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jackal, or fox, to the exclusive paternity of the time they are easily caught by the hook; they domestic dogs. As there are undoubted wild ca- feed on garbage, and may properly be called nines which are true dogs, there is no improba- the scavengers of the sea. The young are bility that some of these fossil remains may have brought forth alive, and are often seen swimbelonged to such prior to their subjugation and ming about with the yolk bag attached. In the domestication by man; and there is no more British provinces they are dried, and in the necessity of referring the fossil canines to a sin- winter given to pigs, which thrive well upon gle species than the domesticated ones. The them; the refuse parts are used for manure. size of the fossil dogs is no greater than that of The dog-fish (acanthias) of Europe is a different some living races mentioned in the text.—Those species; its flesh is eaten in Scotland. Along desirous of pursuing the subject of dogs more the east coast of England it is called the bonefully are referred to the writings of Buffon, dog; it is a great pest to the fishermen by cutFrédéric Cuvier, and Col. Hamilton Smith. (See ting off their hooks; according to Mr. Couch, it also BEAGLE, BLOODHOUND, BULL-Dog, Geer- bends itself into a bow for the purpose of using HOUND, HOUND, MASTIFF, POINTER, SPANIEL, its spines, and then by a sudden motion causes TERRIER.)

them to spring asunder in opposite directions. DOG DAYS (Lat. dies caniculares), among Three species of scyllium (Cuv.), of a reddish. the ancients, the period of greatest heat in sum- brown color with numerous spots, are called mer, so named because in the latitudes of the dog-fish in Europe. There is another shark Mediterranean this period nearly corresponded (mustelus canis, Mitch.), also viviparons, called with that in which the dog star rose at the dog-fish. In this genus the teeth are blunt, same time with the sun. To this conjunction forming a close pavement in each jaw; the first all antiquity, and all the later followers of judi- dorsal is in advance of the ventrals; there are cial astrology, ascribed a malignant influence. no spines; the body is cylindrical and elongated, The heliacal rising of the dog star is a very in- of a uniform slato color on the back and sides, definite phenomenon; its precise dates cannot and dusky white below; the head is flat bebe determined, and owing to the precession of tween the eyes. This shark grows to a length the equinoxes it does not now occur till about of 5 feet, and is very common in Long Island Aug. 10, when the greatest heat of the season sound, where it is taken in nets spread for other is often over. So uncertain is the time that the fish; from the form of the teeth it is probable ancients indiscriminately ascribe the evil influ- that the food consists principally of crustacea ence to Sirius and Procyon (the largest stars re- and mollusks; it is not common on the coast of spectively of Canis Major and Minor), though Massachusetts, but is abundant on the shores of there is several days' difference in their heliacal New Jersey, where it is very troublesome to risings. The modern almanac makers some- the fishermen by stealing their baits and driving times reckon the dog days from July 24 to away other more eatable species; its flesh is Aug. 24, and sometimes from July 3 to Aug. 11. coarse, rank, and unpalatable, though occasion

DOG-FISH, & cartilaginous plagiostome, of ally eaten. In Europe the species of this genus the family squalidæ or sharks, and the genus are often called hound-fish; the M. læris (Cur.) acanthias (Risso), of the class selachians of is called the smooth hound from the softness Agassiz. This genus is characterized by 2 dorsal of the skin, and ray-mouthed dog-fish from fins with a strong spine before each; the 1st dor- the peculiar conformation of the teeth. These sal is behind the line of pectorals, the 2d be- sharks are called dog-fish probably from their tween the ventral and caudal spaces; no anal fin; hunting for prey or food in large packs, like temporal orifices large; skin rough in one direc- hounds. The dog-fish of the great lakes of tion, the scales heart-shaped with a central North America is a soft-rayed bony fish, genspine directed backward ; teeth in several rows, erally placed in the herring family, and the sharp and cutting, with the points directed genus amia (Linn.); the spotted lota, one of backward and outward. The common dog-fish the cod family inhabiting fresh water, is also (A. Americanus, Storer) has the upper part of incorrectly called dog-fish by Lesnenr. the body of a slate color, deepest on the head DOG GRASS. See Couch Grass. and lightest on the sides, and white below ; just DOG STAR, or Sirius, the brightest and in under the anterior portion of the lateral line is appearance the largest of the fixed stars, pamed a row of circular white spots, and a few similar from the constellation Canis Major in which it ones are irregularly distributed on the back; appears. It is the Sothis of the ancient Egypthe young are still more spotted; the length tians, and is one of the 6 fixed stars which does not exceed 5 feet. The species is found Ptolemy enumerates in his catalogue as of a from Davis's straits to New Jersey. Dog-fish fiery red (inokippos) color. Seneca also calls it in spring and autumn appear in large numbers (Nat. Quæst. i. 1) redder than Mars. It bas at in Massachusetts bay, and the residents of some present a perfectly white light, and furnishes towns on Cape Cod give up all other business at the only example of a historically proved change these times to fish for them; they are valuable of color in the appearance of a star. It was for the oil from the livers, for the food of cattle, undoubtedly already white in the time of Tycho and for the polishing property of their skin. Brahe, but of the period of its change there is The weight varies from 8 to 25 lbs.; they re- little evidence. The Arabic astronomer El Framain in shallow water 3 or 4 days, at which gani (Alfraganus), of the 10th century, invari. DOGE

