, the common name of the anethum graduated and studied law at Cambridge, but graveolens (Linn.), an annual plant of the natural did not during that time contribute, as he is order of the umbelliferæ, a native of Spain, but reputed to have done, to the columns of the naturalized in the south of France and Germany.

Atheneum." He manifested early that bias It has an upright smooth stem, much dissected for the conduct of industrial and artistic or- leaves, yellow flowers, and small oblong seeds, ganization, the development of which in subse- with sharp, filiform dorsal ridges. It is cultiquent enterprises has proved a source of public vated for the carminative and stimulant properbenefit, and of honor to himself. In 1844 he ties of its seeds. They are imported in large submitted to the society of arts, of which he was quantities from the south of France into Eng. a member, and is now the vice-president, a plan land, where, beside their medicinal use, they are for the exhibition of English industrial products, employed in the manufacture of British gin. which contained the germ of the idea more fully In Germany they are used in pickling cucumrealized in the universal exhibition of 1851. Å bers and in the manufacture of sour crout. commission of inquiry was instituted to ascer- DILLENIUS, JOHANN JAKOB, a German bot. tain the measure of assent and coöperation that anist, born in Darmstadt in 1687, died in Oxford, might be expected for the project from various April 2, 1747. Following a not uncommon Gerquarters, but met with little encouragement. man custom of the time, each generation of his Nr. Dilke persisted in his endeavors, and, in family added sone letters to their name, his conjunction with Mr. Henry Cole and Mr. Scott grandfather being called Dill, his father Dillen, Russell, presented his original plan to Prince and himself Dillenius. He studied at the uniAlbert, president of the society of arts; and af- versity of Giessen, and was received a member ter combating various obstacles, he had the grat- of the society of "Inquirers into Nature, " under ification of seeing it realized in the exhibition the auspices of which he published a “Disser

[blocks in formation]
[ocr errors]

tation upon the Plants of America naturalized stood, this opinion, too, was necessarily abandonin Europe ;" " Treatise upon Coffee,” with an ed; for it was apparent that no transient deluge account of the seeds which might displace it could have produced effects so vast as those exgiving the preference to burnt rice; and a vol hibited in this formation. In the northern hemiame of “ Observations upon the Mode of Devel- sphere the drift is found in Europe, Asia, and opment of Ferns and Mosses,” in which he con- America, extending from the polar regions tofirmed the theory of different sexes in plants. ward the equator, and disappearing on the conHe first obtained a reputation among naturalists tinent of North America about lat. 38o. In by his “ Catalogue of the Flora of Giessen," Europe, all trace of it is lost in the countries published in 1719. The great merit of Dillenius bordering the Mediterranean. Its distribution 33 8 botanist consists in a constant attention to southward on the two continents appears to the discrimination of the genera by the parts of accord with the deflections of the present lines the flower and fruit, a principle of classification of equal winter temperature. In South Amerifirst proposed by Gesner and which became the ca it is recognized in Patagonia, and traced from foundation of the system of Linnæus. William Cape Horn to lat. 41° S. Throughout these reSherard, a scientific English traveller, succeeded gions the features of the formation are the same. in persuading Dillenius to leave Germany for The surface is irregularly covered with the deEngland. He arrived in London in 1721, and posits above named. Sometimes they are so bad a rich garden at Eltham placed at his dis- arranged in strata as to indicate that a long time position by James Sherard, a brother of William. has been occupied in their deposition; while He edited an enlarged edition of Ray's “Synop- occasional marine shells, nearly all of recent sis of British Plants," which he enriched with species, testify to tranquil action in the localities engravings of his own. In 1728 William Sher- where they are met with, and to an epoch of ard died, and founded by his will a chair of bot- production closely approximating to the recent any at Oxford, to which Dillenius was appointed, period. The superficial strata of sand and who in 1732 published his Hortus Elthamensis

