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this parish of St. Paul's Covent-garden, a not missed tolling in to prayers six time those years; which office I have performed great satisfaction, until this fortnight la during which time I find my congregation warning of my bell, morning and evenin to a puppet-show set forth by one Powel the Piazzas. By this means I have not c my two customers, whom I used to place pence a piece over against Mrs. Racha

the horse, than the king who sits upon it. On the contrary, it gives me a just indignation to see a person whose action gives new majesty to kings, resolution to heroes, and softness to lovers, thus sinking from the greatness of his behavior, and degraded into the character of the London 'Prentice. I have often wished, that our tragedians would copy after this great master of action. Could they make the same use of their arms and legs, and inform their faces with as significant looks and passions, how glorious would an Eng-bright, but Mrs. Rachael herself is gone lish tragedy appear with that action which is capable of giving dignity to the forced thoughts, cold conceits, and unnatural expressions of an Italian opera! In the meantime, I have related this combat of the lion, to show what are at pre-son at the Piazzas, to acquaint the ladies sent the reigning entertainments of the politer bell rings for the church, and that it stand part of Great Britain. other side of the garden! but they only ] the child.

Audiences have often been reproached by writers for the coarseness of their taste, but our present grievance does not seem to be the want of a good taste, but of common sense.-C.

No. 14.] FRIDAY, MARCH 16, 1710-11.
- Teque his, infelix, exue monstris.

OVID, Met. iv, 590.
Wretch that thou art! put off this monstrous shape.

I was reflecting this morning upon the spirit and humor of the public diversions five-andtwenty years ago, and those of the present time; and lamented to myself, that though in those days they neglected their morality, they kept up their good sense; but that the beau monde, at present, is only grown more childish, not more innocent, than the former. While I was in this train of thought, an odd fellow, whose face I have often seen at the playhouse, gave me the following letter with these words: Sir, the Lion presents his humble service to you, and desired me to give this into your hands."

"From my Den in the Haymarket, March 15. "SIR,

"I have read all your papers, and have stifled my resentment against your reflections upon operas, until that of this day, wherein you plainly insinuate, that Signior Nicolini and myself have a correspondence more familiar than is consistent with the valor of his character, or the fierceness of mine. I desire you would, for your own sake, forbear such intimations for the future; and must say it is a great piece of ill-nature in you, to show so great an esteem for a foreigner, and to discourage a Lion that is your own countryman.

"I take notice of your fable of the lion and man, but am so equally concerned in that matter, that I shall not be offended to whichsoever of the animals the superiority is given. You have misrepresented me, in saying that I am a country gentleman, who act only for my diversion; whereas, had I still the same woods to range in which I once had when I was a fox-hunter, I should not resign my manhood for a maintenance; and assure you, as low as my circumstances are at present, I am so much a man of honor, that I would scorn to be any beast for bread, but a lion.

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also. There now appear among us non few ordinary people, who come to church say their prayers, so that I have no wor speaking of but on Sundays. I have pla

"I desire you would lay this before all tl world, that I may not be made such a tool future, and that Punchinello may choos less canonical. As things are now, Mr. Po a full congregation, while we have a v house; which if you can remedy, you w much oblige, "Sir, yours

The following epistle, I find, is from th taker of the masquerade:

66 'SIR,

"I have observed the rules of my mask fully (in not inquiring into persons) that tell whether you were one of the company last Tuesday; but if you were not, and sign to come, I desire you would, for y entertainment, please to admonish the to all persons indifferently are not fit for thi diversion. I could wish, Sir, you coul them understand that it is a kind of acti in masquerade, and a man should be abl or do things proper for the dress in which pears. We have now and then rakes in t of Roman senators, and grave politician dress of rakes. The misfortune of the t that people dress themselves in what they mind to be, and not what they are fit for is not a girl in town, but let her have he going to a mask, and she shall dress as a s ess. But let me beg of them to read the or some other good romance, before they in any such character at my house. The we presented, everybody was so rashly that when they came to speak to each nymph with a crook had not a word to sa the pert style of the pit bawdry; and a ma habit of a philosopher was speechless, ti casion offered of expressing himself in th of the tyring rooms. We had a judge tha a minuet with a quaker for his partner, wh a-dozen harlequins stood by as spectators drank me off two bottles of wine, and a me up half a ham of bacon. If I can b design to bear, and make the maskers their character in my assemblies, I hope allow there is a foundation laid for more and improving gallantries than any the present affords, and consequently, that give your approbation to the endeavors of "Your most obedient, humble ser to mention Mr. Powell a second time in t I am very glad the following epistle ob paper; for indeed there cannot be too Couragement given to his skill in motio vided he is under proper restrictions.

