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No. 182. Lover not to appear further in the Matter. This was Friday, some Penance; but, Sir, is this enough for a Villany of Sept. 28, much more pernicious Consequence than the Trifles for

which he was to have been indicted? Should not you, and all Men of any Parts or Honour, put things upon so right a Foot, as that such a Rascal should not laugh at the Imputation of what he was really guilty, and dread being accused of that for which he was arrested ?

In a Word, Sir, it is in the Power of you, and such as I hope you are, to make it as infamous to rob a poor Creature of her Honour as her Cloaths. I leave this to your consideration, only take Leave (which I can not do without sighing) to remark to you, that if this had been the sense of Mankind thirty Years ago, I should have avoided a Life spent in Poverty and Shame.

I am, Sir,
Your most humble Servant,

Alice Threadneedle.'

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Round-house, Sept. 9. a Man of Pleasure about Town, but by the Stupidity of a dull Rogue of a Justice of Peace and an insolent Constable, upon the Oath of an old Harridan, am imprisoned here for Theft when I designed only Fornication. The Midnight Magistrate as he conveyed me along had you in his Mouth, and said this would make a pure Story for the SPECTATOR. I hope, Sir, you won't pretend to Wit, and take the Part of dull Rogues of Business, The World is so altered of late Years, that there was not a Man who would knock down a Watchman in my Behalf, but I was carried off with as much Triumph as if I had been a Pick-pocket. At this Rate there is an End of all the Wit and Humour in the World. The Time was when all the honest Whore masters in the Neighbourhood, would have rose against the Cuckolds to my Rescue, If Fornication is to be scandalous, half the fine Things that have been writ by most of the Wits of the last Age may be burnt by the common Hangman. Harkee, SPEC do not be queer; after having done some things pretty well, don't begin

to write at that Rate that no Gentleman can read thee. No. 182. Be true to Love, and burn your Seneca. You do not Friday, expect me to write my Name from hence, but I am

Sept. 28,

1711. Your unknown humble, &c.' No. 183. [ADDISON.]

Saturday, September 29.
"Ίδμεν ψεύδεα πολλά λέγειν ετυμοισιν ομοία,
"Ίδμεν δ', ευτ' εθέλωμεν, αληθέα μυθήσασθαι.

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Appearance in the World, and have been still highly valued, not only in umes of the greatest Simplicity, but among the most polite Ages of Mankind. Jothram's Fable of the Trees is the oldest that is extant, and as beautiful as any which have been made since that time. Nathan's Fable of the poor Man and his Lamb is like wise more Ancient than any that is extant, besides the above mentioned, and had so good an effect as to convey Instruction to the Ear of a King without offending it

, and to bring the Man after God's own Heart to a right Sense of his Guilt and his Duty. We find Esop in the most distant Ages of Greece; and if we look into i the very Beginnings of the Commonwealth of Rome,

we see a Mutiny among the Common People appeased < by a Fable of the Belly and the Limbs, which was in deed

very proper to gain the Attention of an incensed Rabble, at a time when perhaps they would have torn

to Pieces any Man who had preached the same Doctrine Les to them in an open and direct manner. As Fables took in their Birth in the very Infancy of Learning, they never 1 flourished more than when Learning was at its greatest

Height To justifie this Assertion, I shall put my Reader bi in mind of Horace, the greatest Wit and Critick in the is Augustan Age; and of Boileau, the most correct Poet

among the Moderns. Not to mention la Fontaine, who As by this way of Writing is come more into Vogue than ke any other Author of our times.

The Fables I have here mentioned are raised altogether ši upon Brutes and Vegetables, with some of our own

Species mixt among them, when the Moral hath so required. But besides this kind of Fable there is another

No. 183. in which the Actors are Passions, Virtues, Vices, and Saturday, other imaginary Persons of the like Nature. Some of the Sept. 29, Ancient Criticks will have it that the Iliad and Odissey of 171L

Homer are Fables of this nature; and that the several Names of Gods and Heroes are nothing else but the Affections of the Mind in a visible Shape and Character. Thus they tell us, that Achilles, in the first Iliad, repre, sents Anger, or the Irascible part of Human Nature. That upon drawing his Sword against his Superior in a full Assembly, Pallas is only another Name for Reason, which checks and advises him upon that occasion; and at her first Appearance touches him upon the Head, that part of the Man being looked upon as the Seat of Reason And thus of the rest of the Poem. As for the Odissey, I think it is plain that Horace considered it as one of these Allegorical Fables, by the Moral which he has given us of several Parts of it. The greatest Italian Wits have applied themselves to the Writing of this latter kind of Fables; As Spencer's Fairy Queen is one continued Series of them from the Beginning to the end of that admirable Work, If we look into the finest Prose Authors of Antiquity, such as Cícero, Plato, Xenophon, and many others, we shall find that this was likewise their favourite kind of Fable. I shall only further observe upon it, that the first of this sort that made any considerable Figure in the World was that of Hercules meeting with Pleasure and Virtue, which was invented by Prodicus, who lived before Socrates, and in the first Dawnings of Philosophy. He used to Travel through Greece by vertue of this Fable, which procured him a kind Reception in all the Market Towns, where he never failed telling it as soon as he had gathered an Audience about him.

