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CONSTRUCTING A FACTORY IN ONE MONTH Above: The start of the construction work on a factory, on October 22, 1915. Centre: The interior the factory on November 22, 1915. Below: The completed exterior of the factory. A new method standardization of construction makes possible the rapid completion of the work

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STANDARDIZING CONSTRUCTION

ation to meet

etails, one, with this

SELECTING factories and dwellings

from a catalogue and buying them by the yard would seem an absurd idea, and yet that is virtually what a firm of contractors in Cleveland is doing and saving time and labor thereby.

In all modern industry wherever the demand is for large production at low cost and in short time the inevitable trend is toward standardization. Each automobile, each piece of furniture, shoes, and even clothes is the result of a series of standard operations, but this idea has

1. FOR SMOKELESS RAILROAD SHEDS never until recently been applied to build- A test locomotive entering “the smokeless station” ing. If a man wants a building he has to call in an architect and an engineer now bought as standards were especially who set to work and draw up plans for made to meet individual needs. A generthe building. The greater part of this ation, or less, ago most shoes were made to work has probably been done, with the order. Ready-made clothing was looked exception of some details, many times at askance and is really a development of before. Then the plans have to be figured the last two decades. Standardization on and estimated, and finally the building has reformed every industrial activity and is put up. But there are many parts improved most of them. What this that are essential to every building: there theory will do on a large scale in the buildmust be a roof, walls, windows, and floors, ing field is yet to be seen, but it is an idea so that if the specifications for these were big with possibilities. worked out beforehand a great deal of unnecessary work would be eliminated.

SMOKE REMOVER FOR TRAIN It was with this idea of standardization in mind that the firm in Cleveland deter

SHEDS mined to carry out their building opera

THE suction duct for the removal of tions and to usher in a new era in construction work. Instead of an owner having

Ilocomotive smoke is designed to to have a building designed especially

& make possible the building of an entire for him and instead of having contractors

train shed as a solid, one-story, enclosed bidding against one another and, possibly, substituting inferior materials so as to be able to quote lower prices, he will now get in touch with various building firms, each of which has developed a series of standard types. That is a simple matter. Here is a standard building, plans ready, steel roof trusses ready, steel sashes ready, and the roofing and flooring materials accessible if desired. The building can be put up, practically in any desired size, in thirty working days. The shop of such a factoryconstruction company is ready with the materials, building units, and the operators and trained construction crews, di

II. FOR SMOKELESS RAILROAD SHEDS rected by experienced engineers.

The same station after the locomotive has entered, It is not so long ago that many articles

with the smoke dispelled by suction

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structure, above which may be built a AN ELECTRIC MOUNTAIN number of floors or stories for office or

RAILROAD manufacturing purposes, thus utilizing valuable space that is now wasted. The BOUT 440 miles of railroad, in the result would be a skyscraper or office mountains between Harlowtor building, with the trains running into the Mont., and Avery, Ida., on one of the basement.

great Western railroad systems has been The illustrations are of a demonstration electrified. Electric locomotives, reserplant which shows the effect under actual bling two large mail cars coupled togethe working conditions. The locomotive used weighing 260 tons each, and capable in this demonstration is driven by an hauling 2,500-ton loads over one per cena electric motor, receiving its current through grades at an average speed of sixteen mile: a third rail. Smoke is made of tar paper an hour, receive their power from mounta:r burned over a grate area of about ten waterfalls. square feet or more.

The electric locomotives used are conA strong blast, furnished by a high-pres- structed with direct-current motors and sure blower, forces the smoke up the stack are designed to carry a potential of 3,00 at a velocity of approximately 3,000 feet a volts. Similar locomotives geared for minute. The stack is equipped with an varying speeds will haul 800-ton passenge" automatically operated shut-off gate so as trains at a speed of sixty miles an hou: to give intermittent puffs of smoke similar These locomotives are more than one to that of a locomotive when in operation. hundred feet long, and are built to save Suction is maintained in the overhead track wear and tear, minimizing the ve:duct by a suction blower. On the loco- tical and horizontal blows of the driver motive stack is a shoe which slides against through the use of a separate motor, twinan elongated roller, so as to avoid friction, geared to each of eight pairs of drivin: and raises, one at a time, a series of shutters wheels. in the bottom of the duct to a sufficient There are fourteen electric substation height to permit the taking up of all smoke between Harlowton and Avery. There and steam ejected by the smokestack. substations contain high tension electrical The smoke, drawn through the overhead transformers which receive their power duct by suction, is discharged into a chim- from the waterfalls in an alternating curney which carries it to the open air above rent of 100,000 volts, and turn it out to the top of the building, whence it is dis- the feed lines of the system in a 3,000-volt pelled as from any ordinary chimney. direct current.