*Puppet-shows were formerly called motio


"The opera at the Haymarket, and that under the little Piazza in Covent-garden, being at present the two leading diversions of the town, and Mr. Powell professing in his advertisements to set up Whittington and his Cat against Rinaldo and Armida, my curiosity led me the beginning of last week to view both these performances, and make my observations upon them.

No. 15.]

SATURDAY, MARCH 11, 1710-11 Parva leves capiunt animos OVID, Ars. Am., i, 159. Light minds are pleased with trifles.

WHEN I was in France, I used to gaze with great astonishment at the splendid equipages and partycolored habits of that fantastic nation. I was one day in particular contemplating a lady that sat in a coach adorned with gilded Cupids, and finely painted with the loves of Venus and Adonis. The coach was drawn by six milk-white horses, and loaded behind with the same number of powdered footmen. Just before the lady were a couple of beautiful pages, that were stuck among the harmuchness, and by their gay dresses and smiling features, looked like the elder brothers of the little boys that were carved and painted in every corner of the coach.

"First, therefore, I cannot but observe that Mr. Powell wisely forbearing to give his company a bill of fare beforehand, every scene is new and unexpected; whereas it is certain, that the undertakers of the Haymarket, having raised too great an expectation in their printed opera, very disappoint their audience on the stage,

The King of Jerusalem is obliged to come from the city on foot, instead of being drawn in a triumphant chariot by white horses, as my operabook had promised me; and thus while I expected Armida's dragons should rush forward toward Argentes, I found the hero was obliged to go to Armida, and hand her out of her coach. We had also but a very short allowance of thunder and lightning; though I cannot in this place omit doing justice to the boy who had the direction of the two painted dragons, and made them spit fire and smoke. He flashed out his rosin in such just proportions, and in such due time, that I could not forbear conceiving hopes of his being one day a most excellent player. I saw, indeed, but two things wanting to render his whole action complete, I mean the keeping his head a little lower, and hiding his candle.

The lady was the unfortunate Cleanthe, who afterward gave an occasion to a pretty melancholy novel. She had, for several years, received the addresses of a gentleman, whom, after a long and intimate acquaintance, she forsook, upon the account of this shining equipage, which had been offered to her by one of great riches, but a crazy constitution. The circumstances in which I saw her, were, it seems, the disguises only of a broken heart, and a kind of pageantry to cover distress-for in two months after she was carried to her grave with the same pomp and magnificence, being sent thither partly by the loss of one lover, and partly by the possession of another.

I have often reflected with myself on this unaccountable humor in womankind, of being smitten "I observe that Mr. Powell and the undertakers with everything that is showy and superficial; of the opera had both the same thought, and I and on the numberless evils that befall the sex, think much about the same time, of introducing from this light fantastical disposition. I myself animals on their several stages-though indeed, remember a young lady that was very warmly with very different success. The sparrows and solicited by a couple of importunate rivals, who, chaffinches at the Haymarket fly as yet very irreg-for several months together, did all they could to ularly over the stage; and instead of perching on recommend themselves, by complacency of behathe trees, and performing their parts, these young vior and agreeableness of conversation. At length, actors either get into the galleries, or put out the when the competition was doubtful, and the lady candles; whereas Mr. Powell has so well disci- undetermined in her choice, one of the young plined his pig, that in the first scene he and Punch lovers very luckily bethought himself of adding dance a minuet together. I am informed, how- a supernumerary lace to his liveries, which had so ever that Mr. Powell resolves to excel his adver- good an effect, that he married her the very week saries in their own way; and introduces larks in after. his next opera of Susannah, or Innocence Betrayed, which will be exhibited next week, with a pair of new Elders.

"The moral of Mr. Powell's drama is violated, I confess, by Punch's national reflections on the French, and King Harry's laying his leg upon the Queen's lap, in too ludicrous a manner, before so great an assembly.

