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miles or so, although still regarded as being the shape of a card index equipment and a in an experimental stage, will also be couple of extra clerks in the department. asked for in the Navy bill. We ought to This scheme is intended to provide, in lay down an increasing number of them the time of emergency, 50,000 naval every year. As a consequence of this pol- reserves known to, and at the direction of, icy, the naval authorities, far from aban- the Navy Department. It will be made doning the present number of navy yards, up of four classes: (a) Retired officers and are actually considering the establishment ex-enlisted men; (b) other branches of the of sixteen submarine bases, to be located Federal Service, such as the Coast Guard, at Frenchman's Bay, Massachusetts Bay, harbor police, revenue cutter and lightNarragansett Bay, New York Harbor, Dela- house services, coast survey, etc.; (c) ware Bay, the mouth of the Chesapeake, volunteer and patriotic civilians at large, Charleston, Key West, San Francisco, of the kind that went to Plattsburg; and (d) Hawaii, San Diego, and Guam. Subma- owners and crews of privately owned ships, rines are regarded by our Navy as having yachts, and motor boats, organized and proved conclusively their usefulness as a drilled on their own vessels. major element in coast defense. As or- An increase from one to five million dolganized now, every five submarines, whose lars will be urged for the aeronautical crews total only 100 men, require a tender service in the Navy. with a crew of about 200 men. With the new scheme of bases 10 submarines would

THE COST OF PREPAREDNESS be allotted to each base and all the tenders Now in order to gain a just relation of would be dispensed with. In many in the estimates which will be presented to stances, of course, as at Guantanamo, Congress, let us compare the last appropriHawaii, San Francisco, New York, and ation with those of Great Britain, GerKey West, the submarine base is already many, and France for the year 1914-15; a regularly established naval base and in that is, with the estimates made by those the territory of an established navy yard. Powers before the outbreak of war, but for

Our naval bill this year appropriated a period inevitably overlapping on the war. $146,500,000. Of this amount, roughly, The table on page 59, prepared by the $102,000,000 went for pay of officers Bureau of Naval Intelligence, presents and men, food, supplies, repairs, wages of this comparison in a striking way. navy yard workmen, etc. The balance, To read this table properly, several $44,500,000, went for building new ships. additional facts must be kept clearly in Of course, if Congress shall pass the ship- mind. In the first place it is known that building programme of four dreadnaughts, large sums of money which do not appear etc., there must be also a corresponding in- in the official German budget, as here crease in officers and men; with, of course, given, go toward the maintenance and more food, more supplies, more repairs, improvement of the fleet, distributed The bill will include, therefore, a provision through the budgets of the other departto greatly increase, perhaps to double, the ments. The German total, therefore, is number of cadets at the Naval Academy, only accurate pro rata. The second fact i. e., from the present 700 to 1,200 or more. to be noted is that the United States spends For such an increase the Academy at An- more than 30 per cent. for pay, active and napolis is fortunately already equipped. retired, pensions, etc., as compared to 22

per cent. in Great Britain, 12 per cent. in A NATIONAL NAVAL RESERVE

Germany, and 16 per cent. in France. We The new idea first advocated by As- also spend more money in clothing and sistant Secretary Roosevelt, of a national medical care, recruiting, and the scientific naval reserve, will probably be incorpor- work of hydrography, etc. ated in the new Navy legislation, although With regard to the items coming under its inclusion in an appropriation bill is the vexed territory of navy yards, a great hardly necessary since all the additional deal of this expenditure represents capital expense necessary to its creation will be in investment in plant. Recently a new

ROUGH ANALYSIS OF NAVAL ESTIMATES FOR THE FOUR LEADING NAVIES OF THE WORLD, 1914-1915

Number of officers, men, and marines . . . .

10

,

.
.
.

United States, 1914-15. Great Britain, 1914-15---Germany, 1914-15- --France, 191466,000 151,000

79,000 ....

69,000
Per Cent. of
Per Cent. of
Per Cent.of

Per Cent. of
Amount Total Ex- Amount Total Ex- Amount Total Ex- Amount Tota! Ex-

Expended. penditure. Expended. penditure. Expended. penditure. Expended. penditure.
$ 41,400,000 (a) 28.0 $ 44,600,000 (g) 17.0 $ 13,350,000 (h) 12.0 $ 15,790,000 (1) 16.0
7,700,000 5.0 16,000,000

7,400,000 7.0 5,050,000

5.0
1,400,000 (b) 1.0

200,000 0.2 1,300,000

1.0
1,850,000 (c) 1.0 1,500,000

0.6
550,000 (i) 0.5 900,000

1.0
940,000 0.6

900,000

0.4
250,000 0.3

40,000
870,000 0.5 300,000

0.1
370,000 0.4

165,000
330,000 0.2 2,400,000

1.0

200,000

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Item.
1. Pay and allowances

.
2. Provisions and subsistence allowances.
3. Clothing . . . . . . .
4. Medical Department.
5. Recruiting and training . . .
6. Scientific services

Naval reserves and militia . .
8. Fleet-New construction- . .