After this short Preface, which I have made up of such Materials as my Memory does at present suggest to me, before I present my Reader with a Fable of this kind, which I design as the Entertainment of the present Paper, I must in a few Words open the occasion of it.

In the Account which Plato gives us of the Conversation and Behaviour of Socrates the Morning he was to Die, he tells the following Circumstance,



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When Socrates his Fetters were knocked off (as was No. 183. usual to be done on the Day that the Condemn'd Person Saturday, was to be executed) being seated in the midst of his Sept. 29,

171 Disciples, and laying one of his Legs over the other, in a

very unconcerned Posture, he began to rub it where it o had been galled by the Iron; and whether it was to shew f the Indifference with which he entertained the Thoughts

of his approaching Death, or after his usual manner, to take every occasion of Philosophizing upon some useful Subject, he observed the Pleasure of that Sensation which now arose in those very Parts of his Leg, that just before

had been so much pained by the Fetter. Upon this he s reflected on the Nature of Pleasure and Pain in general,

and how constantly they succeed one another. To this s he added, that if a Man of a good Genius for a Fable were bi to represent the Nature of Pleasure and Pain in that way

of Writing, he would probably join them together after di such

manner, that it would be ssible for the one to come into any Place, without being followed by the use other

It is possible, that if Plato had thought it proper at such a time to describe Socrates launching out into a Discourse Dj which was not of a Piece with the Business of the Day,

he would have enlarged upon this Hint, and have drawn * it out into some beautiful Allegory or Fable. But since she has not done it, I shall attempt to write one my self in

the Spirit of that Divine Author,

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There were two Families which from the beginning D of the World were as opposite to each other as Light S and Darkness. The one of them lived in Heaven, and I the other in Hell. The youngest Descendant of the

first Family was Pleasure, who was the Daughter of

Happiness, who was the Child of Virtue, who was the 1 Offspring of the Gods. These, as I said before, had in their Habitation in Heaven. The youngest of the ý opposite Family was Pain, who was the Son of Misery,

who was the Child of Více, who was the Offspring of en nye the Furies. The Habitation of this Race of Beings was is in Hell. The middle Station of Nature between these two


II 165


No. 183. opposite Extreams a was the Earth, which was inhabited Saturday, by Creatures of a middle Kind, neither so Virtuous as Sept. 29, the one, nor so Vicious as the other, but partaking 1711

of the good and bad Qualities of these two opposite Families. Jupiter considering that this Species, com monly called Man, was too virtuous to be miserable, and too vicious to be happy, that he might make a Distinction between the Good and the Bad, ordered the two youngest of the above-mentioned Families, Pleasure who was the Daughter of Happiness, and Pain who was the Son of Misery, to meet one another upon this part of Nature which lay in the half way between them, having promised to settle it upon them both, provided they could agree upon the Division of it, so as to share Mankind between them.

Pleasure and Pain were no sooner met in their new Habitation, but they immediately agreed upon this point, that Pleasure should take Possession of the Virtuous, and Pain of the Vicious part of that Species which was given up to them. But upon examining to which of them any Individual they met with belonged, they found each of them had a Right to him for that contrary to what they had seen in their old places of Residence, there was no person so Vicious who had not some Good in him, nor any Person so Virtuous who had not in him some Evil. The Truth of it is, they generally found upon Search, that in the most vicious Man Pleasure might lay a claim to an hundredth part, and that in the most virtuous Man Pain might come in for at least two thirds. This they saw would occasion endless Disputes between them, unless they could come to some Accommodation. To this End there was a Marriage proposed between them, and at length concluded: By this means it is that we find Pleasure and Pain are such constant Yoke-fellows, and that they either make their Visits together, or are never far asunder. If Pain comes into an Heart he is quickly followed by Pleasure, and if Pleasure enters, you may be sure Pain is not far off.

But notwithstanding this Marriage was very coa venient for the two Parties, it did not seem to answer


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