As to the mechanism and scenery, everything, indeed, was uniform, and of a piece, and the scenes were managed very dextrously; which calls on me to take notice, that at the Haymarket, the undertakers forgetting to change the sidescenes, we were presented with the prospect of the ocean in the midst of a delightful grove; and though the gentlemen on the stage had very much contributed to the beauty of the grove, by walking up and down between the trees, I must own I was not a little astonished to see a well-dressed young fellow in a full-bottomed wig, appear in the midst of the sea, and without any visible concern taking snuff.

"I shall only observe one thing farther, in which both dramas agree; which is, that by the squeak of their voices the heroes of each are eunuchs; and as the wit in both pieces is equal, I must prefer the performance of Mr. Powell, because it is in our own language.

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The usual conversation of ordinary women very much cherishes this natural weakness of being taken with outside and appearance. Talk of a new-married couple, and you immediately hear whether they keep their coach and six, or eat in plate. Mention the name of an absent lady, and it is ten to one but you learn something of her gown and petticoat. A ball is a great help to discourse, and a birth-day furnishes conversation for a twelvemonth after. A furbelow of precious stones, a hat buttoned with a diamond, a brocade waistcoat or petticoat, are standing topics. In short, they consider only the drapery of the species, and never cast away a thought on those ornaments of the mind that make persons illustrious in themselves, and useful to others. When women are thus perpetually dazzling one another's imaginations, and filling their heads with nothing but colors, it is no wonder that they are more attentive to the superficial parts of life than the solid and substantial blessings of it. A girl who has been trained up in this kind of conversation is in danger of every embroidered coat that comes in her way. A pair of fringed gloves may be her ruin. In a word, lace and ribbons, silver and gold galloons, with the like glittering gewgaws, are so many lures to women of weak minds and low education, and, when artificially displayed, are able to fetch down the most airy

coquette from the wildest of her flights and rambles.

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EN., X

This heedless pursuit after these glitte fles, the poet (by a nice concealed moral sents to have been the destruction of his

True happiness is of a retired nature, and an enemy to pomp and noise; it arises, in the first place from the enjoyment of one's self; and in the next, from the friendship and conversation of a few select companions: it loves shade and soli-hero.-C. tude, and naturally haunts groves and fountains, fields and meadows: in short, it feels everything it wants within itself, and receives no addition No. 16. MONDAY, MARCH 19, 171 from multitudes of witnesses and spectators. On Quid verum atque decens curo et rogo, et omnis in the contrary false happiness loves to be in a HOR., 1 E crowd, and to draw the eyes of the world upon What right, what true, what fit we justly call, her. She does not receive any satisfaction from Let this be all my care-for this is all.-POPE. the applauses which she gives herself, but from I HAVE received a letter, desiring me to the admiration which she raises in others. She satirical upon the little muff that is now flourishes in courts and palaces, theaters and as-ion; another informs me of a pair of sil semblies, and has no existence but when she is looked upon.

Aurelia, though a woman of great quality, delights in the privacy of a country life, and passes away a great part of her time in her own walks and gardens. Her husband, who is her bosom friend and companion in her solitudes, has been in love with her ever since he knew her. They both abound with good sense, consummate virtue and a mutual esteem; and are a perpetual entertainment to one another. Their family is under so regular an economy, in its hours of devotion and repast, employment and diversion, that it looks like a little commonwealth within itself. They often go into company, that they may return with the greater delight to one another; and sometimes live in town, not to enjoy it so properly, as to grow weary of it, that they may renew in themselves the relish of a country life. By this means they are happy in each other, beloved by their children, adored by their servants, and are become the envy, or rather the delight of all that Know them.

How different to this is the life of Fulvia! She considers her husband as her steward, and looks upon discretion and good housewifery as little domestic virtues, unbecoming a woman of quality. She thinks life lost in her own family, and fancies herself out of the world when she is not in the ring, the playhouse, or the drawing-room. She lives in a perpetual motion of body and restlessness of thought, and is never easy in any one place, when she thinks there is more company in another. The missing of an opera the first night, would be more afflicting to her than the death of a child. She pities all the valuable part of her own sex, and calls every woman of a prudent, modest, and retired life, a poor-spirited, unpolished creature. What a mortification would it be to Fulvia, if she knew that her setting herself to view is but exposing herself, and that she grows contemptible by being conspicuous!