Yard . . . . . . . .
Contract . . . .

Armor and armament
Repairs
Maintenance . . . . .

Fuel
Ordnance-New construction .

Repairs . . . . . . .
14. Public Works.
15. Navy Department . . . .
16. Miscellaneous . . . . . .
17. Retired pay . . . . . :
18. Pensions, etc . . . .
19. Civil pensions : : : : :
20. Fortifications . . . . .
21. Merchant marine . . . .

6,000,000
17,000,000
18,000,000
9,000,000
8,000,000
6,000,000

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16,600,000(n)
66,600,000
17,000,000

6,600,000
21,700,000
27,900,000(n)

10,000,000
9,000,000

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31,000,000(n) Ş 30.05.60?

? see (n)]
4,100,000

4.0
4,160,000

4.0
3,900,000

4.0
23,100,000(k)(n) / 21.0

3.0

.....(d)

....(m

2.0

8,000,000
3,350,000
1,000,000
12,790,000(e)
3,000,000

70,000

10.0

2.0

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17,900,000
2,400,000
2,600,000
5,000,000
8,000,000
2,000,000

1.0
1.0
2.0

8,000,000

670,000
3,210,000
........

10,420,000
1,795,000(k)
2,080,000

2.0

2.0

3.0

6,000,000

19,000,000(p)

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(a) Exclusive of retired pay-see item 17.
(b) Marine corps, $600,000; navy (outfit on first enlistment), $800,000.
(c) Includes Naval Hospital Fund $700,000 and fines and forfeitures $500,000, deducted

from pay accounts.
(d) Armor and armament account. See item 8.
(e) Includes $7,000,000 estimated unassignable yard charges, included in foreign budgets

in items 8, 9, and 10.
(1) Naval Bill. ....

$144,400,000
Navy Department Civil Bill..

900,000
Naval Hospital Fund and fines and forfeitures.

1,200,000
Naval Militia Bill

200,000

$146,700,000 (g) For 140,000 actives with the fleet.

(h) Pay of fleet and hospital corps. Also allowances. Other pay included in succeeding

items.
(i) Includes subsistence.
() Pay of fleet. Allowances. Other pay included in succeeding items.
(k) Including pay of commissioned and civil personnel.
(m) Included in Item 8.
(n) It is difficult to reconcile statistics at hand relating to estimates for new construction

during the period covered by this report. From best information at hand the
original estimates including armor and armament are as follows: Great Britain,
$84,000,000; Germany, $51,000,000; France, $58,000,000; United States, $41,000,-

000.
It is impossible to reconcile the above lump figures with the detailed estimates at

hand as tabulated above. (p) Not included in figuring percentage.

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ovethe totaled by the

1916th cong for

light has been shed on this subject of sup- attempt to distribute separate instalments posedly useless navy yards, the same yards over subsequent years. which were condemned by Secretary Meyer The total for 1915 represents the sum four years ago. The development of sub- already voted by the Sixty-third Conmarines and naval air craft requires many gress. The total for 1916 represents sub-bases to give these engines their great- roughly what the Sixty-fourth Congress est effectiveness, and the new demands will be asked to appropriate, and for for the manufacture of naval war supplies the following years the consistent foland quick repair and construction of ships lowing out of these ideas in a logical of all kinds make it extremely advisable for programme. the Government to hold on to all existing This programme conforms to the conplants of that character.

sensus of opinion—not of politicians, pacifiIn the table on page 59 the items for the cists-at-any-price, amateur strategists, or United States have been greatly con: combinations of these and other less

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*The figures printed below each appropriation represent the number of ships of that class.

THE PROPOSED EXPENDITURES FOR NAVAL DEFENSE

densed. Appropriations for the Navy are desirable citizens—but of the men whose actually made under 500 separate heads, sworn duty is to study what adequate dethe mere classification and accounting of fense means for the United States and which is a work of great complexity, in- to recommend according to their best volving the employment of a large civilian judgment. It is based on something like force of clerks.

a definite policy, on the desire to protect The table above shows our last naval our continental coast lines, to guard our appropriation in comparison with the commerce, to keep intact our overseas tentative programme now advocated by enterprises, territories, and dependencies, the consensus of naval opinion for the next and to maintain inviolate the internathree years and the approximate cost of tional policies on the Western hemisphere adequate defense. In each column the and on the seas for which this Nation has total figures are intended to indicate the always stood. It is not a defense adequate expenditures covering work which takes against attack by a combination of great as in the case of a battleship, three or four sea Powers, but it is aimed to give the years to complete. The authorization country reasonable security based on of a given year provides for the expendi- probabilities. It is costly but less so than ture in other years of the requisite sum for lack of security. It is not militaristic or the given item. For the sake of greater aggressive, because the spirit which conclearness in this table, each authorization ceives it and would maintain it is demohas been summed up complete, with no cratic and peaceful.