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FOUR HUNDRED MILES OF ELECTRIFIED MOUNTAIN RAILROAD One of the great Western railroad systems has electrified one of its lines for 440 miles through the Rock

Mountains, obtaining power from the mountain waterfalls

ARTHUR W. PAGE, EDITOR

CONTENTS FOR APRIL, 1916

:: Newton D. Baker -------------- Frontispiece IE MARCH OF EVENTS-AN EDITORIAL INTERPRETATION - - - 583

THE “SCRAP OF PAPER” THEORY AGAIN AKING MEXICO UNDERSTAND (Illustrated) - ---- - - 584 The Status of Our Navy

More Trade With Russia Presidential Leadership

Renewing Our Commercial Enterprise Tangible Treaties

As Others See Us A Proper Help to Commerce

Educating the Immigrants The Campaign Against Pellagra An Enlightening Protest

The Distinction of Hoquiam OOT, ROOSEVELT, AND WILSON - - - - - - E. S. MARTIN 603 VHICH KIND OF SAVINGS BANK? -.-.-.-.-.- 604 OUR GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES ------ 607

THE DIVISION OF INDUSTRIAL PEACE THE PRESIDENT AMONG THE PEOPLE (Illustrated) Rodney Bean 610 KEEPING CITY TRAFFIC MOVING (Illustrated) - - ARTHUR Woods 621 THE MASTERY OF PELLAGRA -... - BURTON J. HENDRICK 633 THE ARMORIES OF THE NATIONS - - - - - JOSEPH PENNELL 640 "WE DEMAND" - - - - - - - - - - GUY W. McConnell 645

ANTHRACITE AND THE HIGH COST OF CHEAP LABOR LEO HENDRIK BAEKELAND ------- - JOHN A. CRAIG 651 AN EFFECTIVE UNITED STATES (Illustrated)

Charles FREDERICK Carter 656 A NEW WEST (Illustrated) - - - - - - - - James MiddleTON 669 THE VALLEY THAT FOUND ITSELF - - - Ray STANNARD BAKER 681 THE VOICE OF THE NATION'S BUSINESS --- R. G. Rhett 686 SOME MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT FOREIGN TRADE

Walter F. WYMAN 690 MAN AND HIS MACHINES (Illustrated) - - - - - - - - - - 693

TERMS: $3.00 a year; single copies, 25 cents. For Foreign Postage add $1.00; Canada 60 cents.

Published monthly. Copyright, 1916, by Doubleday, Page & Company. All rights reserved. Entered at the Post Office at Garden City, N. Y., as second-class mail matter. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcomed by the editors and are carefully read. They cannot, however,

be returned unless they are accompanied by the proper amount of postage.

F. N. DOUBLEDAY, Pres. H. S. HOUSTON, Vice-Pres. ARTHUR W. PAGE, Vice-Pres. S. A. EVERITT, Treas.

RUSSELL DOUBLEDAY, Sec'y.
DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY
COUNTRY LIFE IN AMERICA

THE GARDEN MAGAZINE – FARMING
CHICAGO: Peoples Gas Bldg.

GARDEN CITY, N. Y. NEW YORK: 11-13 W. 32d Street BOSTON: Tremont Bldg.

LOS ANGELES: 412 W. 6th Street

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Copyright by Lawrence-Figley Studios MR. NEWTON D. BAKER THE NEW SECRETARY OF WAR-A SCHOLAR IN POLITICS AND ONE-TIME MAYOR OF CLEVELAND

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