I cannot conclude my paper without observing, that Virgil has very finely touched upon this female passion for dress and show, in the character of Camilla; who, though she seems to have shaken off all the other weaknesses of her sex, is still described as a woman in this particular. The poets tell us, that after having made a great slaughter of the enemy, she unfortunately cast her eye on a Trojan, who wore an embroidered tunic, a beautiful coat of mail, with a mantle of the finest purple. "A golden bow," says he, "hung upon his shoulder; his garment was buckled with a golden clasp, and his head covered with a helmet of the same shining metal." The Amazon immediately singled out this well-dressed warrior, being seized with a woman's longing for the pretty trappings that he was adorned with:

ters buckled below the knee, that have be ly seen at the Rainbow coffee-house in street; a third sends me a heavy complaint fringed gloves. To be brief, there is scard nament of either sex which one or other correspondents has not inveighed again some bitterness, and recommended to my tion. I must, therefore, once for all, inf readers, that it is not my intention to dignity of this, my paper, with reflection red heels or top-knots, but rather to enter passions of mankind, and to correct th praved sentiments that give birth to all th tle extravagances which appear in their dress and behavior. Foppish and fantast ments are only indications of vice, not o in themselves. Extinguish vanity in the and you naturally retrench the little supe of garniture and equipage. The blosso fall of themselves when the root that no them is destroyed.

I shall therefore, as I have said, apply m dies to the first seeds and principles of an dress, without descending to the dress though at the same time I must own that thoughts of creating an officer under m entitled the Censor of Small Wares, and lotting him one day in the week for the ex of such his office. An operator of this might act under me, with the same rega surgeon to a physician; the one might ployed in healing those blotches and which break out in the body, while the sweetening the blood, and rectifying the co tion. To speak truly, the young people sexes are so wonderfully apt to shoot o long swords or sweeping trains, bushy dresses or full-bottomed periwigs, with other incumbrances of dress, that they st need of being pruned very frequently, le should be oppressed with ornaments, and with the luxuriancy of their habits. I an in doubt whether I should give the prefer a Quaker that is trimmed close, and almost the quick, or to a beau that is loaden with redundance of excrescences. I must there! sire my correspondents to let me know ho approve my project, and whether they thi erecting of such a petty censorship may no to the emolument of the public; for I wou do anything of this nature rashly and w advice.

There is another set of correspondents to I must address myself in the second pla mean such as fill their letters with private dal, and black accounts of particular person families. The world is so full of ill-nature I have lampoons sent me by people who spell, and satires composed by those who know how to write. By the last post in part

I received a packet of scandal which is not legible; and have a whole bundle of letters in women's hands, that are full of blots and calumnies; insomuch, that when I see the name of Calia, Phillis, Pastora, or the like, at the bottom of a scrawl, I conclude of course that it brings me some account of a fallen virgin, a faithless wife, or an amorous widow. I must therefore inform these my correspondents, that it is not my design to be a publisher of intrigues and cuckoldoms, or to bring little infamous stories out of their present lurking-holes into broad day-light. If I attack the vicious, I shall only set upon them in a body: and will not be provoked by the worst usage I can receive from others to make an example of any particular criminal. In short, I have so much of a Drawcansir in me, that I shall pass over a single foe to charge whole armies. It is not Lais or Silenus, but the harlot and the drunkard, whom I shall endeavor to expose; and shall consider the crime as it appears in the species, not as it is circumstanced în an individual. think it was Caligula, who wished the whole city of Rome had but one neck, that he might behead them at a blow. I shall do, out of humanity, what that emperor would have done in the cruelty of his temper, and aim every stroke at a collective body of offenders. At the same time I am very sensible that nothing spreads a paper like private calumny and defamation; but as my speculations are not under this necessity, they are not exposed to this temptation.


In the next place I must apply myself to my party correspondents, who are continually teasing me to take notice of one another's proceedings. How often am I asked by both sides, if it is possible for me to be an unconcerned spectator of the rogueries that are committed by the party which is opposite to him that writes the letter. About two days since, I was reproached with an old Grecian law, that forbids any man to stand as a neuter, or a looker-on, in the divisions of his country. However, as I am very sensible my paper would lose its whole effect, should it run into the outrages of a party, I shall take care to keep clear of everything which looks that way. If I can any way assuage private inflammations, or allay public ferments, I shall apply myself to it with my utmost endeavors; but will never let my heart reproach me with having done anything toward increasing those feuds and animosities that extinguish religion, deface government, and make a nation miserable.