, gravel are found at times 300 feet or more in containing not only descriptions of plants ar- thickness. They rest upon geological formaranged in alphabetical order, but also 324 plates tions of all ages up to the beds of older plioengraved by himself on pewter. This work was cene, such as the mussel and clam beds found enthusiastically received by his contemporaries, at Augusta and Gardiner in Maine, 60 feet among others by Linnæus, then commencing his beneath the sand and gravel, and filled with labors. In 1741 he published his “History of shells scarcely distinguishable from those in our Mosses,” his greatest work, which places him in harbors. The drift is met with upon the sumthe first rank of the botanists of the last century. mits of high mountains; it is seen 3,000 feet He was more than 20 years in collecting the ma- above the level of the Baltic, and upon the terials of this work, which is a noble monument highest points of the Grampian hills, 4,000 feet of acute discrimination and minute research. above the sea. Everywhere the formation is The plates, numbering 85, and the descriptions characterized by loose masses of rock scattered were all by his own hand. He published no over the surface, more or less rounded in form, subsequent work, but many of his drawings and and differing from the solid ledges beneath them. collections are preserved in the Sherardian As already described in the article Bowlder, museum at Oxford. The isolation which the they are often of great dimensions, and their labors of Dillenius required affected his social sizes increase as they are traced toward the qnalities. He thought only of his own knowl- pole to their parent beds. In Russia they have edge and opinions, and believed himself the thus been identified with ledges more than 800 prince of botanists. Linnæus visited him in m. distant toward the north. Bowlders of the 1736, and implicitly adopted some of his faulty same kind of granite, easily recognized, traced views in opposition to his own better judgment; from Moscow to St. Petersburg, vary from 2 to and the subsequent correspondence between 3 feet in diameter at the former to as many yards these two naturalists shows a polite condescen- at the latter point. Instances of these phenomsion on the part of the Swede to the pretensions ena are everywhere to be seen in the northern of the Oxford professor. Linnæus dedicated to United States. In southern Wisconsin pieces of Dillenius a magnificent genus of plants of tropi- native copper were often found in the superficial cal India, which is the type of the family of deposits long before the mines of this metal were the Dilleniacea.

discovered on the S. shore of Lake Superior, 300 DILUVIUM, DRIFT, BOWLDER FORMATION, m. to the north. The N. shores of Long island the deposits of clay, sand, gravel, and bowlders are strewn with bowlders of red sandstone, and spread over the surface of the polar regions and of granite and other primary rocks, arranged in adjacent portions of the temperate zones. For groups which correspond with the position of & time these deposits were confounded with the ledges of the same rocks in Connecticut, those called alluvial, and when it was seen that across the sound to the north. So on the Enthey could not have been produced by the ac- ropean continent, the stratified rocks of which tion of existing currents, their origin was com- the whole region on the S. side of the gulf of monly referred to the Noachian deluge. As the Finland is composed, are covered with granitic extent, depth, and nature of the materials con- bowlders from the primary region of Scandinastituting the formation came to be better under- via on the other side of the gulf. The surface


of the bowlders is often found to be striated and of the mastodon giganteus, for the bones of grooved, as if worn by hard rubbing over rough this animal are exhumed in New Jersey and surfaces; but soinetimes it is smooth and almost New York from bogs in the surface of the drift, polished. The solid ledges of rock when ex- where they have lain undisturbed, not separated posed to view very frequently display a similar even from the decayed contents of the stomach grooved and worn surface. The furrowed lines, of the animal, since life departed from them. called diluvial scratches, are sometimes seen in With the remains of the mastodon occur ser2 sets, one much fainter than the other, the 2 eral species of fluviatile shells, such as now live crossing each other at a sharp angle. Their in fresh water. The deposit containing these general direction is that in which the bowlders and also well preserved mastodon bones is idenare traced to their parent ledges. In the tified on both sides of the great chasm of the northern states this is usually from S. S. E. to Niagara valley, in situations where it could only N.N. W. Upon the slopes of high lands greater have been formed before this chasm was in exabrasion and grooving are observed on the N. istence. Thus, according to the calculations of than on the S. sides; but if these elevated tracts Sir Charles Lyell

