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long sea calls. Commerce runs all these 26,943 vessels of the American merchant "aids to navigation," as they are called, marine-which even then represented the owns the lights and the sirens and the bells largest tonnage in our history-have nos and pays the men who keep them burning been considerably increased by the Aa of or bellowing or ringing. Just now it is August 18, 1914, which removed the reparticularly concerned with making the strictions of American registry to vessels shores of Alaska safe, with 319 signals built in the United States and officered bs already in place along those desolate American citizens. The European wa: Northern coasts. A light on the size of thus hastened a change in a moss-grow this undertaking breaks through the fog maritime policy which had for many years of general ignorance when one finds by a been hampering our progress on the seas study of the map that the Alaskan and In the fourteen months between the passage Aleutian shores reach east and west the of the second section of this act and the distance from Charleston, S. C., to San middle of November, 1915, 168 vessels of Diego, Cal., and north and south cover 574,244 gross tons were registered under as much continuous distance of coast as the American flag. Making these great from the Canadian line to Mexico.

and growing fleets function properly inThe function of the Bureau of Navigation volved regulations all the way from such is the enforcement of the navigation laws apparently insignificant details as carrying in all the ports and territorial waters of the ship's name in a conspicuous place or the United States, and the function of the obeying the rules of the road, up to the Steamboat Inspection Service is the in- recently adopted regulation making comspection of American passenger-carrying pulsory the equipment of all vessels carryvessels in order to make travel by water ing fifty or more persons with wireless. safer.

SAVING THE FISH It is the present red-tape law that the Department shall inspect the hulls and When it comes to the Bureau of Fisheries machinery of all passenger-carrying steam Mr. Redfield's Department of Help seems vessels more than 65 feet in length. This to become primarily an agent of conservadefinition means that steam vessels less tion rather than of commerce. But there than 65 feet in length are not inspected and are those who ask why the seal and fox the Department has no direct jurisdiction and other furry herds on the islands of over the enormous fleet of 250,000 motor Bering Sea should come under the head of boats plying the waters of the United States. fisheries. You might just as well ask the

When the Eastland capsized at her dock Navy Department why naval officers are in Chicago last July, the Steamship kings of the Pacific islands of Guam and Inspection Service was given a good deal of Tutuila, ask the Commissioner of Eduunenviable publicity, but, all told, it has cation why he supervises the reindeer indone its work well. During the fiscal year dustry in Alaska, or ask General McIntyre, , 1914 more than 318 million passengers were of the War Department, why his Insular transported on vessels coming under the Bureau should be running the civil govertinspection of the Bureau. But during that ments of Porto Rico and the Philippine period, counting out suicides, accidental Islands. As Mr. Redfield very aptly drownings, and other unpreventable items, points out, “Custody over the terrestrial the total number of passengers who lost fur-bearing animals of Alaska, which is their lives was only 105; that is approx- now imposed by law on the Bureau of imately a ratio of one life lost for every Fisheries, is an uncongenial, incongruous 3,000,000 passengers transported. During duty, entirely foreign to the proper fun:the same period the Bureau inspected and tions of that Bureau." certified 7,930 vessels and issued licenses The Bureau of Fisheries has more than to 18,871 officers of all grades.

enough to do to look after its own fish. It The duties of the Bureau of Navigation, hatches them in 130 stations scattered over which at the close of the fiscal year on 34 states and the territory of Alaska, and it June 30, 1914, comprised keeping in order supervises the catching of them wherever

they are caught, from the Yukon to Glouces- of scientific work in physics, chemistry, ter, Mass. Last year it brought 4,047 and engineering, which on the one hand millions of them into this world; it trans- vitally interest the individual consumer planted Pacific salmon to the coast of and, on the other, the manufacturer, eduMaine and it grafted Atlantic lobsters on cational institutions, public utility corthe Pacific shores of Washington. Further- porations, and state governments. It more, it withstood the earnest representa- defines and stands for honest weights and tions of various Congressmen and Senators measures in daily trade, works out manuals to stock their local waters with alien fish of safety rules for extra-hazardous occupawhich would, to the Bureau's best knowl- tions, and tests, standardizes, and watches edge and belief, incontinently destroy all barometers. The 338 employees of the the native fish in the applicant's district. Bureau made, last year, more than 100,000

But fast as it breeds and stocks and useful tests, the results of which the Bureau transplants fish, the fishermen would gain furnishes with its service of information upon the Bureau but for rigid conservation to the public, to the industries, and to restrictions. Out on the North Pacific, other Government bureaus. where the Alaskan salmon fisheries employ

THE ‘BUSINESS MEN'S BUREAU" 22,000 persons with an investment of nearly 40 million dollars, the regulations are rigid The Bureau of Foreign and Domestic enough, but four "salmon agents” have Commerce is the present centre of the to cover that territory of many thousand Department. And it is working with miles of coast and are obliged to borrow German thoroughness. boats wherewith to do their inspection from It does its task abroad through a threethe canneries which they are to inspect. fold force; two of these, the Consular