What I have said under the three foregoing heads will, I am afraid, very much retrench the number of my correspondents. I shall therefore acquaint my reader, that if he has started any hint which he is not able to pursue, if he has met with any surprising story which he does not know how to tell, if he has discovered any epidemical vice which has escaped my observation, or has heard of any uncommon virtue which he would desire to publish; in short, if he has any materials that can furnish out an innocent diversion, I shall promise him my best assistance in the working of them up for a public entertainment.

This paper my reader will find was intended for an answer to a multitude of correspondents; but I hope he will pardon me if I single out one of them in particular, who has made me so very humble a request, that I cannot forbear complying

with it.

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therefore beg of you that you will be pleased to put me into some small post under you. I observe that you have appointed your printer and publisher to receive letters and advertisements for the city of London, and shall think myself very much honored by you, if you will appoint me to take in letters and advertisements for the city of Westminster and the duchy of Lancaster. Though I cannot promise to fill such an employment with sufficient abilities, I will endeavor to make up with industry and fidelity what I want in parth and genius. "I am, Sir, your most obedient servant, "CHARLES LILLIE."


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SINCE Our persons are not of our own making when they are such as appear defective or un comely, it is, methinks, an honest and laudable fortitude to dare to be ugly; at least to keep our selves from being abashed with a consciousness of imperfections which we cannot help, and in which there is no guilt. I would not defend a haggard beau for passing away much time at a glass and giving softness and languishing graces to defor mity: all I intend is, that we ought to be contented with our countenance and shape, so far, as never to give ourselves an uneasy reflection on that subject. It is to the ordinary people who are not accustomed to make very proper remarks on any occasion, matter of great jest, if a man enters with a prominent pair of shoulders into an assembly, or is distinguished by an expansion of mouth, or obliquity of aspect. It is happy for a man that has any of these oddnesses about him, if he can be as merry upon himself, as others are apt to be upon that occasion. When he can possess himself with such a cheerfulness, women and children, who are at first frightened at him, will afterward be as much pleased with him. As it is barbarous in others to rally him for natural defects, it is extremely agreeable when he can jest upon himself for them.

Madam Maintenon's first husband was a hero in this kind, and has drawn many pleasantries from the irregularity of his shape, which he describes as very much resembling the letter Z. He diverts himself likewise by representing to his reader the make of an engine and pulley, with which he used to take off his hat. When there happens to be anything ridiculous in a visage, and the owner of it thinks it an aspect of dignity, he must be of very great quality to be exempt from raillery. The best expedient, therefore, is to be pleasant upon himself. Prince Harry and Falstaff, in Shakspeare, have carried the ridicule upon fat and lean as far as it will go. Falstaff is humorously called woolsack, bedpresser, and hill of flesh; Harry, a starveling, an elve-skin, a sheath, a bow-case, and a tuck. There is, in several incidents of the conversation between them, the jest still kept up upon the person. Great tenderness and sensibility in this point is one of the greatest weaknesses of self-love. For my own part, I am a little unhappy in the mould of my face, which is not quite so long as it is broad. Whether this might not partly arise from my opening my mouth much seldomer than other people, and by consequence not so much lengthening the fibers of my visage, I am not at leisure to determine. However it be, I have been often put out of countenance by the shortness of my face, and was formerly at great pains in concealing it by wearing a

periwig with a high fore-top, and letting my beard grow. But now I have thoroughly got over this delicacy, and could be contented with a much shorter, provided it might qualify me for a member of the merry club, which the following letter gives me an account of. I have received it from Oxford, and as it abounds with the spirit of mirth and good humor, which is natural to that place, I shall set it down word for word as it came to me. "MOST PROFOUND SIR,


the club; but I never heard him so lavish o fine things, as upon old Nell Trott, who con ally officiates at their table; her he even a and extols as the very counterpart of Mother ton; in short, Nell (says he) is one of the e ordinary works of nature; but as for comple shape, and features, so valued by others, they all mere outside and symmetry, which is aversion. Give me leave to add, that the p dent is a facetious, pleasant gentleman, and more so, than when he has got (as he calls th his dear mummers about him; and he often tests it does him good to meet a fellow with a genuine grimace in his air (which is so agree in the generality of the French nation); and, a instance of his sincerity in this particular, he me a sight of a list in his pocket-book of all class, who for these five years have fallen u his observation, with himself at the head of th and in the rear (as one of a promising and imp ing aspect).