, the period of production of were opposed to a great current, they do not the drift formation cannot approach within some appear to have had the effect of diverting this 30,000 years the time commonly assigned for from its course, except it may bave been in the the introduction of the human race upon the great valleys of drainage, where the striæ have earth.—Various theories have been devised to been observed in some instances to coincide explain the phenomena of the drift. Under with their direction. The bowlders in an open date of Nov. 21, 1825, Mr. Peter Dobson, of country are usually scattered about without reg: Vernon, Conn., addressed a short communicaularity, but in some localities they are traced tion to Prof. Silliman, making a page of the 10th in long, narrow, and well defined belts, which vol. of the “ American Journal of Science" cross the summits of ridges in lines oblique to (1826), which, as remarked by Sir R. I. Mur. the direction of these. That all parts of the chison in his address before the geological region covered with drift did not occupy their society of London in 1842, contains the essence present elevation at the time its deposition took of the modified glacial theory since arrived at place, is proved by the deposits of clay contain after much debate, and a previous acquaintance ing marine shells found in many localities in with which might have saved volumes of disNew England and New York, reaching at a putation on both sides of the Atlantic. Mr. maximum about 500 feet above the present level Dobson describes the appearance of the bowl. of the sea, and overlaid by the sand and gravel ders abraded and scratched," as if done by their of the drift. The valleys of the St. Lawrence having been dragged over rocks and gravelly and of Lake Champlain were thus depressed, earth in one steady position," and adds: " I think and the waters of the ocean must at that time we cannot account for these appearances, unless have reached the basin of Lake Ontario. Some we call in the aid of ice as well as water, and regard this as evidence that all the neighboring that they have been worn by being suspended territories now covered with drift were similarly and carried in ice over rocks and earth under submerged, but such beds of shells are only met water.” The transportation of masses of rock with in the valleys named and in certain locali- by icebergs as they drift along the corrents ties not far removed from the present margin of which set from the polar regions, and the distrithe sea. Sir Charles Lyell observes of the drift bution of their loads over the bottom of the fossils of Canada found near Montreal and Que- ocean as the bergs melt away, present, in the bec, and of those of Scotland, that they are of view of many, a repetition of the process by species indicating a colder climate than now be- which in remote times the surfaces of the preslongs to the regions in which they are found. ent continents were covered with the drift maHe also noticed near Upsal in Sweden, in a ridge terials. Lyell supposes that the lands, with their of stratified diluvial sand and gravel, a bed of present irregularities of surface already defined, marl 100 feet above the present level of the gulf were slowly submerged, while islands of floatof Bothnia, containing myriads of the peculiar ing ice passed along in the polar currents, forms of shells still common to the brackish grounding on the coast and on shoals

, and pushwaters of the Baltic, and which must have origi- ing forward the loose sand and gravel spread nally formed the bottom of the sea before the dis- over the bottom. Thus abraded down to the tribution of the bowlders; for upon the top of solid rock, and the surface of this grooved and the ridge are several bruge blocks belonging to striated, the shoals by continued subsidence the drift. He hence infers that the transport passed down to great depths, where the loose of the bowlders continued after the sea was in- materials gathering upon them were no longer habited by existing testacea, and after the con- disturbed. Finally he supposes the direction tinent had assumed its peculiar configuration, of the movement to have been reversed, and the by which the Baltic is separated from the salt bottom of the ocean to have been again raised to waters of the North sea, and the gulf of Both- form dry land; and that during its reémergence nia is made to have only + the saltness of the the arrangement of the materials which cover it ocean. The shells found in the drift refer the was modified by exposure to the distributing and period of its production to a time subsequent to stratifying action of the waves, tides, and curthe pliocene epoch. It preceded the extinction rents. The dearth of fossil shells in the clays of



the drift would be accounted for under this hypothesis by the unfavorable influence of the icebergs on the growth of the testacea in the shallow waters frequented by them, while in other parts of the ocean the depth would be too great for their existence to be possible. The extent and immense number of modern icebergs seem to prove their capacity to reproduce upon the shoals and over the bottom of the Atlantic nearly all the phenomena of the drift formation. Measured as they are by miles in length, and rising at times more than 300 feet in height, with only of their bulk then visible above the water, they may well float off and distribute along their track the largest bowlders which they have abstracted from the rocky cliffs down which they moved as glaciers into the sea. So extensive are these floating ice islands that they have been mistaken by those travelling upon their surface for the solid continent; and one has been known to be aground where the soundings gave a depth of 1,500 feet of water. Urged on by the broad current in which they float, such masses must exert an enormous power upon obstacles presented to their progress. Where they rub upon the bottom, this must be worn and grooved in parallel furrows on the line of the straight course of the berg, and other sets of scratches would be produced by succeeding bergs, which might deviate slightly by a different slant of the current, or possibly by the effect of a strong wind upon the floating mass, from the exact bearing of the former set. The chief objection to the theory of the distribution of the drift by icebergs is, that no evidence is furnished of the great body of lands covered with this formation having been submerged immediately before or at the time of its deposition. The beds of clay containing marine shells, found on the borders of the St. Lawrence and Lake Champlain, and in other localities near the coast, are not traced into the hills of the interior, nor to elevations exceeding 500 feet above the level of the sea. In the strata of other formations, even of the most ancient periods, the occurrence of marine fossil shells affords unmistakable evidence of the locality having been covered by the ocean; but in this instance this familiar proof is wanting over areas of vast extent, large portions of which have been carefully explored by the most critical observers. It is disputed that icebergs could produce the parallel scratches on the rocks; and it is contended that if the northern part of the continent were beneath the sea, the effect would be to mitigate the coldness of the climate, and render this unfavorable for the required production of icebergs. It is also objected that the extent to which the bowlders are commonly traced from their parent ledges upon the North American continent is usually limited to from 20 to 200 m., while the bergs which now drift from northern seas bring the stones with which they are charged from 1,000 to 2,000 m.; and that, moreover, they travel a very circuitous route, the currents changing their course with the irVOL. VI.-31

