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But that your fufficiency, as your worth is able,
And let them work. The nature of our people,

Since I am not to know, that your own science
Exceeds, in that, the lifts of all advice
My Atrength can give you: then no more remains :
Put that to your fufficiency, as your worth is able,
And let them work.

To the integrity of this reading Mr. Theobald objects, and says, What was Efealus to put to his fufficiency? why bis fcience: But his Science and fufficiency were but one and the fame thing. On what then does the relative them depend? He will have it, therefore, that a line has been accidentally dropp'd, which he attempts to reflore by due diligence. Nodum in fcirpo querit. And all for want of knowing, that by fufficiency is meant authority, the power delegated by the duke to Efcalus. The plain meaning of the word being this: Put your skill in governing (fays the duke) to the power which I give you to exercife it, and let them work together.

-Then no more remains,

But that to your fufficiency you join

A will to ferve us, as your worth is able.



Sir Tho. Hanmer, having caught from Mr. Theobald a hint that a line was loft, endeavours to fupply it thus.

He has by this bold conjecture undoubtedly obtained a meaning, but, perhaps not, even in his own opinion, the meaning of Shakespeare.

-Then no more remains,

But that to your fufficiencies your worth is abled,

And let them work.

That the paffage is more or lefs corrupt, I believe every reader will agree with the editors. I am not convinced that a line is loft, as Mr. Theobald conjectures, nor that the change of but to put, which Dr. Warburton has admitted after fome other editor, will amend the fault. There was probably fome original obfcurity in the expreffion, which gave occafion to mistake in repetition or tranfcription. I therefore fufpect that the authour wrote thus,

Then nothing remains more than to tell you, that your virtue is now invested with power equal to your knowledge and wisdom. Let therefore your knowledge and your virtue now work together. It may eafily be conceived how fufficiencies was, by an inarticulate speaker, or inattentive hearer, confounded with fufficiency as, and how abled, a word very unufual, was changed into able. For abled, however, an authority is not wanting. Lear ufes it in the fame fenfe, or В 3


Our city's institutions, and the terms
For common justice, you are as pregnant in,
As art and practice hath enriched any
That we remember. There is our commission,
From which we would not have you warp. Call

I say, bid come before us Angelo.
What figure of us, think you, he will bear?

nearly the same, with the Duke. As for fufficiencies, D. Hamilton, in his dying speech, prays that Charles II. may exceed both the virtues and sufficiencies of his fatber. JOHNSON.

The upcommon redundancy, as well as obscurity, of this verse may be considered as some evidence of its corruption. Take away the three firf words, and the sense joins well enough with what went before. Then (says the duke) no more remains to say :

" Your sufficiency as your worth is able,

And let them work.' i. e. Your skill in government is is ability to serve me, equal to be inlegrity of your beart, and let them co-operate in your future miniftry

The versification requires that either something should be added, or something retrenched. The latter is the easier, as well as the safer task. I join in the belief, however, that a line is loft ; and whoever is acquainted with the inaccuracy of the folio, (for of this play there is no other old edition) will find this opinion justified.

STEEVENS. The deficiency may be thus supplied.

then no more remains,
But ibat to your suficiency you put
A zeal as willing as your worth is able,
And let tbem work.-

T. T.


the terms

For common juftice, you are as pregnant in,] The later editions all give it, without authority,

the terms Of juflice, and Dr. Warburton makes terms fignify bounds or limits. I rather think the Duke meant to say, that Escalus was pregnant, that is, ready and knowing in all the forms of law, and, among other things, in the terms or times fet apart for its administration.



For you must know, we have with special soul?
Elected him our absence to supply ;
Lent him our terror, drelt him with our love
And given his deputation all the organs
Of our own power : say, what think you of ic?

Escal. If any in Vienna be of worth
To undergo such ample grace and honour,
It is lord Angelo.

Enter Angelo.
Duke. Look, where he comes.

Ang. Always obedient to your grace's will, I come to know your pleasure.