Having been very well entertained, in the last of your speculations that I have yet seen, by your specimen upon clubs, which I therefore hope you will continue, I shall take the liberty to furnish you with a brief account of such a one as, perhaps, you have not seen in your travels, unless it was your fortune to touch upon some of the woody parts of the African continent, in your voyage to or from Grand Cairo. There have arisen in this university (long since you left us without saying anything) several of these inferior hebdomadal societies, as the Punning club, the Witty club, and among the rest, the Handsome club: as a burlesque upon which, a certain merry species, that seem to have come into the world in masquerade, for some years last past have associated themselves No. 18.] WEDNESDAY, MARCH 21, 1710

together, and assumed the name of the Ugly club. This ill-favored fraternity consists of a president and twelve fellows; the choice of which is not confined by patent to any particular foundation (as St. John's men would have the world believe, and have therefore erected a separate society within themselves), but liberty is left to elect from any school in Great Britain, provided the candidates be within the rules of the club, as set forth in a table, entitled, The Act of Deformity: a clause or two of which I shall transmit to you.

"1. That no person whatsoever shall be admitted without a visible quearity in his aspect, or peculiar cast of countenance; of which the president and officers for the time being are to determine, and the president to have the casting voice. “2. That a singular regard be had upon examination, to the gibbosity of the gentlemen that offer themselves as founder's kinsmen; or to the obliquity of their figure, in what sort soever.

"3. That if the quantity of any man's nose be eminently miscalculated, whether as to length or breadth, he shall have a just pretense to be elected. "Lastly, That if there shall be two or more competitors for the same vacancy, cæteris paribus, he that has the thickest skin to have the prefer

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"As they have always been professed admirers of the other sex, so they unanimously declare that they will give all possible encouragement to such as will take the benefit of the statute, though none yet have appeared to do it.

"The worthy president, who is their most devoted champion, has lately shown me two copies of verses, composed by a gentleman of his society; the first, a congratulatory ode, inscribed to Mrs. Touchwood, upon the loss of her two fore teeth; the other, a panegyric upon Mrs. Andiron's left shoulder. Mrs. Vizard (he says), since the smallpox, has growu tolerably ugly, and a top toast in

"Sir, your obliged and humble servant, "ALEXANDER CARBUNCI Oxford, March 12, 1710.

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Equitis quoque jam migravit ab aure voluptas, Omnis ad incertos oculos, et gauda vana.

HOR., 2 Ep. i, 18

But now our nobles too are fops and vain, Neglect the sense, but love the painted scene.-CREEC Ir is my design in this paper to deliver down posterity a faithful account of the Italian ope and of the gradual progress which it has ma upon the English stage; for there is no quest but our great-grand-children will be curious know the reason why their forefathers used to together like an audience of foreigners in th own country, and to hear whole plays acted bef them in a tongue which they did not understa

Arsinoe was the first opera that gave us a ta of Italian music. The great success this op met with produced some attempts of formi pieces upon Italian plans, which should give more natural and reasonable entertainment th what can be met with in the elaborate trifles

that nation. This alarmed the poetasters a fiddlers of the town, who were used to deal in more ordinary kind of ware; and therefore la down an established rule, which is received such to this day, "That nothing is capable of bei well set to music, that is not nonsense."

This maxim was no sooner received, but we in mediately fell to translating the Italian opera and as there was no great danger of hurting t sense of those extraordinary pieces, our autho would often make words of their own which we entirely foreign to the meaning of the passag they pretended to translate; their chief care bein to make the numbers of the English verse to a swer to those of the Italian, that both of the might go to the same tune. Thus the famous son

in Camilla:

Barbara, si, t' intendo, etc.

Barbarous woman, yes, I know your meaning. which expresses the resentments of an angry love: was translated into that English lamentation:

Frail are a lover's hopes, etc.

And it was pleasant enough to see the most refine persons of the British nation dying away and languishing to notes that were filled with a spiri of rage and indignation. It happened also very frequently, where the sense was rightly translated the necessary transposition of words, which were

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