481 regularities of the coast line, and counter currents giving diverse directions to the modern drift, while the distribution of that of ancient times was remarkably uniform in its direction. It is, however, impossible to show that the contour of the ancient continents was incompatible with the existence of more uniform currents than those of modern seas; and in the diluvium of Scandinavia and Russia the transportation of the bowlders appears to have been over nearly as many degrees of latitude as are traversed by modern icebergs.--Another class of natural agents are observed to be in operation, producing effects similar to those witnessed in the drift. These are the glaciers, vast accumulations of ice, which gather in elevated regions, and are slowly and irresistibly pushed down to lower levels. In their progress they score and groove the surface over which they pass, and rend masses of rock from the cliffs, moving the fragments forward, and finally leaving them rolled in the shapes of bowlders, and grooved by the rubbing to which they were subjected when fixed in the ice. In the Alpine regions of Europe the effects thus produced are so remarkable, and spread over such extensive districts, that eminent geologists who have made them their study have been disposed to refer all the phenomena of the drift to the action of glaciers; and in this disposition they have been confirmed by finding unmistakable evidence of the extent of the glacial action from the Alps having in former periods reached full 50 m. beyond their present limits. The researches of the late Dr. Kane have made us acquainted with a field in which these operations are now going on upon the grandest scale. Nearly the whole interior of Greenland, a continent in itself, appears to be covered with one broad glacier. From its edges, extending many hundred miles along the northern seas, its fringe is ever falling in vast masses of ice and rock into the deep waters to be floated off as icebergs, while from the interior the great field itself is slowly urged on in portions following the same unvarying directions. Such phenomena furnish an explanation for several examples of diluvium, which do not admit of reference to the drifting of icebergs in a polar current. In the extreme northern part of Lapland, for instance, the distribution of the bowlders appears to have been from the interior toward the White sea and the Arctic ocean. But geologists are far from generally admitting the probability that the large portions of the earth's surface now covered with the drift formation were ever in a condition to have been under the action of glaciers moving in one general direction; nor does it appear necessary to have recourse to them, when icebergs are now producing analogous effects, and upon a scale commensurate with the ancient distribution of the drift.-Beside these explanations to account for the phenomena, drawn from operations now going on, the extent of which we can investigate, and in some measure appreciate, a third hypothe

