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alienation of property, estates in During the war, which followed mortmain, absurd regulation of on the last alliance of France with plantations, and non-importation of Spain, it was found necessary to negroes.

10 open their ports to foreigners; but The eighth chapter discusses as the whole trade was instantly, the commercial system of Spain. by this measure, transferred to Nearly 'a century and a half passed strangers, of whom our countrybefore any connexion of this kind men had the chief share, the Spansubsisted between these colonies ish merchants procured a repeal of and the mother country ; nor that decree. would they then have been incited to trade, but by the intervention of

• The courier or packet, bearing their Dutch neighbours at Curra- and published it in the month of

this fatal order, arrived at Laguira, coa. An attempt was then made April following ; but, fortunately to confine the channels of com- for Havana, the same vessel was merce to the parent country ; but captured by the English, in its pasit was miserably unsuccessful. The sage from the coast of Terra-Firma trade was wholly enjoyed by for

to the island of Cuba ; and, in coneigners, till the company of Gui- sequence of this lucky accident, puscoa obtained the exclusive right interrupted. The prosperity,which

foreign commerce was not there in 1734. The conduct of this cor- resulted, has frequently excited a poration was acceptable to the regret at Terra-Firma, that the crown, and profitable to its mem- vessel had not been captured imbers ; but the all pervading infec- mediately on her departure from, tion spread among them at last. Spain.

• The numerous promises, made This original delicacy of the

to government by the Spanish mer-: company experienced a fatal al

chants, to regain the exclusive

commerce with America, produced teration. The moderation of its prices, its scruples on the quality which increased the means of the

no other effects, than expeditions of articles, the mildness and forethought of its agents, all disappear- cies, which suspended all com

enemy, and occasioned bankrupt-.. ed almost at the same time, A mercial relations with America.« part of its profits were employed Scarcely one vessel in six sent in tampering with the assembly, from Spain to the West-Indies, destined to curb its cupidity, or

ever returned. rather, in paralysing its action by

. Even the correspondence of gaining the chief into its interests. It carried the forgetfulness of its government was unable to peneduties, the abuse of its credit, to which were encountered every

trate through the English cruizers, such a degree, as to carry on, with where. During the whole of 1801, the Dutch of Curracoa, the contraband, which it had pledged itself to only a single courier or packet its sovereign to destroy. By these where they regularly arrive every

from Europe reached the Havana, means the planters were injured,

month.' and the mother country deprived of the trade, which the company carried on thus shamefully with

Such is the wavering and miser. strangers.'

p. 278.

able policy of Spain, that her sub

jects rejoice, when their laws are The commerce was then made not promulgated! The same per & free. But there is little intercourse versity pervades the operations of between the different Spanish col- subordinate officers, as of national onies. jos "in.

ministers.

tein

p. 310.

to war.

• Upon the declaration of war by corted by English cruisers. The France against Spain, naval forces safe-conduct answered only for one were dispatched to the gulf of voyage ; but was renewed without Mexico. A squadron was sent in difficulty: at first for the sum of 1793. It proceeded directly to eighteen dollars, but the price Porto-Cavello, where it continued augmented in proportion to the dea sufficient time to lose a conside- mand. No other formality was rerable number of men by the pesti- quired than the exhibition of this lential miasmas. After a station passport on entering an English of six months, it crossed as rapidly harbour, and to all armed vessels as possible from Porto-Cavello to of that nation encountered at sea. Fort Dauphin, where a part re- The Spanish flag alone received mained ; the rest went to Havana. this protection. No such secret In the commencement of 1796, the understandings were attached to whole squadron, composed of seven the tri-coloured flag. Every French ships of the line and ten frigates, vessel was a good prize for the Encollected at Havana, where, not- glish ; but every Spanish, vessel withstanding the rupture with

was not.'

11. 315. England, it waited as patiently for peace, as if it had been a stranger

Such is the admirable policy of the In the mean time, it was English. very possible for this considerable force to have disputed the domin

· There have been counted in the ion of the sea, since there had not road of Kingston, eighty Spanish been, during the war, more than vessels, all under their proper fiag; six English vessels in the gulf of in that of Curracoa sixty, and at Mexico, as well for the defence of Trinidad more than forty. This Jamaica, as to protect the com

commerce occupied above four merce at sea.'

p. 311.

hundred vessels, which cleared out

in Spanish ports, for some French In the next paragraph we must

or neutral colony, whither they correct an inaccuracy. The fleet

never went. On their return, they from Jamaica is not composed of hood of which, though 'evident,

presented French papers, the falsethe vessels from other English isl- was never either punished or inauds. The outward bound fleet vestigated.?

p. 316, amounts to about three hundred sail, but to and from Jamaica alone

The author assures us, there not more than one hundred and

was no Spanish possession in Afifty are employed.