The oldest scientific service of the Service and the commercial agents, have United States Government is the Coast and been established for some years. The Geodetic Survey. It is also, by the ac- third, the commercial attachés, was created knowledgment of other nations, the great- by Mr. Redfield and authorized by Conest and most efficient of its kind in the gress less than two years ago. Consuls world. Some idea of the geographical and consuls-general, with many diplomatic size of its job may be gained from these services to perform, keep track of commercomparisons: There are, for example,

for example, cial information in their several localities several times as many miles of coast in only. Commercial agents do not deal Alaska alone as in the entire United with localities at all but pursue specific Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; trade subjects through many countries the surveying and charting of the Philip- all round the world. The commercial pines is in itself a far greater task than is attaché is a new thing in our trade history. imposed upon France by all her own ma- Attached to the Legation or the Embassy rine borders in Europe; the survey of the in a given country, he is not limited to any Hawaiian Islands, Samoa, Guam, and locality but carefully studies thecommercial Porto Rico is a much greater project than development and progress of the people the entire survey of the European coast of among whom he lives with a sole view Germany. In all this great work the De- toward the export and import trade of partment is dealing first with humanity, that country with the United States. and secondly with commerce.

Eight of these useful officials have already

been appointed and have been on duty for STANDARDS AND THE CENSUS

nearly a year at London, Berlin, Paris, The Bureau of Standards really has-or Petrograd, Buenos Aires, Peking, Rio de will soon have, as it becomes better known Janeiro, Lima, and Santiago de Chile. and appreciated-about as much reason for To make the dissemination of its inforseparate existence in relation to the indus- mation more immediately available the tries of the country as the Department of Bureau has now established branch offices Agriculture admittedly has to farming. Its in Chicago, San Francisco, New Orleans, helpful activities cover an enormous range Boston, Atlanta, Seattle, and St. Louis.







T THREE points around the treaty was confirmed last November by

Caribbean the equatorial sun the Haitian Senate which, with the glitters on the bayonets of concurrence of the Senate of the United United States marines: on States, will accomplish for the Black Re

the southern coast of Cuba public the same objects as those in force one hundred of them guard our own naval under the Santo Domingan agreement station at Guantánamo; eighteen hundred already in operation near by. A third more of them, a full brigade, have con- treaty proposes to place a higher valuation verted an Antillean chaos into Haiti; and than the purchase price upon the territory far away westward a company of them is once Colombian through which now flows camped on the shore of Lake Managua, the Panama Canal and to present these just outside the capital of Nicaragua. gratuitous arrears, together with an apolThese two last detachments are estab- ogy, to the sister republic. The fourth lished on foreign soil. But all those treaty, and with this we are more parUnited States bayonets touched by the ticularly concerned, makes it possible for equatorial sun are benevolent bayonets, Nicaragua to clear away the possibility and the marines who click them on to the of foreign creditors foreclosing on their muzzles of their Springfields are peace- loans, and at the same time grants to us makers, peace-maintainers.

such rights and privileges as will insure the The Congress of the United States in future inviolability not only of Nicaragua Washington has recently considered or is but also of the Monroe Doctrine from now considering separate agreements or European aggression. treaties with four of the governments of

All four of these treaties, differing in equatorial territories surrounding the their terms and application, are nevertheCaribbean, and each one of those agree- less all of them separate manifestations of ments followed the bayonet of a marine an integral policy, the policy of good-will, into the tropical domain under considera- justice, and inter-reliability among the tion. And in every single instance, just republics of the New World. as the bayonet came benevolently not to This is the story of the Nicaraguan make war but to insure an enduring peace, treaty. What is proposed is that the United so the agreement or treaty has been de- States shall obtain the grant in perpetvised as a means of maintaining such uity to build and maintain an interoceanic peace upon secure foundations after the canal across Nicaragua; that it shall bayonet has been withdrawn. In Santo further obtain renewable leases for naval Domingo the customs revenues are being bases of the Corn Islands on the Aiadministered by the United States so that lantic Coast of Nicaragua, and of Nicathe current expenses and the amortization raguan territory on the Pacific Bay of of the foreign debt may be paid, unin- Fonseca. In return the United States terrupted by the strife of faction. In expressly agrees to pay down a sum of Haiti, which shares with Santo Domingo $3,000,000 gold with which the Nicaraguan the same rich and unrestful island, a Government may supplement loans already