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ably follows Ptolemy, and, if Sirias had then mand of the army and the opportunity of profitbeen white, would hardly have failed to notice ing by the frequent strifes and contentions of and remark upon the change. The Egyptians the different councils and classes; and the office reckoned their year from one heliacal rising of became so burdensome, that a law had to be the dog star to another, which was therefore framed (1339) prohibiting any one from laying called the “Sothic year.'

it down, and that, in 1367, Contarini had to be DOGE (Lat. duz, a leader), the title of the forced to accept it. The doge was now but the elective chief magistrate in the republics of president of the council, the mouthpiece of the Venice and Genoa. The dignity or office was republic; he received ambassadors, but could called dogato. The doges of Venice were elect- give them no answer of his own, and their leted for life. The first of them was called to the ters he opened in the presence of the senate; dignity in the year 697, when Venice had money was struck in his name, but without his scarcely risen to the importance of a city, and stamp or arms. He was not allowed to leave he and his successors ruled it as sovereigns, with the city, to announce his accession to any but Dearly absolute power. But when the state princes of Italy, to accept presents, to posgrew mightier, both on land and sea, through sess estates in foreign countries, or to marry his commerce and conquests, its proud and wealthy daughters to foreigners. His children and relanobles continually strove to check the power tives were excluded from every important office. and influence of their elective head, and the He was surrounded by spies, fined for every government became more and more oligarchical, transgression, and his conduct scrutinized after its form more and more republican, the dogate his death by a tribunal of 3 inquisitors and 5 a magistracy, and finally a inere title. A great correctors. The chief magistrate was powerless, change in the constitution toward the end of while the republic was mighty from its conthe 12th century put the whole legislative quests in Greece, rich from the commerce of the power into the hands of the council of 470; this East, and glorious in the sciences and art; he elected the executive council of 6, and the 60 remained powerless when the republic, stripped pregadi, and the doge was elected by 12 electors, of its eastern possessions by the Turks, of its comchosen by 24 members of the great council. merce and wealth by the new maritime discovThe first chief magistrate thus elected was Se- eries, languished and decayed. The office was bastiano Ziani (1173), who, in order to make his destroyed with the state in 1797, by the French, dignity, now stripped of every power, at least under Bonaparte.-In Genoa, the first doge was popular, distributed money among the people elected for life in 1339, after the victory of the at his installation ; an act adopted by his succes- popular party over that of the nobility, and volsors as one of the ceremonies of inauguration. untarily shared his power with a council of state Another ceremony, introduced by the same consisting of 12 members, 6 from the nobility, doge, was that of marrying the sea, by a ring and 6 from the people. But during the long thrown into the waves of the Adriatic, which internal and external contentions of this repubemblem of power over the mighty element was lic, almost continually agitated by schemes of bestowed upon him with many other marks of conquest and party struggles, the dogate was dignity by Pope Alexander III., whom he sup- often modified, and sometimes even abolished. ported in his long and bloody struggle against Andrea Doria, the great admiral, and the dethe emperor of Germany, Frederic Barbarossa. liverer of the republic from the yoke of the A new council of 40, established in 1179, and French in 1528, reorganized it, and his constivested with supreme juridical power, also served tution remained, but slightly altered, till the to circumscribe the prerogatives of the dogo. time of the French conquest (1797). According It was in vain that many a chief magistrate to it, the doge, who must be a noble, and 50 covered his office and the state with glory; years of age, was elected for 2 years; he prein vain that Enrico Dandolo, the nearly blind sided in the 2 legislative councils, of 300 and of octogenarian, led the victorious fleet of the 100; had the right of proposing and vetoing 4th crusade to Constantinople (1202–4), that laws; exercised the executive power with 12 he was, at both attacks, among the first to secret councillors; and resided in the palace of storm it, that he refused the conquered impe- the republic. The ceremonies and restrictions rial crown; the growing and grasping might connected with his election and dignity were of the nobility was incessantly bent on the similar to those in Venice. Napoleon, having humiliation of the so-called chief of the state, founded the republic of Liguria, restored this which was completed in the 2d half of the 13th ancient dignity (1802), and abolished both when century, and at the beginning of the next, by elected emperor of the French (1804). the new and last election law, the most com- DOGGER, the name of a small vessel used plicated instrument of indirect exercise of by the Dutch fishermen, especially in fishing on sovereignty that has ever been framed, by the the Doggerbank. It has 2 masts, and is not introduction under Gradenigo of the hereditary unlike a ketch. nobility and its golden book, and the estab- DOGGERBANK, an extensive shoal in the lishment of the terrible council of 10, supreme centre of the North sea. The water on this bank in power, irresponsible, and judges of the doge where it is most shallow is 9 fathoms in depth, himself