merica, where the contraband was

With Jamaica, We now come to the most in- not practised,' teresting phenomenon in the pres. Curracoa, Trinidad, Surinam, this ent history of this colony, the trade trade is almost incalculable. But witli enemies. On these subjects does the government sleep, while we ulc charmed with the author's such frauds are practised ? No; boldness, and confident in his ve

the officers of government sleep Tacity.

soundly. By sea and land, guarda

costas and patroles are payed for During the war which termi- vigilance ; but much better paid nated in the year 10, of the French for negligence. Sunt certa piacula. republick, the Spaniards of Amer- The nation pays niggardly, and ica had not only the privilege of the smugglers well

. frequenting English ports, but each vessel had also a safe-conduct or

The modes of effecting this passport from the English admirals, trade are, we presume, well exby means of which they were re- plained. The facts are as wonderspected, protected, and even es- ful, as the principles are perverse.

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* No Spaniard, rich or poor,' says means of learning its labours in faDepons, refuses protection to thie vour of agriculture, I found they illicit trade.'

consisted inerely in having demand

ed, in 1797, of enlightened cultivar "A vessel, driven by a storm on

tors, memoirs on the kind of cultiva. the Spanish coasts, is robbed and tion peculiar to each of them, which plundered by the country people, remained for four years, in the hands if the cargo is covered by legal pa

of commissioners appointed to expers; they succour and protect it,

amine them, and to render a geneif contraband.

ral report, without the same havIn the first case, they save the ing ever been made or demanded. effects to appropriate them to them- Desirous of viewing these memoirs, selves; in the second, to hide them, I found them at length, covered to keep them from the revenue,

with dust, at the liouse of Count de and to restore them to the propri- la Grange, one of the commissionetor. The government, which in

He lent them to me with unvain opposes to this opinion the

common facility. After having severest laws, invokes incessantly read them, I returned them into the authority of the church, to his hands, and I dare assert, that make this considered as a sin,

centuries will elapse before they which nobody will consider as a

will be again displaced. fault., Decrees of the king, re

• Can a people thus careless jusnewed and published at intervals tifiably tax the laws or the governin homilies, order the bishops to

ment with the slowness or the nulannounce to the faithful, that the lity of its progress in the arts and contraband is a mortal sin, which

sciences? What could the king of communicates to those who favour Spain do more praiseworthy, than it, and to those who buy or trade

to order the citizens to contribute in merchandises of contraband ;

their information to publick welthat deunciation is a duty, the ne

fare? Men, whose torpid and slugglect of which would be a heinous gish dispositions prefer the repose sin. . In short, the confessors are

and indolence of poverty, to the acbound to refuse absolution to every tivity of fortune, should never comsmuggler, who does not restore to plain of misfortune or indigence.' the king the duties,cf which he has defrauded him. There is no time worse employed than that, which the priest spends in making this

ART. 54. publication ; for there is no act in the whole ecclesiastick liturgy,

The Picture of New York, or the which makes less impression on the

traveller's guide through the comSpaniard.'

p. 329. mercial metropolis of the United

States. By a Genileman of this This is a true picture of a Spanish city. New-York, published by colonist's morals.

I. Riley & Co. 1807. 12mo. From the establishment of the

np. 224. consular assembly much was expected ; but where individuals are We are not disposed to discourall indolent, corporations must be age the publication of any works, inert.

which may tend to correct the to• I hoped that the examination counts of our country.

pographical or geographical ac

So few of the first operations of the consulative assembly would have fur

have been published, that it is much nished additional food and excite

more difficult for an American to ment to my enthusiasm. But, hav- learn accurately the internal state ing with difficulty procured the and productions of his native land,

p. 344.

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than those of any part of civilized enjoy the fresh breezes from the Europe.? .'11:15. i : it.1!: bay and the shade of the trees,

As a first attempt, the present every afternoon of the summer, and may not be considered an unin- tering day. In the morning, the

receive refreshments after a swelteresting sketch, though the mat- prospect of the Jersey shore, of ter is not very novel, nor the re. Staten Island, of Long-Island, and searches very profound. In some of Fort Jay, and the other small parts the work resembles a direc- islands, of the ships at anchor, and tory, or mercantile diary, more of the vessels passing and repassthan a picture ; but the topographing, is at once variegated and deical sketches of the neighbourhood is desired, musick, ice-creams and

lightful. And if more gratification of New-York contain some pleas- other delicacies, are provided in ing information, which may be of the evening, at Mr. Corrie's pubuse to the traveller and the man of lick garden, not far from the cen-, business. 1 :: We cannot, however, tre of this exquisite place of recre. but wish the work were condensed

ation. into a smaller space, which might

• The park is a piece of inclosed be done, in our opinion, without and Chatham-streets, in front of

ground situated between Broadway injury or loss. But the present is the new City-hall. The area conthe age of book-making, and the sists of about four acres, planted republick of letters is overwhelm- with elms, planes, willows, and ed with tomes of ponderous size, catalpas, and the surrounding footof which the useful matter might walk is encompassed with rows of be comprised into a six-penny the middle of the city, combines in

poplars. This beautiful grove, in pamphlet.