sis has been advanced by the Professors Rogers, was elected to the house of commons, and in which also appears to have been adopted by 1781 made a second professional visit to Russia. Murchison. Rejecting the supposition “that Beside the treatise above mentioned, he pubthe cutting fragments and particles were ever lished several pamphlets on the same subject. pressed upon by ice, it appeals to the enormous DINAGEPOOR, or DINAJPOPE, a district of erosive power which a thick and ponderous British India, under the lieut. gov. of Bengal, sheet of angular fragmentary rock would possess bounded N. E. by Bootan, between lat. 24° 53' if driven forward at a high velocity under the and 26° 38' N., long. 88° 2' and 89° 16' E.; waters of a deep and general inundation, excited length from N. to S., 130 m.; breadth, 75 m.; and kept in motion by an energetic upheaval and area, 3,820 sq. m.; pop. 1,200,000. It is a level undulation of the earth's crust during an era of country, watered by the Teesta and a vast numearthquake commotion." By the uplifting of ber of other streams, and fertile in rice, pulse, oil the floor of an arctic sea, accompanied, it may be, seeds, pepper, ginger, turmeric, coriander, capby an equal subsidence of the country south, á sicum, potatoes, plantains, many other esculent mass of water is conceived to be converted by vegetables, and the sugar cane. Small quantiearthquake pulsations into a series of stupendous ties of wheat, barley, tobacco, and a poor kind of and rapidly moving waves of translation. These, cotton, are also produced. Silkworms are ex. helped on by the still more rapid flexures of the tensively reared. --DINAGEPOOR, the capital of floor over which they move, are considered to the district, is a clean but ill-built town, on the be agents adequate to produce the results ex- river Purnabada, 261 m. N. from Calcutta, and hibited in the phenomena of the drift formation. the residence of the British authorities ; pop. Dr. Whewell, recognizing the wave of transla- about 25,000. tion as a mechanical agent, cautions against its DINAPORE, a town of British India in the. being regarded as a current which flows con- district of Patna, lieut. governorship of Bengal, tinuously. Its effect must be to carry a single on the right bank of the Ganges, 10 m. W. from mass along with it at its own velocity, or to give Patna and 411 N. W. from Calcutta; pop. about a transient motion to a series of masses in suc- 16,000. It is an important military station, cession as it passes over each, moving each but noted for its handsome and extensive cantona small distance. A series of waves, each pro- ments. On July 25, 1857, a mutiny occurred duced by some paroxysmal action, would math- here, which, though' attended with little imematically account for any amount of result. mediate bloodshed, was one of the most morHe presents some simple numerical calculations, tifying and serious disasters which befell the in which the quantities, it is true, are hypothet- British during that year. The garrison conical, and which as they are modified would pro- sisted of 3 full native infantry regiments, beside portionately modify the result by which be ar- a European field battery and parts of the 10th rives at the conclusion that a sea bottom 450 and 37th European foot, commanded by Gen. m. long, 100 m. broad, and 500 feet below the Lloyd. When symptoms of revolt became unsurface of the water, raised either at once or by mistakable, this officer took the weak precauparoxysmal lifts, would produce waves of trans- tion of removing the percussion caps from the lation with an effect equivalent to the disper- armory to the officers' mess-room, and then resion of the whole body of northern drift. quiring the sepoys to give up the caps already

DIME (Fr. dime, contraction of dixième), a sil- issued. The latter order was resisted, and ver coin of the United States, of the value of 10 when the British troops were called out to en. cents, or is of a dollar. It was first coined in force it, the rebels were seen running at full 1796 in pursuance of the act of April 2, 1792, speed across the fields with their arms and acthough pattern pieces were struck in 1792. Its coutrements. They laid siege to Arrah, attachlegal standards have been as follows: by act ofed themselves to the notorious Koer Singh, and April 2, 1792, fineness 892.4 thousandths, weight gave great trouble throughout the revolt. No 41.6 grains; by act of Jan. 18, 1837, fineness pursuit of them was made until the 27th, when 900 thousandths, weight 41+ grains; by act of an effort to relieve Arrah terminated with great Feb. 21, 1853, fineness 900 thousandths, weight loss to the British. Gen. Lloyd, who had served 38.4 grains. (See Coins.)

with distinction, but was now far advanced in DIMSDALE, THOMAS, baron, an English age, fell into disgrace on this occasion, and was physician, born in Thoydon-Garnon, co. of Es- superseded by Sir James Outram. sex, in 1712, died in Hertford, Dec. 30, 1800. DINDORF, WILIELM, a German philologist, He was especially noted for his zeal in promot- born in Leipsic in 1802. In 1819, at the age ing inoculation for the small pox, his success in of 17, he published a continuation of the comwhich caused him to be invited to Russia by mentaries on Aristophanes begin by Beck. In the empress Catharine II. in 1768, for the pur. 1828 he was appointed professor of the history pose of inoculating herself and her son. Cath- of literature in the university of Leipsic, but rearine rewarded him with the title of baron and signed this office in 1833. He has edited Delarge presents. He afterward visited Frederic mosthenes, Æschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Ar II. of Prussia, at Sans-Souci, and then return- istophanes

, &c., for the university of Oxford; ed to England, where, in 1776, he published a also many works published at Paris and Leipsic. treatise on inoculation, which was translated DINGELSTEDT, Franz, a German poet, born into all the European languages. In 1780 he in the Hessian village of Halsdorf in 1814. Ile

[ocr errors]
« PředchozíPokračovat »