- For you must know, we have with special soul

Elicted bim our abjence to fupply ;) This nonsense must be corrected thus,

-with special roll i. e. with a special commission. For it appears, from this scene, that Escalus had one commission, and Angelo another. The Duke bad before delivered Escalus his commillion. He now declares that designed for Angelo; and he says, afterwards, to both,

To the bepeful execution do I leave you

of your commilions. Why Angelo's was called the special rell was, because he was in authority fuperior to Escalus.

old E/calus, Tbi'first in question, is thy fecondary. WARBURTON. This editor is, I think, right in supposing a corruption, but less happy in his emendation. I read,

we bave with special feal Eleaned bim our abjence to supply. A special feal is a very natural metonymy for a special commission.

JOHNSON. By the words with special foul elected him, I believe, the poet meant no more than that be was the imm diate choice of his beari. A similar expression occurs in Troilus and Cressida,

.“ with private foul “ Did in great llion thus translate him to me.” Again, more appositely, in the Tempelt,

“* for several virtues 6. Have I lik'd several women, never any " With so full foul, but some defect,” &c. STEEVENS. B 4


Duke. Angelo,

There is a kind of character in thy life,
That to the obferver doth thy history
Fully unfold. Thyfelf and thy belongings
Are not thine own fo proper, as to wafte
Thyfelf upon thy virtues; them on thee.
Heaven doth with us, as we with torches do;
Not light them for themfelves: for if our virtues"
Did not go forth of us, 'twere all alike
As if we had them not. Spirits
Spirits are not finely

But to fine iffues: nor Nature never lends
The fmalleft fcruple of her excellence,
But, like a thrifty goddess, fhe determines
Herself the glory of a creditor,

8 There is a kind of character in thy life, That to the obferver, &c.]

Either this introduction has more folemnity than meaning, or it has a meaning which I cannot difcover. What is there peculiar in this, that a man's life informs the obferver of his biflory? Might it be fuppofed that Shakespeare wrote this?

There is a kind of character in thy look.

Hfty may be taken in a more diffufe and licentious meaning, for future occurrences, or the part of life yet to come. If this fenfe be received, the paffage is clear and proper. JOHNSON.

Shakespeare muft, I believe, be anfwerable for the unneceffary folemnity of this introduction. He has the fame thought in Henry IV. p. 2. which is the best comment on this paffage.

"There is a history in all mens' lives,

Figuring the nature of the times deceas'd:
"The which obferv'd, a man may prophecy
"With a near aim, of the main chance of things
"As yet not come to life, &c." STEEVENS.


-for if our virtues, &c.]

Paulum fepulte diftat inertia
Celata virtus.


? —to fine iffies:] To great confequences. For high purpofes. JOHNSON.


Both thanks and ufe. But I do bend my speech
To one that can my part in him advertise;"
Hold therefore, Angelo: 3

In our remove, be thou at full ourself:
Mortality and mercy in Vienna

Live in thy tongue and heart: Old Efcalus,
Though first in queftion,+ is thy fecondary.
-Take thy commission.

Ang. Now, good my lord,

Let there be fome more teft made of my metal,
Before so noble and fo great a figure
Be stamp'd upon it.

Duke. Come, no more evasion:

We have with a leaven'd and prepared choices

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This is obfcure. The meaning is, I direct my speech to one who is able to teach me how to govern: my part in bim, fignifying my office, which I have delegated to him. My part in him advertise; i.e. who knows what appertains to the character of deputy or viceroy. Can advertise my part in him; that is, his reprefentation of my perfon. But all thefe quaintneffes of expreffion, the Oxford editor feems fworn to extirpate; that is, to take away one of Shakespeare's characteristic marks]; which, if not one of the comelieft, is yet one of the ftrongeft. So he alters this to,

To one that can, in my part, me advertise.

A better expreffion indeed, but, for all that, none of Shakespeare's. WARBURTON.

I know not whether we may not better read,

One that can my part to him advertise,

One that can inform himself of that which it would be otherwife my part to tell him. JOHNSON.

Hold therefore, Angelo:] That is, continue to be Angelo; bold as thou art. JOHNSON.

4-firft in question,] That is, firft called for; firft ap. pointed. JOHNSON.

We bave with a leaven'd and prepared choice] Leaven'd has no fenfe in this place: we should read,

-levell'd choice.


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