. 'Stripped of nearly all his prerogatives, and abounds in fish. An obstinate naval battle the power of the doge was confined to the com- was fought there on Aug. 5, 1781, between the

Dutch and English fleets, in which both were much crippled, and neither could claim the victory.

DOGS, ISLE OF, or POPLAR MARSHES, a peninsula in the river Thames, 3 m. below London, and opposite Greenwich. It is bounded on the north by the West India docks, and is rapidly filling up with establishments for heavy manufacturing, iron ship building, gas works, &c. The name is derived from its having been formerly the place where the king's hounds were kept.

DOGWOOD (cornus, Linn.), a shrub or tree of the order tetrandria monogynia, under the middle size, deciduous, a native of Europe, Asia, and North America, of which there are several varieties. C. alternifolia (Linn.), the alternateleaved dogwood, is a small deciduous tree indigenous to North America, and is found in shady woods or by river banks in every latitude. It frequently attains a height of 15 to 20 feet. The leaves are alternate, ovate, and acute; flowers white, May to July; fruit purple, ripening in October. Of all the species of the genus the florida dogwood (C. florida, Linn.) is the most beautiful, and in its native soil under favorable circumstances attains a height of 30 to 35 feet. The specific name florida, from floreo, to blossom, was bestowed because of the profusion of the flowers it puts forth. Sp ific characters: branches shining; leaves ovate, acuminate, pale beneath; flowers umbellate, protruded after the leaves; leaves of involucre large, roundish, retuse; pomes ovate; flowers white and very large. It is found as far north as New Hampshire, but particularly abounds in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, where the soil is moist; in Florida and the Carolinas it deserts the barrens and is found only in swamps. In Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee, it is not found in the forests except where the soil is gravelly. It was first described in Ray's Historia Plantarum, published in 1680, and afterward by Catesby in his "Natural History of Carolina." William Bartram, in his "Travels in Carolina and Florida," published in 1791, describes a remarkable grove of dogwood trees in Alabama, extending for 9 or 10 miles. The trees were about 12 feet high, spreading horizontally, their limbs meeting and interlocking with each other so as to form one vast, shady, cool grove, so dense and humid as to exclude the sunbeams and prevent the intrusion of almost every other vegetable. The wood of this tree is hard, finegrained, and susceptible of a high polish. It enters into the construction of many articles of ornament and utility, such as the handles of mallets, toys, harrow teeth, hames for horse collars, and the shoeing of sleds. The inner bark of the tree is very bitter, and has proved an excellent substitute for Peruvian bark in intermittent fever. Dr. Walker of Virginia, in a dissertation on the comparative virtues of the bark of these 2 plants, says that a summary recapitulation of the experiments made by him shows that the cornus florida and the Peruvian bark possess the same constituents, that is, gum,

mucilage, and extracts, which last contain the tannic and gallic acid, though in different proportions. Their medicinal virtues appear similar and equal in both forms. The extract and resin possess all their active powers. The bark may likewise be substituted for galls in the manufacture of ink. From the bark of the roots the Indians extract an excellent scarlet dye. The florida dogwood is often cultivated as an ornamental tree, its large flowers, which rival the whiteness of snow, affording a pleasing contrast with the deep green of the surrounding foliage.-The name dogwood is improperly giv en in some parts of the United States to the rhus venenata, a species of poisonous sumach.