a high degree,ornament with health We have cast our eyes over the and pleasure, and to enhance the volume for the purpose of select- enjoyments of the place, the Eng. ing a short specimen of the work; lish and French reading-room, the and recollecting the pleasure we Shakespeare gallery, and the theahave derived from walks on the tre, offer ready amusement to the Battery and in the Park, we give the London hotel, and the New

mind; while the mechanick-hall, them to our readers, as faint outlines of the living pictures :

York gardens present instant re

freshment to the body. Though • The battery is an open space at

the trees are but young, and of few the south-western extremity of the years growth, the park may be city, situated between State-street pronounced an elegant and improvand the bay. It is so called, be- ing place.' cause part of its space was, in the early settlement of the city, occu

ART. 55. pied by Fort James, and much of the remainder was a battery to Cælii Symposii Ænigmata. Hanc strengthen the fort on the water

novam editionem, juxta lectiones side. It is reserved for that pur- optimas, diligenter congestam cum pose*to the present day.

ravit Lucius M. Sargent. BosMilitary parades are frequently helds there. On the 4th of July,

toniæ, Nov-Angl. prelo Belcher which is the national anniversary,

& Armstrong. 1807. pp.35. and on-several other days, there is usually a martial and brilliant ex- fles is extracted from the latter

This pleasant collection of trihibition of the regiments of artillery, and the other uniform troops, part of vol. 6 of the Poetæ Minoupon the ground. The walk is open res by John Christian Wernsdorf, to all the citizens. Here they may printed at Helmstat 1799. The

2**

p. 153.

1807.)

Bacon's Essays. --Abbot's Discourse.

505

German paper is very bad, and we opinion of Miles Podagricus : 42 therefore purchase at a low price nigma valde podagricum.' In his one hundred and seventy pages of relvrence to Cæsar's Commenta. the riddles of Symposius : the ries, Bel. Gal. lib. 5. cap. 13, the American editor has then done no editor mistakes by following Tacless service by reducing the work ciolatus. It should be cap. 10. to its present size, than by publish- This pamphlet may be amusing

ing it on fine paper. His greatest and useful to young men, in the praise however (and how few early part of their Latin studies, among us aspire to it) is, that there and to such we strongly recomis hardly a letter, or a point, mis. mend it; and even within the placed, or omitted. On page 33 proud walls of the university some for habit read habet.

might be found, whose skill wouid Mr. Sargent presents us with a hardly solve some of these riddles. neat Latin preface,in which, abridging the wordy dissertation of the

ART. 56. German editor, he informs us, that several Greek writers of Enigmas Essays, moral, economical, and polit

ical. By Francis Bacon, baron are recorded by Athenæus, and that many remnants of their wit

of Verulam, viscount St, Albans, have come down to our days ; but

and tord high chancellor of Eng.

land, First American edition, a single poem of Ausonius is the only example of that style among

12mo. Boston, Oliver & Munthe Romans, except these jocularia

roe. 1807. of Symposius. Of the edition of

The essays of Lord Bacon, with Wernsdorf he expresses his re-, which Johnson regrets he was not spect, but not without limitation :, earlier acquainted, need not our

ejus editio, prioribus longe emen. praise. We shall rejoice if this datior et auctior, atque præmio neat, and, as far as we have exampene sempiterno commitata, estined, apparently accurate edition multo magis quam priores,' &c, to of them, should contribute to I medullam habet.'

make them more popular. Factitious honour may have heretofore been rendered to this

ART. 57. work, as it has been attributed to

A discourse, delivered before the the venerable Lactantius, the most

members of the Portsmouth Fe. eloquent of the fathers of the

male asylum, on Lord's-day, Aug. Christian church; bụt so liule

9, 1807. By Abiel Abbot, A.M. reason does there appear for it, that much interest can never again

pastor of a shurch in Beverly.

Portsmouth, S. Sewall. be excited by the circumstance, though the verscs hold their place We have often puzzled ourselves in the Leipsic and Bipont editions in conjecturing the motive, which of that divine.

may be supposed to influence a The catalogue of editions of man of sense to publish an occaSymposius is ample. In the one sional sermon. It cannot be the before us the various readings are hope of fame, one would think, for abundant, from the inexhaustible who ever reads a charity sermon, German mine. In tenui labor, except his nerves are so out of order

For the notes Mr. Sargent de- as to require an apody be? And serves praise. We agree with his yet we can hardly ascribe it to the Vol. IV. No. 9.

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