THE LIFE AND DEATH CHESS GAME

IN EUROPE

A STRATEGIC VIEW OF THE GENERAL SITUATION UP TO OCTOBER IST-THE MOVES OF MEN AND MACHINERY SHIFTED OVER THE BOARD BY THE BEST MILITARY BRAINS IN SEVEN FIGHTING NATIONS—THE BATTLE FRONTS

IN FRANCE, ITALY, AND THE BALKANS

THE SITUATION IN GENERAL

HE vastness of the whole mil. tirely on the attitude of Bulgaria. On itary situation in Europe is the ist of October it appeared, by the such that if one begins to look mobilization of Bulgarians in Macedonia, into a particular campaign as and by the Turko-Bulgarian entente, that

distinguished from the salient Bulgaria was going to side with Turkey aspects of the whole war, it is very difficult and the central Powers. At all events, to form a connected mental picture of one effect of the diplomatic maneuvering what is occurring. Enormous as was the in the Balkans has been a concentration field of operations at the beginning of the by the central empires of 500,000 men on war it has continually been spreading and the Servian frontier, which removes about will still further spread.

12 army corps from either the Russian or In outline, the happenings of the last French frontiers, or from both. If the four months have been as follows: the central empires were short of troops, such Allies in France, up to the last week in a new concentration would offer great September, when the most determined provocation for a forward move by the offensive since the Battle of the Marne French, and it is very possible that the was launched against the German cata- move on Servia may have been made for combs, had been able to do nothing against that very purpose. We do not find any a static German resistance; that is, the indication, however, that the central emGermans blocked them safely at arm's pires are in any way short of men, and length. On the Austrian-Italian front therefore the Balkan diplomatic campaign the Italians were still held off by the may turn out in the form of a boomerang Austrians in the same way that the French for the Entente Allies. In the absence of a had been locked up by the Germans. In direct move on the French or Italian fronts the eastern theatre of war the Teutonic that might be decisive there remains the Allies have been continuously advancing possibility of forcing the Cattegat Straits against the Russians. In the Turkish and opening the Baltic by the British navy. theatre of war another deadlock has pre- That the German fears this flank attack vailed. Therefore, if matters go on as more and more is certain, on account of they have been going on for the last four the constantly growing sea power of months, Russia is very apt to be cut to Great Britain. The undertaking would pieces unless something can be done by the be a very difficult one, as the Straits are Entente Allies to divert, check, or defeat heavily mined and covered by all sorts of the German arms.

naval craft. The French theatre of war The British and French have been keep- remains the field of the ultimate decision on ing up constant diplomatic pressure to land, and all the other operations are for reform the Balkan League for the pur- the purpose of clearing the foreground pose of attacking Turkey and settling that completely for that supreme contest. question for the rest of the war. The suc- With the German and Austrian troops cess or failure of their efforts depends en- distributed as they are in France, Russia,

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THE AUSTRIAN-ITALIAN BATTLE FRONT-SEPTEMBER 24TH The operations along the Italian front are much size. The Italians have succeeded in destroying the same as those along the French front have been some of the forts covering Rovereto and in many in so far as the stationary character of the fighting is other places their artillery has damaged Austrian concerned. The Italians have come up to the Aus- works. The Austrians have reinforced their troops trian positions everywhere and have been stopped. to some extent and now have about 500,000 men During the last two months there has been so little available on this front. The Italians have about change that it will not show on a map of ordinary 800,000, practically the whole of their field army

and along the Italian and Balkan frontiers, to force the Teutonic lines at some weaker the maximum dispersion of the armies of place. If this could be done anywhere the central empires since the beginning of and the central empires could be made to the war has been made. It does not ap- use up their general reserves before the pear probable that a much greater scatter- Entente Allies had to put in their reserves ing of troops will be made by these Powers a decisive stroke might be made. The in the future. Therefore, their lines at any French have the maximum number of men one place are already about as thin as they with the colors that they can ever muster will ever be. Russia's armies, although during the continuance of the war, and the pretty well cut up, are still capable of mak- English have been transporting all their ing a fight and holding many Teutonic available troops to the continent. It forces in their front. The time appears therefore seemed probable early in Septempropitious, then, for the Allies to make a ber that arrangements had been made by concerted attack at all points in an attempt the Allies for a simultaneous attack

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