DOHNA, a German family of counts (Burggraf), who trace their origin to the times of Charlemagne, and many of whom have occupied high positions in the military and civil service of Prussia.-KARL FRIEDRICH EMIL, born March 4, 1784, president of the military department in the Prussian cabinet and general of cavalry in 1854, when he retired from active service, died in Berlin, Feb. 21, 1859.

DOKOS, or DOKOES, a race of negroes said to inhabit a region of tropical Africa, S. of Abyssinia, near the river Gojeb. They were first fully described by the missionary Dr. Krapf, on the credit of a Galla slave who had visited their country, and whose relation was thought to bear every mark of truth, and was corroborated by other native accounts. According to this man, the Dokos are 4 feet high, of a dark olive com plexion, and perfectly wild. They go naked, feed on ants, snakes, mice, and fruits, evince considerable intelligence, and are in great request by the people of Kaffa as slaves. They have no government, no laws, no priority of rank, no national feelings, no idea of marriage, and very little sense of religion. The mother abandons her child as soon as it is able to procure its own food. Their country is subject to almost incessant rains, and on account of the hostility of the surrounding nations is difficult of access. It is rarely visited except by slave dealers, who surround the wretched savages in their thick forests, entice them down from the trees in which they take refuge, and drive them into the plains, where immense numbers of them are captured. They have a horror of slavery, but easily become attached to their masters. They are supposed to be the "pigmies" whose existence has been a favorite belief since the days of Homer.

DOL, a French town, capital of a canton of the same name, in the department of Ille-etVilaine; pop. 4,181. It is wretchedly built, but contains a fine cathedral, and possesses considerable historical interest. During the middle ages it was again and again besieged, and passed into many different hands. In 1793 it was garrisoned by the Vendeans, and successfully resisted an attack of the republican troops. The old fortifications of the town are still standing. Its trade is principally in corn, hemp, and cider. DOLABELLA, PUBLIUS CORNELIUS, a Roman

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DOLCI

general, celebrated for his profligacy, born about 70 B. C., died 43 B. C. Notwithstanding his debauched character, he became the son-in-law of Cicero, and enjoyed several high offices of state. After the death of Cæsar, Dolabella, although the former had always been his friend, professed the utmost contempt for his memory, and, being supposed a good republican, obtained the consulship, and afterward from Antony the administration of the province of Syria. On his way thither, however, he committed such atrocious extortions and crimes that the senate declared him an enemy of the republic, and he was killed by one of his soldiers at his own order, to avoid falling into the hands of his enemies.

DOLCI, or DOLCE, CARLO, or CARLINO, an Italian painter, born in Florence, May 25, 1616, died there, Jan. 17, 1686. His father, grandfather, and uncle were all painters, and after the death of his father, his mother placed him at the age of 9 with Jacopo Vignali. Under Vignali's tuition Carlo's genius developed itself with such remarkable rapidity that after a few years he was able to attempt successfully a full-length figure of St. John. He next produced a picture of his mother, and the delicacy and tenderness which marked these early productions attracted much attention, and procured for him employment at home and abroad. Pietro de' Medici was among his earliest patrons, and brought him into notice at court. He devoted himself almost exclusively to sacred subjects, a branch of the art in harmony with his devout disposition. His works are deficient in imaginative genius, but they are all distinguished by agreeable coloring, a remarkable relief produced by his skilful management of chiaroscuro, a singular delicacy of composition, and a finish in which he approached almost the consummate patience and industry of the great Dutch masters. Although he was proverbially slow in the execution of his paintings, he amassed sufficient wealth for the honorable support of his family of 8 children. The sameness of expression in most of his pictures facilitates copies and imitations, which consequently abound all over Europe. He excelled most in small pictures, and the themes in which he was most successful are borrowed from the New Testament. Among his best works are the "St. Anthony" in the Florentine gallery, the "St. Sebastian" in the palazzo Corsini, the "Four Evangelists" in the palazzo Ricardi at Florence, and "Christ Breaking the Bread," in England, in the marquis of Exeter's collection at Burleigh. Dresden possesses several of his works, including "Herodias with the Head of John the Baptist" and "St. Cecilia, or the Organ Player." Another of his chief productions, "Christ on the Mount of Olives," is at the Louvre in Paris. -AGNESE, one of his daughters, who married a merchant named Carlo Baci, was one of his best pupils, and the most successful copyist of his works.