negotiated with American banks to liqui- know what they mean by North or South date all foreign indebtedness, and set its America often have a very foggy idea about own house in order. By comparison with what joins the two continents together. the other treaties this seems, offhand, a The best way to think of the link, called selfish kind of treaty, but the provisions Central America, is to remember a wedge, for administration of revenues and the with its apex balanced on the Panama regular and honest disbursement of govern- Canal, the most sensitive point of our ment funds have already been arranged possessions, and reaching up northwestfor in supplementary undertakings as ward to the southern end of Mexico. Five between the Nicaraguan Government and republics form that wedge. Right in the the United States bankers, such mutual middle of it, facing westward over the undertakings depending upon the support Pacific, with its tangled backyard of of the United States Government for their tropic vegetation making up the Mosquito successful continuation. The treaty itself Coast on the Atlantic, is Nicaragua. shows, though much less evidently than do Several things distinguish this particular the corresponding agreements with Haiti republic from its immediate neighbors; and Santo Domingo, the great underlying a few things make it more interesting at purpose of transforming a perplexed and present for us. disorderly community into a coherent About as far northwest of the Panama nation, free from the disorganizing effects Canal and the Canal Zone as Boston is of foreign indebtedness and able to align northeast of New York, 121 miles of itself as an independent efficient member of another interoceanic canal out of a total the American confederation of republics, distance of 168 miles has already been dug “all for one, and one for all.”

by Nature across Nicaragua. On the

east Greytown corresponds to Colon and WHERE IN AMERICA IS NICARAGUA?

on the west Brito corresponds to Panama. And where is Nicaragua, anyway, and, In the entire long spine of mountains once plotted geographically, why have reaching from the Arctic Circle to Tierra we, the United States of America, any del Fuego the lowest notch lies in the special responsibility for that particular depression, seventeen miles across from sister republic? Let us answer the first east to west, between Brito and Lake question a little carefully at the outset, Nicaragua. These considerations make try to visualize Nicaragua. People who the relative merits of the Nicaragua and


NICARAGUA, AND ITS RELATIVE POSITION IN CENTRAL AMERICA The San Juan River and the intervening Lake Nicaragua leave only seventeen miles of land separating

the Atlantic Ocean from the Pacific

Panama canal routes a subject for long In Nicaragua, as elsewhere in Latin discussion, and they will always make Nic- America, a European merchant makes his aragua desired of many nations.

permanent home, often marries a native

woman, and soon from a business standNICARAGUA'S STRATEGIC POSITION

point becomes a native himself. With Take a chart with soundings printed sufficient backing he begins by making on it and look at the Pacific coast of private loans to high politicians, in return Mexico and Central America from Lower for which he gets valuable contracts or California to Panama. It will be seen that concessions or secures special privileges. no harbor exists so suitable for a naval Finally, through him the European synbase as that formed by Fonseca Bay in dicate which he represents negotiates a Nicaragua. For strategic reasons then, national loan on leonine terms which, in one Nicaragua becomes extremely interesting way or another, is secured by something to a prepared Monroe Doctrine, to the new like a direct obligation of the Government. Monroe Doctrine in which the other The part of the United States in such republics of America are joint tenants with transactions between some of the Latin ourselves. There are other features of Republics and European creditors has the country which distinguish it. On its generally been the unenviable rôle of buffer. western side, 110 feet above sea level, lie It has often seemed that in these cases the the largest bodies of fresh water between debtor, whether actually bankrupt or not, Lake Michigan, on the Canadian border of relies upon the Monroe Doctrine to make the United States, and Lake Titicaca, in him execution-proof. The creditor who Peru. Lake Nicaragua is a little more otherwise might be relentless enough even than ninety-two miles long and thirty-four to the extent of forced collections has miles wide, and you have no difficulty in with the exception of the familiar Venezuexperiencing sincere sea-sickness while elan incident so firmly dealt with by Presicrossing it in the 400-ton steamers belong- dent Cleveland—balked in practice at testing to the railroad company. When the ing the doctrine, which in theory he may gold rush was on to California in '49, have not only resented but repudiated. Commodore Vanderbilt, before the Panama Thus, for many years, it has been the busiRailroad was built, ran steamers up the ness of the United States to see that such San Juan River and across the lake to bills got paid somehow or other, and it that low place in the continental mountain usually emerges from such good offices with spine where his stage-coaches carried the more ill will on the part of our neighbor seekers for treasure seventeen miles across than it enjoyed before. to the Pacific. The strategic and economic character

THE CURSE OF POLITICS istics which distinguish Nicaragua from To make matters much worse, we have the other neighboring republics of Central had in too many of these instances to deal America constitute for that country, and with professional or standardized polifor the entire polity of American republics, ticians who, caring little if anything about strung together now as never before by a the welfare of their people concretely, mutually acknowledged Monroe Doctrine, have cared not at all for the abstract contheir greatest danger. Before the war ception of the State. Such men and such came to annul all lesser considerations for factions have kept Haiti and Santo DoEuropean nations in this hemisphere, the mingo at a standstill for many generations, tentacles of possible or even probable and just such self-seeking and personal European interference could be detected animosity has kept Nicaragua back. here and there about the Caribbean. In No representations on the part of a Nicaragua these tentacles appeared in the foreign Government, however disinterform of a constant tendency toward com- estedly conceived, can possibly take effect mercial or financial dependency upon for- upon the electorate through this political eign agencies. It worked out somewhat incubus. On the other hand, in dealing in this manner.

direct with the masses, propaganda of any

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