DOLE, a town of France, capital of an arrondissement of the same name, in the department of the Jura; pop. of the town in 1856, 9,443,

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and of the arrondissement 72,185. It is neat and well built, and situated on the slope and at the foot of a hill on the right bank of the river Doubs, near the canal that joins the Rhone and the Rhine. The railway from Dijon to Besançon, which passes the town, gives it some importance as a place of transit between Paris and Switzerland. It is of great antiquity, having been founded by the Romans, and is situated on the old road leading from Lyons to the Rhine. Some remains of this work, as well as of an ancient aqueduct and theatre, are still to be seen. It was for a time the capital of Franche Comté, and the seat of a parliament. After having been taken once or twice previously, it was captured and dismantled by the French in 1674.

DOLET, ETIENNE, a French scholar and printer, born in Orleans in 1509, burned as a heretic in Paris, Aug. 3, 1546. He was very fond of classical studies, and was one of the especial admirers of Cicero, who were ridiculed by Erasmus, and warmly defended by Dolet and others. He was of a rash, impetuous disposition, which made him many enemies, who lost no opportunity of persecuting him. Having been often accused of cherishing heretical sentiments, he was at last adjudged an atheist by an ecclesiastical court at Paris, in consequence of an expression which he made use of in his translation of the Axiochus of Plato, which was not to be found in the original; and for this he was condemned and burned.

DOLGORUKI, the name of a princely Russian family, whose origin is carried back to Rurik, and several members of which occupy a place in the history of their country. I. GRIGORI, distinguished himself by the valiant defence of a monastery near Moscow against the Poles under Sapieha and other generals (1608'10). II. MARIA, was married in 1624 to Czar Michael, the first of the house of Romanoff, but died 4 months after. III. YURI, a general in the reigns of Alexis and Fedor, was killed in the revolt of the Strelitzes after the death of the latter czar in 1682, while defending the right of the young Peter the Great to the throne. IV. MIHAIL, son of the preceding, and minister of Fedor, perished with his father. V. YAKOB, a senator of Peter the Great, noted for his boldness and frankness toward his master, died in 1720. It is said that one day, having torn to pieces an imperial ukase in full council of the senate, he appeased the wrath of the czar, who threatened to kill him, by the words: "You have but to imitate Alexander, and you will find a Clitus in me." VI. IVAN, was the friend of Peter II., to whom his sister Catharine was betrothed; but the young czar having died on the day fixed for the marriage (1730), he was exiled to Siberia with all his family by Biron, duke of Courland, the favorite of the empress Anna. Recalled from exile, he was accused of a conspiracy against the life of the empress, and executed at Novgorod in 1739, other members of the family being beheaded or exiled. VII. VASILI, commanded the army of Catharine I.

DOLGORUKI

in the war against Persia, was made field marshal in 1728, banished to Siberia in 1739 as an accomplice of the preceding, recalled by the empress Elizabeth, and died in 1755. VIII. VASILI, nephew of the preceding, commanderin-chief of the army of Catharine II., conquered the Crimea in a short campaign in 1771, and received from the empress the surname of Krimskoi. IX. VLADIMIR, resided for 25 years as minister of Catharine II. at the court of Frederic the Great, whose friendship be gained. X. YURI, commanded in the wars of Catharine II. against the Turks and Poles, signalizing himself by his valor. XI. IVAN, one of the classical poets of Russia, was born in 1754, and died in St. Petersburg in 1823. XII. PAVEL, was the author of a Notice sur les principales familles de Russie (Brussels, 1843), an English translation of which, with annotations and an introduction, appeared in London in 1858.

DOLLAR, the monetary unit in the United States and several other countries, both of coined money and money of account. All values in the United States are expressed in dollars and cents, or hundredths. The term mill, for the Joo of a dollar, is rarely employed. The doilar unit, as a money of account, was established by act of congress of April 2, 1792, and the same act provides for the coinage of a silver dollar "of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current." The silver dollar was first coined in 1794, weighing 416 grains, of which 371 grains were pure silver, the fineness being 892.4 thousandths. The act of Jan. 18, 1837, reduces the standard weight to 412 grains, but increases the fineness to, the quantity of pure silver remaining 371 grains as before; and at these rates it is still coined, in limited amount. The smaller silver coins are not of equal weight proportionally. (See COINS.) The act of March 3, 1849, directs the coinage of gold dollars. They were issued the same year, weigh ing 25 grains, fine, 23,22 grains being pure gold. All other coins of the United States are either multiples or subdivisions of the dollar. The term dollar is of German origin. During the years 1517-26 the counts of Schlick, under a right of mintage conferred by the emperor Sigismund in 1437 upon their grandfather, Casper Schlick, caused to be struck a series of silver coins of 1 ounce weight, and worth about 113 cents of our money. These pieces were coined at Joachimsthal (Joachim's valley), a mining town of Bohemia, and came to be known in circulation as Joachimsthaler, and then for shortness Thaler; and this name for coins and money of account has been widely used in the German states ever since. Some German scholars, however, derive the term Thaler from talent, which was used in the middle ages, designating a pound of gold. In Norway and Sweden we find the daler, and in Spain the dalera, the famous Spanish dollar which for centuries figured so conspicuously in the commerce of the world. It was the Spanish pillar dollar (called also the milled dollar for its milled edge) that was taken as

the basis of the United States coinage and money of account. By the act of April 2, 1792, 3711 grains of pure silver and 2443 grains of pure gold were declared to be equivalent one to the other, and to the dollar of account. At that time, as now in Great Britain, 113 grains of pure gold were the equivalent of the pound sterling. The value of £1 in federal money, therefore, was $4 56.5. Prior to this date, and during the confederation, the dollar of account, as compared with sterling currency, had been rated at 48. 6d., which was an exaggerated valuation of the Spanish dollar; and in precise accordance with this valuation the congress of the confederation had established $4 44.4 as the custom house value of the pound sterling. The effect of the act of 1792 was really to reduce the value of our dollar of account, but apparently to increase the value of the pound sterling about 24 per cent. By the act of June 28, 1834, the weight of fine gold to the dollar was reduced from 24.75 to 23.20 grains; and 3 years later, Jan. 18, 1837, it was fixed at 23.22 grains, where it now remains. Comparing this latter weight with the pound sterling of 113 grains, we find an apparent increase in the value of £1 to $4 86.6, an advance of exactly 9 per cent. upon the old valuation of $4 44.4. We have here the explanation of the existing practice in this country of quoting sterling exchange at 9 per cent. premium, when it is really at par. A much more simple and intelligible method would be to state in dollars and cents the ruling rate per pound sterling for bills on London, e. g. $4 84, $4 87, $4 90, &c. Spanish dollars were chiefly coined in the Span ish American colonies. The best known variety was the pillar dollar, so called from the 2 pillars on its reverse, representing the "Pillars of Hercules," the ancient name of the opposite promontories at the straits of Gibraltar. The rude imitation of these pillars in writing, connecting them by a scroll, is said to have been the origin of the dollar mark ($), now universally familiar. A more plausible explanation is that, as the dol lar consisted of 8 reals, 8 R. being stamped upon it, the mark was designed to stand for the "piece of eight," as the dollar was commonly called. The two vertical lines distinguished it from the figure 8. The Spanish American dollars ceased to be coined when the colonies became indepen dent, and since 1822 their place in commerce has been supplied by the dollars of Mexico, Bolivia, and Peru. (For values, &c., see COINS.)

DOLLART BAY, or THE DOLLART (Lat. Sinus Emdanus or Dollarius), an arm of the German ocean, about 10 m. in length from N. to S., and 7 m. in breadth. It lies between Hanover and the Netherlands, and extends to the estuary or mouth of the river Ems. It is supposed to have been formed by a terrible inundation in 1277, which destroyed nearly 50 villages. The sea has since receded in some measure from the Hanoverian shore, and several thousand acres of land have been recovered.

DÖLLINGER, IGNAZ, a German physiologist, born in Bamberg, May 24, 1770, died in Munich,

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